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AwakenTheGreatnessWithin | Unleash Your Greatness The #1 Motivation & Inspiration Website - Full of Success Quotes And Inspiring Articles For Entrepreneurs.
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Art of Marketing BlogArt of Marketing Blog | Internet Marketing & Make Money Online Product Reviews & Tips Internet Marketing and Make Money Online Blog - a great place to start, even if you never even made a dime online! Let's make some money :)
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Community Impact Newspaper | Local. Useful. Everyone gets it. With approximately 2 million in distribution, Community Impact Newspaper serves the Austin, Houston, Dallas, Nashville and Phoenix metro areas.
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House of Sissify | Sissy Training and Forced Feminization Strict sissy training & forced feminization for transgendered sluts. Like you.
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Good Leadership Skills - Character - Integrity - Courage Good leadership skills require good character, integrity, and courage. Some can be improved upon yet others come from within!
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عالم السيو العربي طريقك نحو الإحتراف عالم السيو العربي هو طريقك نحو الاحتراف
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EpochMod.com - Arma 3 Mod Epoch Mod is a hybrid of genres with elements of science fiction and horror. Epoch is set in 2035, just two years after a massive world wide extinction. The exact cause is unknown and the only people left are clones with no memory of the past. Documents found in the world tell a us that before the mass extinction event, The largest technology corporation had made great breakthroughs. This technology changed the world in many ways and is thought to be the cause of the extinction.
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Live Stream Genius | Live Stream Genius Member Login / Support How YOU Can Legally FORCE Google To JAM Your Business In Front Of Millions of HIGHLY Targeted Viewers On The 1ST Page Search Results in UNDER 15 minutes, 100% FREE! Stop Paying Expensive Pay per click fees! In fact, we'll reveal how YOU can start CHARGING really good prices for the clicks you WILL now be able to easily create!Let our STUPIDLY simple point & click system SIMPLIFY your audience growth!See how fast you can build your first ENORMOUS audience...then do it again & again almost effortlessly.ENGAGE Massive Audiences FAST With Our Proprietary Adaptive Video Stream Algorithm.UNLOCK amazingly effective business growth leveraging multiple accounts via our "One Click Access" Method. Plus You'll Get Access To Over 5 Hours Of Training (and Growing) On How You Can Use Video, Live Stream Genius and YouTube To Dramatically Increase Your Income Potential! The Live Stream Genius team are on the ball.. These guys rock.. They always ahead of the game and I have so much to learn from them. - Gary CurtisYes I Want To Start Ranking In The Next 15 Minutes! Live Stream Genius Can Run on Windows 7, 8, 8.1 or 10. Mac users must use Parallels or like software with Windows emulation to run Live Stream Genius. Live Stream Genius Has Loads of Powerful Features! This Mean Streaming Machine Is Fast and Easy To Use! You'll Learn How To Love Live Events! Manage Your Accounts with Ease! You will find all the functions you need to easily manage your accounts information in one simple to use interface!Our unique 'One Click Login' button to log into your YouTube account and channel with one simple click!Editing and removing an account is also just one click away.Adding new accounts is super easy as well. The software will confirm your account information with a live login and also grab your channel information. Project Management Just Can't Be Any Easier! We did it again! Project Management just couldn't be easier. Take a look at just a few of the features:One-Click technology to open the video for inspection in your default browser!One-Click technology for video project editing and removal.Intelligent Button Selection. The software just knows when you've streamed an event and shows you the correct selection automatically!Adding new projects is a breeze! Power Up Your Live Events! You'll find that we've held nothing back! Set just about every aspect about your Live Event.Your video title - supports multi-languageYour video description - supports multi-language and spintax to make cloned projects more unique!Your video tags - tagging is very important for rankabilityYour video category - select the right category for your videosYour video visibility - you can make your videos public, private or unlisted - there's hidden seo power here.Your video thumbnail - use thumbnails as a Call To Action in GoogleYour video file - select your pre-created .mp4 formatted video fileYour video's geolocation - insert the address for Boosted Local ListingsYour account settings - set the account and channel to where you want to post tooYour bumper settings - this is a powerful subscriber strategy! I am a huge fan of LSG. As far as ranking videos, I now have it tuned into a science. Besides doing the basic research ahead of time for Keywords, I simply load up LSG, add my videos, titles, tags, and descriptions. Punch the easy button and then hit the video URL with a little bit of VidPenguin power and "POOF" 1st page rankings on my targeted keywords. When you have the right thumbnail, title, video, and ranking on page 1, you can't be beat. Makes it fun again to do launch jacking and local marketing... Plus Michael Bowes and Frank Thomas are constantly improving the product and teaching video monetization strategies to go along with the 1,2,3, easy steps.Damon Nelson I will gladly give my testimonial about Live Stream Genius. When I first purchased this I was a bit skeptical and mainly because I had not heard of Michael and Frank in my online marketing space. After seeing how there support was and how the software worked to near perfection, I was totally on board with their concepts and attention to detail. They don't just want their software and strategies to be Ok, they want to go to the "top" in everything that they do. They are constantly evaluating and updating their software as needed. They also listen to their customers concerning how to make things even better. I have been using LSG for months, have never come close to a Youtube or Google slap (in my opinion), and am on board with basically anything that they come out with. I have a comfort level in using LSG and wouldn't even think of using other streaming software. First page results speak for themselves. They have me hooked and I want to personally thank them. I love Live Stream Genius!Leonardo Brokenbrough Just purchased LSG last month and in the middle of my first project with it. Local Contractor Niche in a fairly large city (population 400,000+, 600,000+ including suburbs). Set up my YT channel with siloed playlists for the main city and the 16 largest suburbs, of which the first 8 were streamed (the rest in the smaller suburbs will rank on their own with normal uploading after the first 80), so basically streamed 80 videos into the channel and then placed in the appropriate suburb playlist. The result - 75 of the 80 videos are ranking on page 1 for the top 10 keywords in each city. Most showed up there within an hour of streaming the video. The other 5 started on page 2. After streaming these I normally uploaded 30 more in the channel so far and all of those are on page 1. So, total of 110 videos with 105 on the first page for the 10 highest searched keywords for the niche in each city. Oh, and complete and total domination for every keyword targeted in YouTube.Dave Campbell That's Cool…But What Else Do I Get? You will not only get Live Stream Genius, but all these things too... Premium Membership You'll get access to our premiere membership site that is a part of Live Stream Genius.We not only discuss how to use this great tool, but we study strategies to build a strong YouTube presence and SEO strategies to boost your video rankings.Really what good is a tool without great tutorials and information? Private Facebook Group This is the place to hang out if you are looking for YouTube strategies that you can see our other members are sharing and using.Join us today and become a member of Live Stream Genius community! World Class Support No software is any good without world class support! We have a dedicated support team to handle your questions and issues.Plus our programmers are native to North America, so you can depend on fast changes and great running software! Deals For You We are working on making the links to other software for video marketers like you. We will forward specials and functionality to save you time and money.Plus we show you the best supporting software to use to further boost your efforts and profits in video marketing! Try Live Stream Genius For 30 Days Risk Free!We are so confident that you will absolutely love Live Stream Genius Std that we are offering a full 30-Day, no questions asked, money-back guarantee! We take all the risk so you don't have to... LSG is one of the best pieces of software I have purchased as a newbie learning the IM space.. I started out learning about video marketing for local businesses, purchased alot of "shinny objects" and this by far exceeds them all for ranking and power. The team Frank Thomas + Michael Bowes are on the ball.. These guys rock.. They always ahead of the game and I have so much to learn from them. I have a eCommerce business selling products on Amazon, and now promote my products on Google page one every time.. Currently building the Local business marketing platform as I know how to use the software, I will surely cream the clients.. LSG Team, are GENIUSES!!!Gary Curtis I cannot say enough about this software and the support behind it. I've already seen a couple of upgrades that enhanced the software and when I had an issue early in using it I contacted support then got an email and phone call from the programmer himself. I use this for my "local" clients around the Country and am able to dominate not just YouTube for their keywords, but rank on page one of Google for thier main buyer terms ! I am getting fantastic referrals from current clients which is the ultimate measure of its success. This software will automate uploading front page videos while you sleep! Does it require some effort? Yes, but once you've set up a campaign you can walk away knowing your videos will be popping up all over the SERPs.Terry Power O...M....G!!! Guys, Frank Thomas and Michael Bowes, I can imagine you receive testimonials like this all the time, but please let me share my experience with your software. My internet conection SUCKS! And I mean that :) But even with those sad stats, I said to myself: "Try it anyways!" After installing it, adding my YT account and making sure I had all my parameters in line with your guidelines, I started streaming my very first Live event. For a medium competitive keyword: "_profesion_ in _city_" Aaaand... In Spanish :) Well... After anxiously waiting for the entire process to finish, I decided to track the final result immediately. The result?? Position #25 after just 5 minutes!! :D Now... - Is this a glamorous Page 1 result after the first try?? No. - Does this ranking means THE WORLD to me?? Heck Yeah!! And here's why: I've been an Affiliate SEO since 2012. I started uploading videos targeting Low Competitive keywords in order to make commissions AND... In my experience... I got my videos to rank in a ratio of 1 to 5. Meaning, for each 5 videos that I uploaded, I got 1 video ranked on Google (anywhere on Google). From 2012 to 2017... I've "lost" a lot of good campaigns because my other 4 videos didn't rank on Google at all. It's my personal experience (with the type of videos I create and with my own strategy) that once my video ranks as "n/f" (not found) on Google, it's 99% likely it won't get ranked EVER. Even if I send it the most powerful PBN links I can have, or tons of backlinks... That video won't rank on Google. The video MUST HAVE ranked somewhere on Google at the begining, and if it doesn't... If after 1-2 weeks that video hasn't ranked ANYWHERE on Google... It won't rank at all later. So you can imagine MY HAPPINESS :) after seeing that just with a couple of buttons... My video just got ranked... And on Page 3!! Thank you so much Frank and Michael for having created this beatiful piece of engineering and THANK YOU for having changed for the best my youtube seo results for the rest of 2017 (and beyond...) Now... I HAVE the YT Power!!Jorge Luis You'll love this, a friend deleted a gmail account of mine and it wiped my entire YouTube channel I had plugged into all this LOL thanks to live stream genius and the settings though I had it all back up on a new channel in like 12 hoursBenjamin Jacques When it comes to marketing I like to think out of the box and that often means long tail easy to rank keywords. I love that fact that no one wants to try and rank for a keyword with an average of just 10 people a month looking at it, but I do. Because with LSG, I can rank my video on these pages in hours. Now imagine trying to rank a keyword that has 100,000 search a month, thats going to be pretty tough, but with LSG I can use one video and rank it on 10,000 long tail keywords very, very easily, and at 10 people per month per keywords there is my 100,000 whammoDavid Poole You Get A Two Computer License for Live Stream Genius Standard! You will be shocked at how quickly your videos will be ranked! Our customers literally have 1,000's of front page video rankings that help them make some serious cash! One Time Payment You Get A Two Computer License for Live Stream Genius Standard!Plus you get a full year of software updates!Live Stream Genius Can Run on Windows 7, 8, 8.1 or 10. Mac users must use Parallels or like software with Windows emulation to run Live Stream This Is A Limited Timed Offer And Could Close At Any Time. Be Sure To Act Today! Frequently Asked Questions & Answers Why do Live Events Get Such A Boost? Right now, Google is favoring Live Events because they are considered 'Live', thus news worthy. If you want your Live Event streamed video to keep their rankings, we show you techniques to do just that.Plus there is a multitude of ways to use Live Events that will literally blow your mind. We disclose all that we learn to our inner circle on the Live Stream Genius membership site, that is part of your purchase! How Long Are You Going To Support Live Stream Genius? We've been going strong now for over two years and we don't see an end in sight! But when you purchase a license for Live Stream Genius as a one time price, you get updates for 1 full year on Standard edition but your license doesn't expire (future updates can be purchased at a low price). Can I stream video with Live Stream Genius with my home internet connection? Absolutely! We actually recommend that you save your money on a separate virtual server (VPS) account that will normally cost you $50 or more per month! If you have an internet service that is at least 1mbps upload speed, you can stream at 480p. If you have 3mbps upload speed, you can easily stream at 720p. Finally, if you have a 5mbps or higher upload speed, you can stream at 1080p.Just note that higher stream resolutions do require a quad core processor type computer.You are not limited like other video streaming products! Why can't I just upload my videos to YouTube? You certainly can still do this. But you do loose the benefit that Google gives Live Events. It seems that Google treats Live Events as news worthy and thus give almost immediate boosts in ranking.If you are looking for any white-hat advantage to boost your video rankings, you need to stream your videos using Live Events and Live Stream Genius makes it dead easy! What operating systems will Live Stream Genius Basic work on? Live Stream Genius is native to the Microsoft Windows® platform. It can be run on Windows Server, Windows 7, 8, 8.1 and 10. For streaming in HD, it's recommended that your computer be a quad-core CPU with at least 4GB of memory.It can also be run on Mac platforms using Windows simulation through Parallels or like product.
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Here is how to become a Super Single Parent, all in plain and easy to understand language...
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Good Leadership Skills - Character - Integrity - Courage Good leadership skills require good character, integrity, and courage. Some can be improved upon yet others come from within!
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Food,Lifestyle & Inspiration Blog : Ginger It Up | Let the Cravings Begin !! Let the Cravings Begin !!
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Disability Info SA | Info on Disabilities Home Please note that the FREE services and website that we offer is privately run & funded and is not run or funded by the Government or any Organization. We therefore rely on advertising and donations to continue to supply and improve this Free service. The Companies, Clubs, Schools and Organizations that have their logos on this site, have advertised or made donations to the Website and have therefore assisted us be able to continue to offer this free Service. Please support them as they have supported Us and please contact us if you can advertise with us or would like to make a donation! Introduction Welcome to ''Disability info South Africa" which has been developed as a "Free Service" for "Persons With Disabilities" in South Africa, who are looking for information that can help them. ''Disability info South Africa" is a "One Stop Information Service " which provides information for and about the disabilities that fall under the 4 main Disability groups in South Africa, which include Persons with: Mobility Impairments; Hearing Impairments; Visual Impairments & Intellectual Impairments. Those persons who fall under either of these 4 disability groups have a different set of emotional, physical & financial needs, which they have to deal with on a daily basis. "Disability Info South Africa" is a free service that will try to address some of these needs and this service consists of 4 parts: A Web Site that supplies information about different disabilities, covering a number of topics, including: Assistive Devices; Sports & Hobbies; Organizations; Government Grants; Accessible Features; Self Help Centres; Transport Services; Service Dogs; Finding Jobs, Tax Deductions; Etc. 6 Different Search Facilities on the web site to make it easier to search for: Suppliers of Products Suppliers of Services Organizations Sports Clubs Health Care Facilities Educational Facilities The contact details of Organizations, Sports Clubs, Facilities and Companies are listed with their contact details and a link to their web site. If you cannot find what you are looking for, you can contact Alan Downey on the contact details provided and he will point you in the right direction. A free Telephone and E-mail Service, where you can contact us for information and we will research the question and contact you back with an answer or put you in contact with the relevant parties. A Facebook Page that not only shares information but also promotes events, organizations & activities that are available. The services listed above and the information supplied on this Web Site are free of charge, but your Company, Sports Club or Organization can support us through advertising with us or by making a donation. We are not a registered Organization but we do welcome any assistance we can get, so that we can continue to improve this web site and supply this service free of charge. Find out more about persons with disability in South Africa: Government stats & profile of persons with disabilities in South Africa Find out more about the Rights of persons with disabilities: The White paper On the Rights of persons with disabilities Find out more about the: Technical Assistance Guidelines for People with Disabilities About Us "Disability info South Africa" is a free web site and support service for Persons With Disabilities in South Africa, it was developed and is run by Alan Downey, who is a C5 Quadriplegic & has been since he had a diving accident in 1994. Alan has been working on this project since 2015. "Over the last 23 years, I have come to realize that living with a disability is difficult, but it can be made easier if you have access to the right information and support structures, which can assist you. With this in mind, I decided to research and develop a web site that could help others in a similar situations to myself." In 2016, "Disability info South Africa" went live, but it was only officially launched in April 2017. Since 2017 it has changed & evolved and we have built a Support and Information Service around this website. This Service and Website has already exceeded all expectations thanks to the support of a number of Companies and Organizations. In August 2017 we were interviewed on Cape Talk and now in 2018 after our 1st year anniversary, we were interviewed on 5 FM. Click the buttons on the right to find out more about these interviews and the services we provide. This service has already helped many people in a variety of different areas of disability in South Africa and through your support we hope to continue to create a Service that can assist and make a difference in the lives of even more Persons With Disabilities in South Africa. Please Support Us We Need Your Support! This project is a huge undertaking, which requires a lot of information & takes time & money to develop. We do not receive any funding from the government, so would appreciate any help that we receive, which will assist us to continue to supply and improve this Web Site and Service, therefore making a difference in the life of persons or families living with disabilities. There are 3 ways that you can Support Us: 1. You can supply information needed on the Web Site or add your company details. If you notice that we are lacking information in certain areas & are able to assist us, by supplying information, please don't hesitate to contact us. We welcome all the help, that we can get. If your company or organization offers services or products for person with disabilities, you can add your details & they will be listed on the site. To find out more or add information or your details, please click on the "Supply information or add your details" button below. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us. 2. You can make a donation that can Help develop the site. We welcome all donations, anything will help towards the development of this site. We also except donations of equipment, which we will pass on to those require it. In recognition of your donation, we will put your logo on the "Home Page", scrolling across the top of the page site, it will include a link to your web site or contact information. We will also supply you with a "Certificate Of Donations". To find out more, please click on the "Donation" button below. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us. 3. You can join the site, by purchasing advertising on specific pages on the site. Your logo will be placed visibly on the right hand side of the pages of your choice. The advert will be linked to there web site or contact information. By doing this, you will be gaining advertising for your organization or company, as well as supporting persons with disability in South Africa! Any money that we receive from this advertising, will cover the costs of developing the site, adding the information & the running of this Service. To find out more and to view the different options and prices, click on the "Advertise With Us" Button below. If you have any questions or concerns, please contact us. The FREE services and website that we offer is privately run & funded and is not run or funded by the Government or any Organization. We therefore rely on advertising and donations to continue to supply this service and this information FREE of charge. Please click on the buttons below to find out more, or Contact Us if you are able to assist or know of anyone who can advertise with us or would like to make a donation. Search For Information As mentioned above, we also supply a "Search For Information" page, where you can search for information that you may need to find, such as: Assistive Devices, Products & Equipment; Looking for a Job, Services & Service Providers; Disability Organizations; Activities, Sports Organizations & Clubs; Healthcare Service Providers and Educational Facilities & Service Providers. Click on the category buttons below to see if you can find what you are looking for. If you can't find what you looking for, please contact us via the "Contact Us" page & we will try to assist you. Please note that we are continually uploading new information, so if your Company, Club, Service Providers or Organization is not listed & you would like it to be listed, please send us your details on the "Supply Information Or Add Your Company Details" Form & we will list them as soon as possible. Facebook Page As mentioned above, we also run a very active Facebook Page, which is linked to our web site. On this page we try to inspire people and highlight individuals accomplishments and the Companies and Organizations that offer Services to assist Persons With Disabilities. We also promote the Companies and Organizations that have supported us through advertising. You can contact us through our Facebook Page to ask us any questions and we will try to get back to you as soon as possible. You can visit our Facebook Page at: Disability Info South Africa Facebook Page or by clicking on the Facebook button below. A Laugh At Life Disability is a serious matter and living with a disability can be difficult and may cause depression, but it sometimes helps to see the lighter side of our disabilities and the people who don't understand them. "Laughter is the best medicine" and with this in mind Alan Downey (Quadriplegic) has developed some cartoons depicting some true & some not so true funny stories involving Persons With Disabilities. Some of these cartoons were published in The Rolling Inspiration Magazine and are available to enjoy on our Website. Please click on the button below: "A Laugh At Life", but please note that they are not to be downloaded or printed without permission from Alan Downey. You can however contact him to commission some cartoons or purchase the use of the ones that have been created and displayed on our site. References
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Bold New Girls: teaching, coaching, & consulting | Empowering girls to feel happy, healthy, confident, & inspired through the integration of learning & social/emotional development First Published in Red Tricycle You may have heard of a "little" best seller called, Girl, Stop Apologizing (2019) by multi-media company founder, Rachel Hollis. I don't know about you but I've read it three times now, going on four. Hollis, speaker, author, and inspiring human being, calls us to action when she says, "It's time to be yourself, unapologetically, and to show the world what happens when a woman challenges herself for greatness. It's time to stop apologizing for who you are." (p. 210). I took her message to heart and started making changes in my own life, busting through some limiting beliefs and deciding to further design my dreams. Then, I considered how her compelling message could be brought to young girls and their parents. Here it is: our girls need to stop saying, "I'm sorry" so they can start embracing all they are meant to be. Spend any amount of time with a growing girl and you'll know this: they apologize all the time. "Sorry, I corrected you", "Sorry, I made a mistake", or "Sorry I just offered a creative idea." No! Girls need to stop the insanity of excessively apologizing for who they are and all they offer. I asked girls why they apologize so much and they explained that sometimes it's habit, or to fill awkward pauses in conversation. Yet, a lot of the time it's because they are afraid of hurting someone's feelings, disappointing people, or coming across as conceited. Girls instinctively apologize for their voice, presence, ideas, opinions and dreams and this is troubling. Why? Because for every instant she says, "I am sorry" she is eroding her self-confidence and self-belief. Think about it: with each apology, she shrinks into herself and shies away from the power of her contribution. She is missing the opportunity to feel good about what she brings to the table. Research tells us social media is damaging girls' self-esteem. I'm not going to argue. Girls are constantly checking their feeds and feeling "not good enough" as they compare perfectly polished pictures with their own bodies and lives. Yet, I am going to argue that they are also damaging their own self-worth with their apologies. Can we all agree that's it's time to trade in her "I'm sorry's" for some confidence boosters. Explain to her that when she apologizes and she hasn't done anything wrong, she loses her inner strength and power. Conversely, when she apologizes when she is in the wrong, she gains power and feels empowered. When girls learn to withhold unnecessary apologies, they become more bold and brave. Isn't this what all want? Here are three ways to do this: Check yourself. I know I may sound like a broken record, but if you want your daughter to change in any way, you will need to ask yourself what you are modeling. If "I'm sorry" is your catch phrase, even when you have done nothing wrong, start by noticing. Ask yourself, "How often do I say I am sorry in a given day?" You may be shocked by your new awareness of how many times you utter these three words. Then, start to replace "I'm sorry…for asking for a favour" to a more assertive, "I have a favour to ask". She is listening and she is learning and needs to see what "no apologizing" and "no limits" living looks like. Notice her "I'm sorry's". Any time your daughter says she is sorry without reason, challenge her. Girls apologize to me all the time when I offer them treats. "I'm sorry, I took a cookie" to which I respond, "Why are you apologizing?" or "No need to apologize, how about we try again with something like – thank you for the cookie." If she proffers an apology for her opinion, which, let's face it, will inevitably be different from yours, respond with, "I appreciate your unique taste in music which we simply don't share, but you do you." This is not to say girls don't need to apologize sometimes and be accountable for their words and actions such as when: they are late, forget to clean their room, or give us a sassy response. Notice when her apology is not warranted and help her see why. Practice replacement phrases to cultivate her self-worth and replacement role models. I have three prompts I use a lot with girls to help them feel empowered: "I am…" (followed by a quality or value), "I can…" (followed by a talent or skill), and "I will…"(followed by a goal or commitment). These phrases subvert the apology and build her inner strength, from the inside out. At the same time, I am convinced that by giving girls positive examples of young women who are offering no apologies for who they are and the difference they want to make, we can reduce the negative impact of some of the social media influencers they are following. Point her towards powerhouses such as: Bethany Hamilton, Ally Raisman, Malala Yousafsai, Brie Larson, or Kharis Rogers who have overcome a shart attack, sexual assault, terrorism, and sexism, and racism. Rachel Hollis offers no apologies for her hard work, passion and purpose, and success. I think that girls today and those supporting girls need to take a page out of Hollis' book and stop apologizing to start believing and then becoming greater and greater every day. Lindsay Sealey is the author of Growing Strong Girls: Practical Tools to Cultivate Connection in the Preteen Years now available on Amazon and Audible and Raising Girls' Voices now available at Lulu.com. She is also the founder and CEO of Bold New Girls and lives in the Pacific Northwest.
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Pain in the Neck | notes from a neck pain clinic I heard some wonderful opening lines waft through the thin cubicle curtains (as if privacy were just a visual thing) in my time as an NHS physiotherapist, but nothing beats the pain of 'Shall we share a story?' - an intrusive frown to boot I bet - delivered by an eager early adopter of the psychosocial aspects of our work, back in the late nineties. But where and how should we begin our sessions - and does it matter? Is it possible that the first words of the session carry greater import than we care to acknowledge? And do our initial muttered utterances have implications for the trajectory of the entire 'therapy'? Roberts and Langridge (2018) have recently noted that surprisingly little attention has been given in the literature on how 'best' to open the clinical encounter, but one study does at least shed some light on the variety and preferred 'openings' that physiotherapists use. Chester et al (2014) audio-recorded 42 initial consultations (and 17 first follow-up encounters - but we won't be discussing those here, interesting though they are) between qualified physiotherapists and individuals with back pain, in an adult musculoskeletal, primary care outpatient setting. Eleven different opening questions were identified which were then used to determine clinicians' preferences in a national survey from a broad range of physiotherapy professional networks (Sports Medicine, Orthopaedics, Massage and Soft Tissue Therapy, and Pain Management). A selection of the openings used by physiotherapists from Chester et al (2014). The preferred opening question for an initial encounter among the physiotherapists who responded was: 'Do you want to just tell me a little bit about your problem first of all?' Although the survey response in this study was small, the paper apparently generated much debate. I don't know about you but some of these opening phrases sit rather awkwardly with me: talk of a 'bit of a chat' and 'a little bit about your problem' are hardly suggestive of a forthcoming expansive discussion. Personally, I tend towards usually opening with a 'so what's the story?' and then sitting in silence until the narrative has run dry, before engaging with the conversation. Doctor and writer John Launer has also discussed openings in his wonderful book 'Narrative-Based Practice in Health and Social Care' (2018). He suggests there is no reason to avoid one of the conventional questions, such as 'How can I help you?' but does counsel against the use of formulations such as 'What's the problem?' arguing that this 'already closes down possibilities - for example there may not be a problem or there may be several'. He also notes that trained mentors and coaches often start meetings with the question: 'What are you hoping to get out of our conversation today?' Asking this can save a lot of time that might otherwise be spent barking up the wrong tree, and the answer is often quite unexpected, he notes (Launer 2014). In another fascinating piece - 'The Three Second Consultation' - Launer (2009) spends over an hour reviewing the first three seconds of a recorded consultation - concluding that the best conversations, whether social or professional, are unconstrained by any prior expectations of where they ought to go. Rita Charon - in her book 'Narrative Based Medicine' - describes using 'tell me what you think I should know about your situation' followed by 'a commitment to listen and not to write or speak'. Charon describes how foregoing the urge to order the narrative leads to her absorbing what is being said without ' deranging the narratives into my own form of story.' She describes listening 'as hard as I can.' Indeed Charon cites work suggesting that warmth and intimacy between clinician and patient tend not to build over time, but achieve whatever level they will achieve at the first meeting. And what do we do after the initial response to our opener? According to Roberts & Langridge (2018) physiotherapists interrupt the patient whilst they are answering the opening question in 60% of cases! Marvel et al (1999) found nearly half of patients were interrupted whilst describing their problem and - wait for it - patients were given on average just 23.1 seconds to describe their problem before being interrupted. But how long does it take a person to describe their problem? Langewitz et al. (2002) reported that people will take on average 92 seconds to explain their problem in an outpatient setting (if they are not interrupted!). Peter O'Sullivan has discussed the benefits of staying silent after his initial opener of 'tell me your story'. He says 'everyone who comes to me has a story. Usually in that first minute you'll hear something really important about their story - if you just don't say anything - and that will lead you down a path.' (Pain Reframed Podcast 2017). So, whatever opener you decide upon - hush and hold thy tongue dear clinician and LISTEN AS HARD AS YOU CAN! References Charon, R 2006 Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness Chester, E.C., Robinson, N.C., Roberts, L.C., 2014. Opening clinical encounters in an adult musculoskeletal setting. Man Ther, 19, 306-10 Langewitz, W., Denz, M., Keller, A., Kiss, A., Rütimann, S., Wössmer, B., 2002. Spontaneous talking time at start of consultation in outpatient clinic: cohort study. , 325 (7366), 682-3. Launer J (2009) 'The Three Second Consultation' Postgrad Med J 2009;85:560 Launer J (2014)'Good Questions' Postgrad Med J 2014;90:121–122 Marvel, M.K., Epstein, R.M., Flowers, K., Beckmanm H.B., 1999. Soliciting the patient's agenda: have we improved? JAMA., 281 (3), 283-7. Pain Reframed Podcast 'Caring Deeply and Dropping Your Ego' Dr. Tim Flynn and Dr. Jeff Moore with Dr. Peter O'Sullivan Roberts, L. and Langridge, N. (2018) Principles of communication and its application to clinical reasoning. In, Petty, N.J. and Barnard, K.(eds.) Principles of musculoskeletal treatment and management: a handbook for therapists: a handbook for therapists. (Physiotherapy Essentials) 3rd ed. Edinburgh. Elsevier, pp. 209-233. If you are interested in learning more about Narrative-Based Practice in Health Care, John Launer and colleagues are running a three day workshop at the University of Hertfordshire, UK in Summer 2019. Further details here: Conversations Inviting Change
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Temple Emanu-El | Nevada's oldest Jewish congregation This week's Parsha: Vayetse – the 7th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. This week's parsha is about Jacob and begins with the words, "vayetze ya yakov," meaning Jacob departed. Jacob left Bersheba and set out for Charan. This is a very rich and complex parsha which has been discussed, dissected and debated by rabbinical experts for eons. Starting with: why really, did Jacob leave – and was it true that GOD would bring him back as was promised? If so, why and when? The Rabbis debate why Jacob left. We read that Jacob had "stolen" the birthright of his older twin Esau, so was this a banishment? Some commentators say his mother sent him away and used the excuse that she didn't want him to marry a Caananite woman. But, was she sending him away to save him from some punishment? By contrast, commentator Rabbi Warhaftig says that Jacob left his home to honor the wishes of his father, and out of fear of his brother Esau, who might kill him for the "stealing" of said birthright. So, perhaps Jacob had to leave Bersheba in order to honor the wishes of both his parents. According to the first great Talmudic commentator Rashi: "When a righteous man leaves a place, it makes a mark." We can debate the virtues of Jacob at the time he left, but his departure certainly made a mark on his parents, as it does with most parents when their children leave home. So, was it simply time for him to "leave the nest" and learn fly on his own? Let me read you this portion: "Jacob left Bersheba and set out for Charan. He came upon a certain place and stopped for the night, for the sun had set. And the LORD was standing beside him and He said, 'I am the Lord, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac; the ground on which you are lying I will assign to you and to your offspring. Your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread out to the west and to the east, to the north and to the south. All the families of the earth shall bless themselves by you and your descendants. Remember, I am with you: I will protect you wherever you go and will bring you back to this land. I will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you.'" So, Jacob left first as a fugitive, but then GOD spoke with him, gave him this blessing, and then every place was equally good for him. That is fortuitous, because I think Jacob had work to do. On himself. I believe Jacob had to leave his family in order to mature into a more virtuous person, indeed a "mensch" before he could return home and fulfill the destiny that GOD described for him. Psychologists tell us that the role of our parents is to give us both roots and wings. Jacob was rooted in his home, but when his parents pushed him out of the nest, he was then forced to grow the wings that would develop into his maturing. He had to grow, learn, suffer, and take risks on this journey. His character needed to be tested and refined, his personality molded and transformed, in order to return as a mature person. And boy was Jacob tested! Do some of us need to leave in order to return? Do these life journeys of exploration and even rebellion, lead to discovery and a "return to roots? " Are they one-way trips – or, can they include a round trip ticket, as GOD promised Jacob? So Jacob needed to mature. What is maturity and how does it happen? According to the Torah and Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Hersh Weinreb., an ordained rabbi and psychotherapist, maturity can be associated with the wisdom gained from experience over time, with the development of an approach to life which is practical, informed, and wise. Parshat Vayetze gives us the opportunity to read about the maturation of our patriarch Jacob through two big dreams. Jacob's first dream envisions a ladder firmly rooted into the earth but extending heavenwards. This dream is a majestic glimpse of infinite possibilities, a grand imaginative symbol of the relations between man and God. But then, Jacob gets busy with mundane affairs, "scorched by heat all day, and freezing at night." Jacob is busy with business, with profit, with material matters, dealing with deceit and disappointment at many turns. Later Jacob dreams again, but this dream is much more practical. He see goats mating "with the flock which were streaked, speckled, and mottled." This dream gives Jacob ideas on how to enhance the business of goat breeding and it ultimately works very well. In this second dream, the angels tells Jacob it is now time to "leave this land and return to his native land." It is time for him to become mature in one sense. It is time for him to reclaim his first dream and to do all he can to make that dream real. He learns that he must not surrender to just mundane dreams, abandoning old ideals. He learns he can return to dream of his youth. He also learns that not only can he go home again, he must go home again! A return to roots, I ask? This is the eternal lesson for the Jewish people. According to Rabbi Weinreb, the dreams of the diaspora are apt to be mundane and shortsighted but the dreams of the Land of Israel are noble dreams, exalted dreams, and dreams which ultimately connect us to heaven. The Land of Israel is the land of our dreams and it is also our home and roots. Jacob's dream comes true. God told him he would return and that that place would be Israel. In 1948 the land of Israel declares itself a state and a home, a safe haven for all Jews seeking refuge. What is particularly interesting to me is that that was 70 years ago. Seventy, which has the number seven in it, is an important number to Jews, with both noble and mystical implications. According to the Tanakh, "the days of our years are three score years and ten (70), or if reason of strength, four score years (80)… and it is speedily gone, and we fly away." At 70, Benjamin Franklin was helping to draft the U.S. Constitution. Winston Churchill was 70 years old in 1945 when he led the United Kingdom to victory in World War II. Israel's Golda Meir became prime minister of Israel at age 70. So, at 70 years for a person, there should be some maturity, plus the opportunity to stop the daily rigors of work, start to focus on other opportunities and reclaim some of the dreams of our youth. It does not mean the departure of life, if we are lucky, but of the beginning of a new chapter in life. A re-rooting. As with Israel, I was also born in 1948 and turn 70 this week. Jacob's journey has reminded me a bit of mine. I didn't physically leave home until after college, but I left earlier in other ways. In my youth, I didn't like being Jewish. For me, it was all about what we could not do, eat, look like, enjoy. My mother was reared Orthodox in NYC and told us horrible stories of how difficult it was being Jewish there. As a child, her older sister, my tante Millie was hit on the back of her head with a hammer by a kid who called her a "dirty Jew." I watched for the rest of her years how my aunt lived with blindness and a whole host of other maladies brought on by this attack. Who, I asked myself, would want to be Jewish? We here in Reno Nevada (and before that in northern California) did not have much of a Jewish community. So I, as the eldest child in the family, felt singled out in school and in the neighborhood. We didn't get to celebrate Christmas (even though one XMAS eve my sister and I put out stockings anyway, hoping for Santa. It didn't happen.) It was embarrassing to be hauled out of school the first two days of Rosh Hashana and on Yom Kippur. We had to observe and fast. I do remember my mother making us stay in the car with her one Yom Kippur afternoon, however, as she listened to the World Series to see how her beloved Yankees were doing. We were sworn to secrecy. Not sure if it was about doing this on Yom Kippur or that she was rooting for the Yankees. Vayetze – I departed. There are different ways to depart – geographically, as Jacob did, and as the Amish kids do, for example. They leave at age 18 for a year to explore the world of the Others. Some return and some do not. It's an anguishing year for their frightened parents. Yet other youth depart by rebelling from their family's beliefs, values, and customs. That's more of how I departed. At the age of about 17, when I started college, I rejected my Jewish birthright, and left my parents' world to explore the world outside Judaism. I can only imagine my parents' fear and confusion, and I vividly remember huge, loud ugly family arguments. Who would choose to be Jewish, I would repeatedly ask myself. I was learning to grow wings and fly in other directions, I guess. Life went on. Until recently, I worked very hard as a single mother, self-employed, trying to help my friends and community, taking care of my parents when that time came, and working through many mundane things. Important things. Busy things. But giving little time for self- or life-reflection or thoughts about religion or Judaism. Like with Jacob, my work was "scorched by day and freezing by night." Well, not literally, but figuratively. And then things changed. I aged to the point where I could stop working at that level and could start to reap a bit of what I had sown, a maturation of a sort. What a blessing! Many people don't get to live this long or get to this point of freedom and comfort. It is now a time for gratitude and for reflection. And maybe something else. Perhaps it is a time to return home. A time to look back at the dreams of my youth and get them fulfilled. A time to achieve both levels of maturity, according to Rabbi Weinreb. A time to reclaim my birthright and return to certain things. We learn in Torah about the cycles of life, and when we leave some thing or some place, and then return, we are not the same as when we left. This cycle is more like a spiral which winds around an axis, like ivy growing up a tree. Its radius may be constant or not. Maybe our birthright acts like this axis, around which we can grow and change, leave and return. Kind of like a twisting, ascending ladder? On this journey around our axis, do we sometimes have to move backward in order to move forward? Going backwards might give us time to expand our knowledge and experiences, like Jacob did, and allow us to return more mature, experienced, and eager to get back to our core. Jacob knew he would be returning home. I did not. So what does this parsha mean for so many Jews who have left their roots and given up their birthrights? Like for me, maybe it is never too late to get back to their core. Israel certainly is a symbol of such return – to a homeland and a way of life. But for us Jews not in Israel, right here in the U.S., it means we need to find other ways to reconnect to our Jewish cores and reclaim our birthrights. It is not easy being Jews here and with the growing anti-Semitism locally and worldwide, it might even be dangerous. But there is great beauty in reclaiming. It means there has been thought and study and certain decision-making not required of us when we were children. I think there is a place for Jews like me, maybe like you, who are trying to reclaim their birthright and forge a Jewish life which honors and respects our traditions and purpose. We were "given" the 10 Commandments but with that (and many other commandments) we were given many responsibilities. We Jews deal with a number of mitzvahs. A mitzvah is both a commandment and a good deed. I love that dual meaning. I am suggesting that we as Jews work harder to be role models of civility and citizenship in this contentious world. We should honor our mitzvahs by being more mindful of what we think, do, speak and eat. We should be more grateful for all the beauty in our world and give thanks for all our gifts. We should be as generous as we can, in whatever ways we can, whether it be with money, time, or simply listening. According to the Dalai Lama, happiness comes from compassion, and when we are compassionate we turn from takers to givers. I also believe we should speak up against that which is evil, ugly, unfair, and cruel. We need to do mitzvahs by taking great care of our children, our friends and family, our communities and our environment. What a grand mark we would be making then! And lastly, we as Jews should be more accepting of other Jews and the variety of ways they choose to be Jews. When I was in Israel many years ago, I saw that Jews of all kinds live together, because they have a purpose that overrides their differences: survival. There are orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews and there are also holocaust-surviving Jews who are actually atheists. Yes they argue and disagree, but they still know who they are and what their core is. Like in Israel, we Jews here need to accept the differences among ourselves. Rabbi Fasman tells us that when it comes down to it, Jews around the world and across time are just one big family. One big dysfunctional family. We need to both endure and embrace those big family dinners with the crazy sister and the drunken uncle. I have become very proud of my heritage – and very grateful I don't actually have to convert! Simply because of my birthright, I was born Jewish, and aren't I lucky. Yes, I get to be Jewish. I get to struggle with God, which is the definition of the word Israel, and something which I do regularly. I get to doubt the existence of God, wonder about what, if anything is His role and meaning. I get to yell at him when bad things happen to good people, but mostly I get to thank him regularly for all that is beautiful and magical in my life. My gratitude is huge. I have many people to thank for putting up with me on my journey, some for many years, and some for a shorter time. My teachers and friends have been loving and patient and have successfully hidden their rolled eyes with some of my Hebrew struggles. Like Jacob, maybe I had to depart my roots, "fly the coop," and build some wings in order to mature enough to come home. Maybe that is the responsibility for all of us Jews. So, to mommy and daddy, I hope I have made you proud. May you rest in peace, knowing you did what you could to give me roots and wings – and please know: "Ahni babayit." "Ich bin zu hoize." I just might be home.
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Rockstar Climbing | Rockstar Climbing Centre, Indoor Climbing in Swindon, Wiltshire Would you like to be the first to know about our events, courses, deals and promotions at Rockstar Climbing? If so fill in your full name and email address below and hit the "Subscribe" button! Upcoming Courses, Events & More ADULT LEARN TO CLIMB COURSES NEW DATES AVAILABLE! Would you love to learn how to climb? Our regular courses will teach you to be a safe and confident climber and belayer. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK ADULT MOVEMENT & TECHNIQUE COURSES NEW DATES AVAILABLE! If you are a beginner to intermediate level climber and you're looking to improve your climbing technique and movement skills then this 3 week course is an absolute must for you! FIND OUT MORE & BOOK ADULT LEARN TO LEAD COURSE NEW DATES AVAILABLE! Discover the thrill and excitement of Lead Climbing and get ready to take your climbing to the next level! FIND OUT MORE & BOOK LADIES SOCIAL NIGHT EVERY MONDAY EVENING, 7PM TO 9PM Every Monday is a great opportunity for women of any age and ability to climb and socialise together at Rockstar Climbing Swindon with our Instructors. Its a social for women climbers run by women climbers! FIND OUT MORE Pick Your Adventure TASTER SESSIONS Looking to climb for the first time? We offer Taster Sessions for Juniors, Teens, Adults and Families together. FIND OUT MORE BIRTHDAY PARTIES Struggling to find that Birthday Party idea? Relax because we've got you covered! FIND OUT MORE CASUAL CLIMBING All you need to know about turning up to climb casually at Rockstar Climbing, Swindon. FIND OUT MORE LOOK INSIDE Take the tour of Rockstar Climbing and check out some of our photos and videos. FIND OUT MORE Junior Climbing Clubs ROCKHUGGERS Regular climbing club for young climbers aged 5 to 7 years old. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK CLIFFHANGER JUNIOR FOUNDATION Our beginner climbing club for juniors aged 8 to 12 years old incorporating NICAS Level 1. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK CLIFFHANGER JUNIOR IMPROVERS Our regular improver climbing club for junior climbers aged between 8 and 12 years old incorporating NICAS Level 2 and NIBAS Levels 1 and 2. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK CLIFFHANGER JUNIOR TECHNICAL Our more advanced junior climbing club for children aged 8 to 12 years old incorporating NICAS Level 3 and NIBAS Levels 2 and 3. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK Youth Climbing Clubs Adult Climbing Courses CLIFFHANGER YOUTH FOUNDATION Our beginners climbing club for teens aged between 13 and 17 years old and incorporates NICAS Level 1. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK CLIFFHANGER YOUTH CLUB Our regular climbing and bouldering club for teens aged between 13 and 17 years old incorporating NICAS Level 2 and 3 and NIBAS Levels 1, 2 and 3. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK ADULT LEARN TO CLIMB COURSES Would you love to learn how to climb? Our regular courses will teach you to be a safe and confident climber and belayer. FIND OUT MORE & BOOK ADULT LEARN TO LEAD COURSE Discover the thrill and excitement of Lead Climbing and get ready to take your climbing to the next level! FIND OUT MORE & BOOK ADULT MOVEMENT & TECHNIQUE COURSES If you are a beginner to intermediate level climber and you're looking to improve your climbing technique and movement skills then this 3 week course is an absolute must for you! FIND OUT MORE & BOOK Natalie My daughter had her 6th birthday party here yesterday. She had an amazing time from climbing the walls and party games after. The staff were great with the children too....Great venue will highly recommend to others...thank you rockstar for making her day so great!!! Sophie Went last Thursday for the first time with a friend. Got there and staff were so friendly and helpful. If you have kids they are great with them from what I've seen (don't have kids myself) Showed us round and any questions we had they were answered. Different colours for different stages which helps. Been 3 times in the last week and now a member. So much fun and a great work out. One day I will conquering the black stage haha Definitely would recommend it. Alex Very friendly place. People always on hand to help or suggest new ways to look at and tackle routes. Highly recommended for a good work out! Karen Amazing. Had taster session this evening with my 9 year old daughter and Richard our trainer was fantastic! The atmosphere is good and everyone helpful, definitely will be our regular haunt Visit Us Monday to Friday 10am - 10pm Saturday and Sunday 9am - 6.30pm
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LARRY NOODLES - My name is Lawrence Dressler. My nickname in Otisville Federal Prison was Larry Noodles. I got my nickname after I got in trouble for smuggling spiral pasta from my prison job at the prison warehouse into my bunk. I am the Jewish guy in the middle pumping iron in the prison gym with my buddies Jeff and Willie. Jeff got five years for drug dealing on the dangerous streets of the Bronx. Willie got four years for tax evasion. I got 20 months for my involvement as a closing attorney in a mortgage fraud conspiracy. I was locked up in Otisville Federal Prison, NY. My blog is about the lives of guys locked up in one of the top ten white collar prisons as rated by Forbes Magazine, and was the prison of choice for Michael Cohen, who is currently locked up there. For almost two years I lived in close quarters with guys who made the front pages of the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. Guys stripped of their wealth, power and dignity respond to prison life in many unusual ways. I may have changed a few names to protect the guilty, but everything is about real events and real people. I have set high standards for myself, even as a convicted felon and disgraced attorney. I have been quoted and featured in the New York Times, The Bill Maher Show, HBO Vice, The New York Daily News, The Associated Press, The Observer, The New Haven Independent, In Touch Weekly, Hollywood Gossip, Lost Messiah, TalkLeft, "Prison" By David Langner, The Unorthodox Jew, WBAI Radio, WBSM Radio, Insider, The Heritage Florida Jewish News, The Just Enough Heshy Show, and numerous other publications. My name is Lawrence Dressler. My nickname in Otisville Federal Prison was Larry Noodles. I got my nickname after I got in trouble for smuggling spiral pasta from my prison job at the prison warehouse into my bunk. I am the Jewish guy in the middle pumping iron in the prison gym with my buddies Jeff and Willie. Jeff got five years for drug dealing on the dangerous streets of the Bronx. Willie got four years for tax evasion. I got 20 months for my involvement as a closing attorney in a mortgage fraud conspiracy. I was locked up in Otisville Federal Prison, NY. My blog is about the lives of guys locked up in one of the top ten white collar prisons as rated by Forbes Magazine, and was the prison of choice for Michael Cohen, who is currently locked up there. For almost two years I lived in close quarters with guys who made the front pages of the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. Guys stripped of their wealth, power and dignity respond to prison life in many unusual ways. I may have changed a few names to protect the guilty, but everything is about real events and real people. I have set high standards for myself, even as a convicted felon and disgraced attorney. I have been quoted and featured in the New York Times, The Bill Maher Show, HBO Vice, The New York Daily News, The Associated Press, The Observer, The New Haven Independent, In Touch Weekly, Hollywood Gossip, Lost Messiah, TalkLeft, "Prison" By David Langner, The Unorthodox Jew, WBAI Radio, WBSM Radio, Insider, The Heritage Florida Jewish News, The Just Enough Heshy Show, and numerous other publications.
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North West Manchester Based Accountants | Your Tax Shop Your Tax Shop is a team of award-winning financial experts ready to help with your personal or business accounts. Contact our Accountants team now!
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PaulWilsonOnline.com | In today's post I want to talk about Solo Ads, the truth behind them, and why a lot of people struggle to see results. If you don't know what a Solo Ad is, it's basically where someone sends an email out to their list with YOUR advertisement or offer in, their subscribers click on your link, then potentially opt-in to YOUR list. You then follow up and have the "potential" to make a sale. Yes I said the "potential", as this depends on a lot of factors as I talk about in this post. I have been in the Solo Ad industry on and off for a few years, and building lists for a long time. I don't know everything there is to know about email marketing, far from it, but I have been around long enough to know things that just won't work... And I wanted to get a few points over in this post so if you decide to run Solo Ads for yourself, you know what kind of results to expect. I also want to tell you exactly how to win people over, become a fan of yours, and consequently make you MORE sales. The thing with Solo Ads is that they get "labelled" in SO many different ways. Some people say they're a bad traffic source... Some say they doesn't work... Some say they're spammy... And the list goes on. But any traffic source (free or paid), takes time to master and get results from. I have run PPC (Pay Per Click) campaigns, Facebook ads, and many other sources over the years, and each one has its own unique set of problems and frustrations that you need to overcome before seeing results. But the one thing that frustrates me the most about Solo Ads, is when people write them off because they didn't get any sales right out of the gate. This can be the case with ANY traffic source, but you really have to take it by the balls, and master it! The reason for no sales on a Solo Ad run can be any number of factors, but only a small percentage of people will buy on a first exposure to something. They don't know you at all, and you haven't filled the "good will" tank with them so why should they? As with any traffic source, Solo Ads EVEN MORE than any other traffic source, it's about bringing people into your world. You have to get people to connect with you on Facebook so they get to see what you're about. This will build trust right there. You need to send them daily emails with content that will actually help them, not just spam them your product link wondering why they aren't buying... And finally, you need to create some kind of video series so they can see you're a real person and consequently you will earn trust. (Some say this isn't compulsory, but with solo ads I believe it will help you in a BIG way to gain that trust.) If you don't get sales on the front end, it's no big deal, but you need to follow up EVERY day and do ALL the above. If you have a poor funnel, or are just sending to an affiliate funnel for which you have no control (which I see WAY too many people doing), then you're results will generally be lower. That's just the way it is as you'll be using the same funnel, and email follow ups as potentially hundreds or thousands of other affiliates, so what makes YOU different to your competition? So listen up... This business is not easy whatever traffic source you use. If it were that easy then EVERYONE would be making money hand over fist rather than the 3% that do currently. But if you are going to use Solo Ads, these are the things you MUST do... 1. Build your OWN list (which YOU have control of), NOT your affiliate programs list. 2. Follow up DAILY. 3. Create videos. 4. Create content. 5. Bring people into your world like Facebook, Instagram etc 6. Provide value, be their friend, and someone they can trust. 7. Actually help people rather than just thinking about yourself all the time. Open and click rates are MUCH lower than virtually every other traffic source money can buy, but if you do the above you will be golden... Do half of it or none of it and moan the traffic source doesn't work, then you only have yourself to blame. Ask yourself this question at every opportunity, and you will see your business from a different perspective... "What makes ME stand out, and WHY would people want to buy from ME rather than someone else?" Are you standing out, providing value, and actually helping people? Or just hiding behind your affiliate program hoping people will buy? Only YOU know the answer. There's just one last thing I want to mention in this post... If you're not getting the conversions on your landing pages or people are not clicking through, it's generally down to your funnel. Your landing page needs to be compelling, and your bridge or sales page needs to get people to take action. People on Solo lists see more offers than most other traffic sources, so why would people want to opt-in to YOUR page, or buy YOUR product? What are YOU going to do for them that they can't get elsewhere? This is just something to think about when creating your offers. Please leave me a comment below letting me know your thoughts and experiences with solo ads.
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Sancerres at Sunset | Travel. Home. Repeat. Solo travel is daring, liberating, rejuvenating. It feels a little bit naughty, like getting away with something. You go when you want to go, where you want to go. You eat when you want to eat, what you want to eat. You can sleep when you want, and get up when you want, and you get the whole bed. You can stay at a luxury hotel or a campground; it's your choice. You get to indulge your own interests, no matter how nerdy, or boring, or eclectic someone else might think them. If you want to plan your trip around seeing a historic museum, a national park, and a baseball game, you can. You don't have to convince anyone why they matter, and you don't have to compromise. You can't live this way all time, and it wouldn't be good for you anyway. It's better to have people in your life, people you want to put first. But every once in a while, it's good to get away from others, so you can restore yourself. It's rare, and that's what makes it special. This post contains affiliate links. For more information, click here. Road trips are adventurous, raw, and so intriguing they've inspired movies from It Happened One Night to Thelma & Louise. You have flexibility. You stop when there's something interesting to see or do, or when you just want a break. You stay in one place as long as you want, and you move on to the next one whenever you want. You don't have a plane to catch, and you don't have to be molested to get on board. Your car is your cocoon; you can load it with whatever you're going to want. But the trip isn't about the car; it's about you and the road and where the road takes you and where you choose to follow it, eyes wide and mind open and heart full of excitement. And when you put solo travel and road trip together, it's magic. It's a rare and nurturing oasis of freedom in our over-regulated, over-scheduled, over-intrusive, over-judgmental modern world. It's life on your terms. And good magic needs a lot of behind-the-scenes planning and preparation. After five fabulous weeks alone on the road, here's my comprehensive list of Solo Road-Trip Essentials 1) A Loose Plan Freedom and flexibility are the glory of the solo road trip. You don't want to over-plan. But you have to have some idea of where you want to go and what you want to do. Make a short list of your top things to do. Mine included: Southfork Ranch in Texas and a Salem Red Sox game in Virginia, as well as the Everything Food Conference in Utah. I also wanted to go to all five of the contiguous states I hadn't already visited (North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon). Rough draft your route. You can do this online or on a paper map or both. Plot your to-see points, and trace a route that covers them. Use it to gauge how long it should take to drive from point to point and to plan stops on the way. But remember: it's just a rough plan; adjust it continually as you go along. At the end of every driving day, after I checked in to my hotel room and cleaned out the car, I got online to figure out where to stop next and what I'd like to see on the way--a small museum, a historic site, a local park. I made reservations if it looked like rooms were filling up, but the best driving days were the ones when I knew I could go until I wanted to stop. Decide how much you want to drive daily and weekly. I settled on roughly six hours per day, five days per week. I thought this would be a fairly light schedule, especially after years of driving from northern Virginia to my parents' home outside Boston. I've seen some travel bloggers write about driving 12 hours in a day, and great for them if that's what they like. But for me, the point of the journey was the journey, and I wanted to spend more time exploring out of the car than in it. I also knew that I'd have daily and weekly blogging responsibilities, that I like wearing frequently washed clothes, and that God gave us a weekly day of rest for a reason. As it turned out, even this light and flexible schedule became pretty tiring after five weeks, and I started slowing down by the time I made it back to the southeast. Write up a nightly to-do list. When you're road tired, and possibly hungry, you don't want to keep asking yourself, "What do I need to remember to do next?" Make a fool-proof list. Mine included: Unload and tidy up car. Charge electronics.Research next stop; make reservations. Jot down notes for upcoming blog posts. Edit photographs.Check in on social media: Instagram, facebook, twitter, PinterestRespond to email. Outline a basic daily schedule. You can make day to day changes when they're called for, but having a schedule will help you stay on track. Mine looked like this: A Day in the Life of a Travel Blogger on the Road 5:15am: Alarm goes off. Hit snooze. Visualize day ahead.5:24: Alarm goes off again. Get up. Make coffee. Do crunches.5:30ish: Over coffee, go online and make sure nothing catastrophic happened overnight, e.g. the blog didn't get hacked, Trump didn't tweet the nuclear codes, etc.5:55: Don exercise clothes and go outside or to hotel gym to work out.7ish: Shower and dress for the day. Comfy casual clothes for driving. No make-up, just eye cream with sunscreen, tinted moisturizer with sunscreen, lip balm with sunscreen, curled lashes, and body lotion with sunscreen. Keep concealer, powder foundation, red lipstick, and 3-in-1 blush, highlighter, and lip tint at the ready just in case.7:45ish: Protein breakfast, no simple carbs. Grab an apple for lunch.8:15ish: Pack, load car, swap out CDs. Check out of hotel. (Even though most hotels email a receipt, I always ask for a print-out at the desk and look it over before I leave, just in case.) 8:45ish: Hit the road. Stop along the way at an interesting site or two. Eat the apple for lunch.4-5pm: Check in at next hotel. Complete task list.6ish: Dinner. Usually a low-carb charcuterie plate in the room, occasionally a juicy burger from room service, out to a local Mexican place if in the southwest.7ish: Play at casino, read, watch TV.9: Skin care: oil-based cleanser, creamy cleanser, toner, serum, eye cream, neck cream, moisturizer, body lotion. Bed. Prepare for departure. An organized approach to a few simple tasks will help make your departure much smoother. Set up a packing station a few days ahead of time. The earlier you can gather up the things you'll be taking, the less stressed you'll be as departure day nears. I used my small den for this, so that the growing piles wouldn't drive me crazy. Pay your bills. Set up automatic payments. Don't forget: housing--mortgage, rent, condo feesinsurance--health, home, autocredit cardsutilities (Suspend your cable unless you'll want to access it from the road.) Clean thoroughly. You don't want to return to an untidy home (and you don't want any multi-legged squatters moving in while you're away). I set aside a full day for this. Plan for a short first day of driving. Leaving can be the most stressful part of a trip. Give your extra self time to double-check that you've packed the prescriptions and turned off all the appliances (you can even snap pictures of them if you'll want the reassurance). Make a one-night reservation at an inexpensive highway hotel; just make sure it's far enough away that you won't be tempted to turn home to get that one last thing you wish you'd packed. Prepare to come home. This is part of preparing to leave, so that it won't haunt you near the end of the journey. I brought along a re-entry folder, for some paperwork regarding things I'd need to handle upon my return. Toward the end of the trip, I also planned for a short last day of driving, so that if there were any problems at home, I'd have time and energy to cope with them. I reserved what I hoped would be a luxury hotel room for my last few days on the road, so that I'd be coming home feeling rested and so that the last stretch of the trip wouldn't seem like more of a downer than necessary. Be flexible. You know that plan I had to see five new states? I only got to three of them before I decided that the last two would just be too much for this trip. On the other hand, I visited lots of places that I would never have planned ahead, just because they looked intriguing, from the Museum of Space History in New Mexico to the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville. Go with the road and go with your gut. 2) A Priority on Safety You matter. Your safety matters. Take it seriously. Have your car checked out before you leave. I did this a few weeks early so there'd be time for any necessary repairs. Bring: A navigation system. Make sure your maps are updated.A road atlas. Electronics fail. Books don't. Have a back-up.Coolant, oil, and jumper cables. A road safety kit.A First-Aid kit.A Swiss Army knife. Membership in an auto club.A spare key.Any needed medications. I always travel with Extra-Strength Tylenol for headaches, Advil for muscle aches, and Claritin for allergies. (I'm happy to report that I didn't need the Tylenol.)Your Passport and of course your driver's license, registration, and proof of insurance. Establish your safety rules. It's easy to make wrong decisions in the moment when you don't have firm rules in place. Mine were: Never let the gas tank go below 1/2 west of the Mississippi or 1/4 east.No hiking alone in large parks. Marked trails in small parks were okay. No alcohol until the car is parked for the night. I also had a soft rule of only one glass of wine per night, which I bent twice for craft cocktails. But most nights, the only thing I drank was water. No stopping on the shoulder for photographs, no matter how beautiful the scenery. Stop only at designated overlooks and turn-outs. You might notice a few places in my narratives with metaphoric descriptions of landscapes and no pictures to match; that's why. 3) Lodging that Suits Your Style Lots of travellers are comfortable at hostels and campgrounds. If you're one of them, you might want to skip this part. I prefer luxury hotels, but they're not practical for one-night stops along the road. For road trips, I like a combination of casino, casual-convenient, and extended-stay hotels. Casino Hotels Casino hotels are a great option for women travelling alone, because: They're safe. There are cameras and security personnel everywhere. In casino towns, you can even walk alone at night, because they're all lit up, and there are lots of cops around. They're inexpensive. They're not in business to make money on the rooms, so you can usually stay for cheap or even for free. They usually have reasonably priced or even complementary valet parking. The big ones have rewards credit cards without annual fees, making them a better bet than most travel credit cards, and you also earn points redeemable as cash with their player's cards. There's always something to do. There are restaurants and bars, spas and pools, and of course table games and slot machines. These casino brands have hotels in multiple locations: Caesars Caesars has properties all over the country. Along with its namesake, its brands include Horseshoe, Harrah's, Bally's, and others. Its properties range from luxury to well-at-least-it's-comped. The two nicest hotels where I stayed on my recent road trip were Caesars properties. Its rewards program is Caesars Rewards. MGM MGM is another large network, with properties concentrated in Las Vegas and then scattered primarily through the South and the mid-Atlantic. Most have unique names. They range from luxury to mid-scale. Its rewards program is MLife. Boyd Boyd Gaming has 18 midscale properties in Nevada, the South, and the midwest. Most have unique names. Its rewards program is B Connected. El Dorado El Dorado has 26 midscale properties in the South, the West, and the midwest. Along with its namesake, its affiliated brands include Tropicana, Isle, Lady Luck, and others, with independent rewards programs. As of this writing, El Dorado has announced plans to acquire Caesars next year. Casual-Convenient Hotels These properties tend to be easily accessible from the road. They're often called limited-service hotels, because they lack upscale amenities like spas and bars, valet service, and shopping esplanades. But they do have what long-term road trippers want: big open parking lots, gyms, breakfast in the morning and cookies at night and coffee and tea all day, and usually microwaves and refrigerators in the rooms. My go-to brand has long been Hampton by Hilton, because they're ubiquitous and reliably clean and comfortable and reasonably priced. Hilton's rewards program is HHonors. I did have one nice stay at the Country Inn & Suites by Radisson in Northwood, Iowa. Two big plusses for this brand are cookies all day and a wonderful lending library system whereby road trippers can take a book at one property and return it at the next. Radisson's frequent-travel program is Radisson Rewards. Extended-Stay Hotels For longer stops, I prefer extended-stay hotels. Like their casual-convenient counterparts, they offer complimentary breakfast in the morning and sometimes receptions in the evening. The rooms have fully equipped kitchens with real dishes and glassware, things you miss after weeks on the road. My favorite brand is Residence Inn by Marriott. They're reliably clean and reasonably priced. The gyms and laundry rooms are large and well equipped. The televisions are Netflix-ready for use with your own account. They have a complimentary same-day grocery-shopping service. And there's microwave popcorn in the kitchen, which I never have at home, but can't resist when I'm curling up with a Netflix flick after a long day of driving or writing or laundry or all three. Marriott's rewards program is Bonvoy. 4) Food In my vision for the trip, I thought I'd be alternately dining at local haunts and having happy-hour bites with my single glass of wine at hotel bars. In reality, more often than not, I made myself a small charcuterie board in the hotel room, washed down with water, after I'd finished the tasks on my to-do list. Here's my list of groceries to pack: bottled water half-and-halfcured meats tunacheesesdips cruditesberriesplastic platesplastic cutlerypaper napkinsZiploc bags (more than you think you'll need)a small bottle of dish detergentcold packs 5) A Wardrobe for All Seasons Be prepared for all kinds of weather. After five weeks ranging from hot sun to wet snow (including both in Salt Lake City), here's what I wish I'd packed: Footwear comfortable pumpsversatile, comfy sandalsslip-on sneakershiking bootsrunning shoes flip-flopsslippers8 pr cushy gym socks4 pr ankle socks4 pr thick slouch socks2 pr hose/tights Basics I love Talbots for inexpensive basics that are easy to notch up with the right accessories. 1 comfortable skirt1 pr comfortable cotton pants1 pr designer jeans1 pr mom jeans2 pr cropped pants or Capris3 pr modest shorts4 long-sleeved tops8 short-sleeved tops Dresses 2 day-to-evening dresses3 casual dresses, including at least one that can double as a swim cover-up Outerwear 2 cardigans1 blazer1 windbreaker1 pr winter gloves Hats 3-4 wide-brimmed hats2-3 baseball caps1 warm knit hat Accessories 3 scarves3 belts: wide, medium, thin Activewear 2 pr gym shorts1 pr sweats1 modest bathing suit1 bikini Sleepwear 1 comfy cotton nightgown1 pr cozy pajamas 1 modest silk robe Jewelry I hate worrying about losing my jewelry when I travel, so I bring only a few good pieces that I can wear together: 1 pr comfortable earrings1 simple necklace3 rings3 bracelets1 brooch Laundry Supplies lg mesh laundry bagdetergentbleach podsdryer sheets 6) Bags and Baggage 1 sm. crossbody1 med. crossbody1 lg tote1 duffel bag, for 2-3 days worth of clothes1 lg suitcase, for clothes not presently needed1 picnic basket1 sm. soft-sided cooler that fits inside the picnic basket1 laptop bag1 camera bag packing cubes: Not only do they keep your suitcase organized, but they also help you keep tidy in hotel rooms that inexplicably don't have dressers with drawers. a collapsible wagon: If you take one piece of advice from this whole long post, take this one. I bought my little blue wagon to carry wine-and-cheese picnics to outdoor concerts and the beach. I use it more to lug groceries up to my 11th-storey condo. But it was a lifesaver not only for loading and unloading the car but also for carting the wash to and from hotel laundry rooms. 7) A Fitness Plan You have to be intentional about fitness or it will be too easy to blow off. I resolved before I left to spend an hour exercising every morning before I hit the road, unless I knew I'd be doing significant movement during the day. Most days I either used a treadmill in the hotel gym or went for a long walk in the fresh air. I also did ten crunches every morning while the coffee was brewing and lifted weights once or twice each week. I brought along my favorite work-out DVDs, yoga mat, hand weights, ankle weights, and resistance bands--and didn't take them out of the car once. The good news: I hit my 10,000-step goal every day, and usually far exceeded it, according to my fitbit, and I lost eight pounds. The bad news: It wasn't enough; I lost muscle tone because I didn't do enough strength training. If I'd known then what I know now, here's what I'd do: every morning: 10 crunches and five burpees5-6 times/week: 3-4 miles jogging or brisk walking3-4 times/week: strength training when possible: climb stairs 8) Money Rewards Credit Cards There are a lot of rewards credit cards out there, and it's worth selecting a few that will help maximize what you can reap back from your travels (and put toward your next journey!). Here's the balance that worked for me: 2 cards that pay an unlimited blanket rate of at least 1.5 percent (a go-to card and a back-up). Citibank's Double Cash card pays 1 percent back when you make purchases and 1 percent when you pay your bill; it has no annual fee. 1-2 casino branded cards. Caesars offers a Visa with benefits that include Caesars Rewards Platinum status (the lowest elite tier) for $5,000 in annual spending. It has no annual fee, and even low rollers can get nice rooms comped with it. If your credit is good enough, you may qualify for a Visa Signature, with its additional travel perks, like room upgrades and late check-out. 2-3 cards that pay at least 4 percent cash back for some of your major road-trip expenses. The Discover it Card offers a blanket 1 percent cash back on most items, and 5 percent on quarterly categories, like restaurants and gas stations, on up to $1,500 in purchases. It has no annual fee and will double all the cash back you earn during your first year. Cash Some people don't feel comfortable with a lot of cash; some people only feel comfortable with a lot of cash. Bring the amount you feel comfortable with. Just make sure to carry enough $5s and $1s for tips. And bring quarters for laundry; most hotels can sell you a roll, but I wouldn't count on it. Don't forget your ATM card(s). 9) Electronics and Entertainment Your list will depend somewhat on your personal preferences, but here are my road-trip must-haves: phone and chargers: I like my iPhone SE because it's small but has a good camera.earbuds: I save the ones they give out on planes and use them to catch up with the morning news while I exercise. laptop and charger: The only laptop I want to take on the road is my MacBook Air, because it's thin and light.cameras, chargers, cables, tripod: My big camera is a Nikon D3100 DSLR, which I often use with this tripod. I use my Sony DSC-W70 when lugging a DSLR is impractical; it's lightweight and takes good videos. a variety of things to listen to: I brought around 100 CDs, from classical to Christian (which was great for singing along in praise of God's creation), and swapped them out in the mornings before I hit the road, and I still got bored with them. I would add educational CDs from the Teaching Company and some Rosetta Stone to polish up one of my rusty languages. There are also podcasts and audio books, if you enjoy them. reading material: I like to bring a lot of magazines when I travel, because I can leave them for someone else to enjoy and lighten my load as I go. On the other hand, I usually limit myself to one book, because they're heavy. journal(s)/notebook(s): It's easy to forget things on the road, whether it's how your heart soared seeing a family of deer scamper through the Black Hills or the tour hours at Southfork Ranch. Write them down. I love these notebooks. 10) The Right Mind-Set A solo road trip is a wonderful opportunity, but it can be physically and emotionally grueling. Driving hours a day for weeks is tiring, and there's no one to take the wheel when you want a break. Things will go wrong. You may get lost. I took an hour-long detour through the Mojave Desert in California because I overshot my turn to Laughlin, Nevada. You may get scared. I've developed a weird phobia of overpasses that are so high I can't see the ground. You may get lonely. I missed my late mother, with whom I took my previous cross-country road trips, and I cried from Arizona to New Mexico. You have to set your mind to accept these kinds of things before you go. You have to allow yourself to feel emotional swings without being overwhelmed by them. You have to believe that the rewards are worth the risks. (And if you can't, that's okay, and it's better to realize it; long-term solo road tripping is not for everybody, and there are lots of other ways to travel.) I never questioned. No matter how sad or scared I became, I loved being on the road, and being on my own. And I slept better than I have in years.
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The Edible Computer Show Gets a Makeover! New Year .. New Look ... New Mission ... In the 8 years I''ve had the pleasure of sharing this column on the air with CBC listeners I''ve been able to test drive a lot of intrinsically cool technologies. It not only makes my job a great deal of fun, it gives me the opportunity to reinvent my own sphere of work and play. Anything worth doing is worth keeping fresh, and that means reinventing. Given this is the start of another year, it seemed like a good time to put my money where my mouth is. Call this an experiment, an adventure and an invitation to help make the time I have with you on Monday mornings last a little longer, mean a little more and truly be an example of the way that people -can- live better through computers. I''m inviting you to be a columnist with me, to step into the role of a curious, enthusiastic explorer who is passionate about sharing things that work: technology-enabled community DNA. I''ve always been drawn to the social side of technology: how people are using tools to reinvent and empower their own lives and the world around them. I''ve chosen to use a collaborative tool called a wiki in order to foster a more participatory life for this column as it approaches it''s 9th year, and I''m excited about finding new ways of pushing the limits to see how was can all tell our own stories about the ways that we are using computers to cultivate happier, healthier and more fulfilled communities and lives. I hope I''ll have the good fortune of connecting with many of you here on a more personal level, and that you''re as excited as I am about storytelling, because it''s a powerful tool for change. Confession: I don''t have it all figured out ~grins~. In fact, that''s not by accident but rather by design. I wanted to find a simple, intuitive place to start, and to invite you to join me in exploring the best tools for collaborating, working, and playing and to begin applying them here. As I said, this is an experiment and an opportunity to have a little fun. I know we''ll all have lots of stories to tell! On your radio dial: 1550 am Windsor ... 88.1 fm Chatham ... 90.3 fm Sarnia.
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VillaconMundial | La Voz de Villa Consuelo The speedy evolution connected with rock audio Rock Popular music & it has the Rapid Advancement Introduction Songs has been having man since dawn of your energy. Every conquer or appear can getting be considered in the form of form of songs. Dating back towards early fella music happens to be something as simple as the comforting sound to a waterfall or possibly a tree unsteadiness with the the wind or a wild animal performing through a natrual enviroment. Today music is so diversified and so engrained in our everyday life that almost every youngster or young adults & also an adult contains a vast set of songs that they can might take note of on their audio players. There are various varied branches of favorite songs existing at this time. These companies have now enlarged to involve everything from the tribal music to most things that comes out of any synthesizer. And even although look for music in a great many forms at present, I'm absolutely sure the idealists would refuse with what the youth of today call great music. Now-a-days it seems typically the search is actually on for that "in music". Music that is making anyone feel good at this time and which is discarded inside a heartbeat the moment something a great deal better comes along. Precisely what is it which includes made ordinary music visit so stable all these several years? The reason why We have chosen Rock music intended for my class paper issue is that, I truly am really passionate about this kind of genre of music. Coarse Music or perhaps Rock as it is so called will be vastly often neglected by individuals, most of who simply correlate it using negative stereotypes like drug addiction, alcohol dependency facts, violence, sexual abuse, demonic control along with vices. An individual cannot responsibility people for having these types of misconceptions about Rock considering that over the years most of the famous Natural stone artists have come to be referred to mainly for their own drug dependancy and other stupendous behaviour under the influence of alcohol and toxic chemicals. However it is vital to understand that certain must independent the artisan from his particular music not pass pointless judgment on the music just based on the vices of the specialit. Another misunderstanding is that natural stone is only percussion and guitar, when that could be only individuals face involving Rock. The good news is host involving other tools that are important elements to really are fun music as one, other than basically guitar and percussion. Coarse Music -- History & Origins I may now always like to begin with the History of Stone music. Just where did it start? What are their roots? Ways has it developed along the ages? What is the circumstance at present? There are several views as to where the Rock style got right up and planning. And many think Rock originated in the west with the daybreak of Coarse & Spin by Elvis Presley. Even so that is not the case. All this started off during the post-war urbanization of The united states. The popular tunes of the overdue 1940s bundled country new music, folk audio, the reds, rhythm as well as blues (known as R& B), jazz music and ancient music. Generally rock songs hails from a combination of various popular music styles at that time in the country of North america. Rock popular music started off in the late 1940s when folks wanted to go out on their own from the gradual beat punk music along with the slow electrified blues audio to a with more speed beat & rhythm brimming tune at that time. The rock sound will be believed to possess primarily came with the any guitar. It is believed that the active guitar tracks used in yellows music appeared to be soon mixing up in with other forms of music like folk, classical music, folk popular music and other preferred forms of audio existing good. All this generated the beginning of Natural stone music to be a separate sort of favorite songs which previously came to be called Rock a few Roll towards the early 1950's. Around that point i. electronic. the delayed 1940's to early 1950's Rhythm in addition to Blues (R& B) artists mainly targeted on the dark audience. Even so later onwards musicians started playing for one multi-racial customers. These music artists and bands also themed the modern forms or even blends about music toward this customers. Later on the fast overcom blends regarding R& B and the troubles etc came into existence coined since 'Rock d Roll'. "It is assumed that for 1951 within a town with Cleveland, Oh in STATES a artist by the name of Joe Freed has been said to have began playing a new form of R& B audio for a multi-racial audience & is regarded an have 1st used the term 'Rock 'N' Roll' to indicate his songs. " Supply: Icons involving Rock instructions Scott Schinder with Andy Schwartz & Encyclopaedia Britannica - Rock Music. Really are fun Music tutorial Evolution Rock and roll music can be believed to be those types of genres of music containing evolved really rapidly during the last 50 for you to 60 many years. Its high-speed evolution is witnessed mostly over the last 50 years. It all initiated with good old Rock a few Roll in the exact 1950's. That later advanced in the 1960's which was thought of as a Golden Era for Rock audio. Rock required a totally diverse turn along with the British invasion of ordinary by the Beatles. This was soon after followed by what exactly came to be often known as Surf tunes in America that had been a mix of typically the catchy really are fun n rotate n often the hip in addition to happening Beatles music. The exact Beatles new music also led to a new type of music that is called because the hippy plus psychedelic really are fun music. In the 1970's which will came to be identified as the memorable years advanced different different rock popular music such as Tough Rock, A-hole Rock & also Put Rock. The very 1980's viewed a change within the band members' hair styles. That era at the same time was recognized for what was named as curly hair bands. That included varieties rock which include punk stone & funk rock. That led to the exact evolution about Heavy Metal. Groups used to wear well leather dirt bike pants and carried insane extended hairdos. Typically the 1990's exhibited a completely completely new and outrageous evolution of rock. Them gave more recent forms of natural stone such as Grunge Rock & Alternative Ordinary. It presented the revolutionary any guitar distortion & feedback. Most genres with the 1950's onwards till the very 1999's continue to be well known right now. Most of the bandz in people eras are nevertheless popular right now. Many of today's bands still play all the styles of rock music. A few of them even get remakes of them songs implementing modern day kinds and instruments. The afterward half of 2000 also witness something that very well came to be often known as fusion favorite songs. It anxious bringing together conventional music (Western or Indian) and blending it in with modern day natural stone music. This unique style right now is very popular specially in our country among all of our Indian youngsters that have combined the Native indian classical instruments very properly with assets like the any guitar, keyboard, carambolage, etc . The particular 1950's The actual 1950's afforded rise to the Youth culture. It suffering problems like racial tensions & the advent of the main Cold War. This earliest saw typically the advent of Really are fun n Move with fantastic artists including Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Rich, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Dark areas, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley & often the Comets, Gene Vincent, the Everly Friends, and Carl Perkins, among the many others. These were considered to be the first wave associated with Rock some remarkable Rollers. Good ole' in its initially stage has been described as simply just blues by electric guitar audio attached to them. In its purest form, Really are fun & Move was as basic as about three chords, a solid yet insistent guitar to come back beat, together with a catchy tune. Early natural stone & spin was sucked from sources mainly including pinks, R& H, and nation, but also gospel, traditional put, jazz, together with folk. Those genres were definitely combined together in a straightforward, blues-based melody structure which has been fast, danceable, and catchy. Rockabilly come about in the mid1950's. It is only a mix of rock 'n roll, country audio, blues, along with a little spruce too. Obtained a fundamental audio genre belonging to the 50's. The actual father's and also founders with Rock some remarkable Roll emerged t be known as Costs Haley, Elvis Presley, Bit of Richard & Chuck Maqui berry. Their audio revolutionized the music industry and later it was gave strategy to new varieties of rock song in the many decades to follow. Within today's situations their tunes is still favored. Rockabilly appeared to be popularized by means of white singers like Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins & Jerry Lee Lewis who typically concentrated on the country sources of the music. The Popular visits recorded around that time was "That's Okay (Mama)" - Elvis Presley, "Heartbreak Hotel" - Elvis Presley, "Rock Around the Clock" - Charge Haley & the Comets, "Folsom Living hell Blues" -- Johnny Funds, "Blue Suede Shoes" tutorial Carl Kendrick. Another popular form of Rock n Are collected the 1950's was called the 'Doo Wop'. It emphasized on multi-part vocal harmonies and insignificant backing words of the melody & helped with lumination instrumentation. It is origins were being African American vocal groups similar to the Inkspots & the Mill Brothers. Famous bands on this form of songs were The actual Orioles, Often the Ravens and The Clovers, the fact that used a substantial element of traditional gospel new music in their songs. The great hits included "The Great Pretender" - The actual Platters, "Yakety Yak" - The Coasters & "Yes Sir, That's my Baby" - The exact Clovers coupled with many others. Down the road during the 1950's Elvis Presley came to be named the California king of Rock n Function. Even today he has still commemorated as 'The King'. The actual decline about Rock a few Roll has been witnessed in the early 1960's with the dying of popular musicians including Buddy Holy and Richie Valens inside of a plane wreck; the travel of Elvis Presley in the army, the actual retirement about Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions regarding Jerry Lee Lewis and Place Berry and also the breaking of your payola scandal. All of the preceding incidents provided a sexual enjoyment that the good ole' era provides come to a stop. However during its diminish rock in the roll observed a feminine area with an intro to probiotics benefits of love ballads targeted to a female audience & the surge of female groups for example the Crystals and then the Shirelles. The many events the fact that occurred in the very 1950's at some point led to what precisely came to be generally known as Surf Popular music, Garage Ordinary & the main Twist dancing craze. Risk major celebration that was successful in the 1960's was those of the climb of Language Rock in Roll while using emergence with the Beatles which had been greatly affected by the America's 1950's Rock and roll n Roll. The 1960's The 1960's witnessed a lot of events that adheres to that of the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Showdown, Surf Popular music, Hippie customs, The Bay area Scene, The Music of Protests & typically the birth with Heavy Metal. Also Rock some remarkable Roll in the particular 1960's had 4 development or elements. These sections are the following: Part As i - Often the Beatles & The British isles Invasion Element II - Motown New music Part 3 - Typical Rock: The exact Sounds on the 1960's Section IV aid Message New music Before 1963 i letusdothehomework.com/. at the. 1961 onwards America noticed the rise of Ocean Music some sort of Rock and Roll. This particular music has been pioneered by way of Duane Eddy, Link Wray, and The Efforts that put in distinctive "wet" reverb design & speedy alternate choosing to the popular music. One of the well-known hits has been "Let's Visit Trippin" in 1961 and this announced the ocean music trend. The in history favourite string quartet of this years is The Beach Boys. Area I - The Beatles & Often the British Incursion During this decades i. y. post 1963 America and the rest of the universe witnessed just what exactly came to be well-known only simply because 'The English Invasion'. While in the 1960's the most well find out and globally renowned band with the British offensive was the one and only Beatles. Often the Beatles till today are believed to be to be the in history success stories of the 1960's. The reason the Beatles are considered the most effective and most powerful rock groups of all time would be the because they had taken what Elvis and other Good ole' n Move artists established in the 1950's and metamorphosed it towards a whole new distinct thing. That's why this years is known as a bed that gave birth and labor to a modern of Ordinary. The Beatlemania had began with its first of all single hurt song throughout 1962 "Love Me Do" in Great Britain. Along with the Rock a few Roll of your 1950's the very Beatles widely popularized new genre of good ole' music including ranging from folks rock that will psychedelic appear. The Beatles were thus influential through the 1960's this their modern ideals had been considered to be cultural & societal revolutions. Several other great visitors of the Beatles include "I Wanna Store Your Hand" which offered 2 . 6th million copies in the United States in barely two weeks. The particular Beatles came out with many visitors during this years such as "She Loves You", "Please Please Me", and so forth Other growing bands within this era enclosed The Dork Clark Five, The Kinks & Typically the Rolling Stones. The In business Stones finest hit during this period was "Honky Tonk Woman" Part II - Motown Music Motown was a Detroit based track record company this was founded through Berry Gordy who was some one-time flow line worker within Ford Motor. It became essentially the most successful dark-colored owned history company by means of 1963. Motown had many vocal communities, songwriters & musicians. The background music recorded appeared to be known for her "tight orchestrations and catchy lyrics". The music was according to the injustice to the black locality during the Municipal War. The exact Motown greats were The particular Temptations, The actual Four Passes, Martha Reeves & typically the Vandellas as well as Diana Ross & Typically the Supremes. Area III -- Classic Really are fun: The Tones of the 1960's This era witnessed the fact that was known as the Hippe tradition. Their significant chant seemed to be 'Make Enjoy Not War'. Peace has been their actual theme. The Beatles is amongst the famous groups that transitioned during this period in terms of their own look along with music. Various other artist installed to everyday living were Jefferson Airplane, Elegance Slick, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, The Doors, Steppenwolf, Clair & Garfunkel, Mamas and also the Pappas and also Lovin Spoonful. The famous show of this age was The Woodstock. This was some sort of concert regarding promoting contentment, love & brotherhood. Artists like Jimi Hendrix shook up the conjunction. Part IV - Note Music A good number of themes in rock and roll on this era addressed love and even relationships removed wrong. It all followed the war on Vietnam & the variety of protests getting undertaken. The music was a trial to magnify upon the government actions occurring at this time like the civilizado rights exercise, the expanding unrest above the war around Vietnam, along with the rise about feminism. The main "message" inside song aimed at peace. Quite a few songs gained substantial airplay and became "anthems" at concert events, rallies, in addition to demonstrations. The main Message thru Folk Tunes & Often the Message by Rock Tunes The most well known artists to emerge from the particular folk custom include Joe Dylan, Nancy Baez, Phil Ochs, and also the trio identified as Peter, Paul holmes, and Betty. In 1965, a strong artist, Barry McGuire strong ! the charts with a song that resembled the escalating turmoil on the globe. Other favorite hippy and even psychedelic artists such as White Floyd, The actual Who, The very Rolling Gemstones, The Yardbirds, the Happier Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, and others did start to rule the earth. These bands provided rise on the counterculture exercise, trendsetters, by their drug caused lyrics together with hypnotic tunes. Other genres of ordinary began to come out such as progressive rock and that is experimenting with many other instruments except for guitar, muskie and pieces. This was prominent by Pinkish Floyd. Men or women rock ended up being popularized by just Bob Dylan and Janis Joplin. Typically the 1960's inevitably gave your pregnancy to heavy metal and rock which is a thicker, heavy, and highly amplified genre involving rock primarily popularized through Black Sabbath. The world had been just now starting out witness the particular tremendous electrical power & impact rock seriously had about society. The particular 1970's From the 1970's the Vietnam World war had was concluded, the protests stopped & people begun to settle down. Along with that, the background music too performed settle down. The whole world witnessed often the split on the Beatles & also often the death regarding John Lennon. The 70's rock audio brought various cultures and even audiences more together than you ever have. Rock music began to part out straight into new races like Tough Rock, Heavy metal and rock & Punk Rock. Directed Zeppelin became extremely popular using its perfect mix of Hard Coarse & Sorrow music how they could phone call its own. In that era bands and artists and painters such as Brian Bowie, Indeed, The Eagles, and California king became very influential. Concerning the late 70's the world furthermore witnessed often the rise of Punk Rock and roll. The starting up fathers connected with punk had been The Ramones. They blended thoroughly anarchism along with teenage wrath with rock 'n roll and this came to be known as Punk Rock. Various other bands for example the Sex Pistols and The Clash helped popularize and redefine punk rock. This new, highly effective and forceful genre about music affected many groups of the future. The exact 1980's Thereafter came typically the 1980's. Good ole' Music improved itself in a manner that everyone was going to be part of the very upcoming field. The music required a different switch, more in relation to punk coarse, new tide, heartland really are fun and choice rock. The majority of people would consider the 80's as interesting features of big hairdos and androgyny. The gay and lesbian activists required to inside of a big simply by this several years. People begun embracing one other sex and everybody had coloring in almost everything they did or possibly wore. The inspired often the rock popular music scene dramatically. The eighties saw from enthusiasm to neon pinkish socks, damaged by adult males. Creativity was expressed which means that greatly within the 1980's and also artists put on their identity with golden technologies. The 1980's music picture is probably considered as amongst the strangest moments in the advancement of stone music. Music artists were carrying out everything, a variety of00 bubblegum appear, sentimental always ballads to be able to thumping utility beats and perhaps the hardest good ole' metal. This particular decade pretty much saw it. Artist including Bruce Springsteen, Guns as well as Roses, Viajan Halen, AC/DC, Aerosmith, Flat iron Maiden, Metallica, Bon Jovi, and Motley Crue can best end up being remembered for his or her power ballads and excellent guitar solos. A new type of music called like 'New wave' also blossomed from dick, funk, and even disco. It turned out made well-known by music artists such as Estrella, The B-52's, Talking Head, and Blondie. Indie coarse or Renewable rock currently well known begun to emerge in the late 1980's with artists for instance U2, R. E. Meters., The Cure, The main Smiths, and Sonic Youngster were very fashionable with young people. Punk moreover became more popular with rings such as Dark colored Flag and then the Dead Kennedys. This was at the same time the time for producers. They are importance matured and musicians took our own a good the manufacturer could take most of their records for the market. Subsequently came often the advent of possessing soundtracks with movies. File companies had any idea the economics in placing song inside a movie, the response was basically tremendous. Regardless of variety, the background music is the eighties was a huge hit, this still is. In addition to that's considering that the music mention the imagination of the people, it all made zero apologies, you can identify with the slow ballad by Phil Collins within the afternoon and set up their particular black leather-based jacket, rocking to In terms of iron Maiden by means of night time, everyone dint need to apologize that will anyone. Flexibility of manifestation, experimenting along with lyrics grew to be an integral part of the main eighties. Which is precisely the good reason that the eighties they say can not ever die. The actual 1990's The early to mid 90's was basically known as typically the era connected with grunge along with alternative rock. Nirvana was known as the most common grunge wedding band of the 90's. Grunge song can be described as dusty guitar, robust guitar riffs with distortion and opinions. It contains dark words of the tune and attributed teenage worry. Popular grunge and choice bands ended up Pearl Jam, Nirvana, Jane's Addiction in addition to Alice around Chains. A very iconic scene was associated with the occurence of female artists. Women were becoming much less dependent on men, and fewer oriented on the way to having a family-based future. These folks were daughters of girls who fought for same rights they usually expressed it- in the form of terms and information. The paper, Billboard contributed to the financial success within the music marketplace. It altered the way it ranked available girls and albums of music artists by tallying actual income at retailers instead of with the industry-manipulated word of mouth marketing. Rock unexpectedly beat pop in terms for sales, and "minority" genre such as state and hip-hop began to enter the charts. That led the industry to invest a lot more in these fraction genres. The 1990's demonstrated that music appeared to be for the crowd and that the concept behind popular music was to see the artist as one, his construction, his team, his lyrics, his image, his songs video spectacular personality. Anyone had their favorite type of favorite songs and a favourite genre, popular artist together with a favorite cd. You couldn't help it- there were plenty of choices by this time. 2000 aid Present Alternate choice rock even now is one of the famous and largest genre associated with rock songs. Emo, is known as a new sub-contract genre for rock which consists of extreme emotional words of the tune with serious punk root. It was widely popularized by rings like Through First for you to Last, Often the Used, Brand New and softer bands for example Dashboard Confessional and Brilliant Eyes that may also be identified as indie. The word "indie" literally stands for unbiased and is the term for bands that are part of a private record tag. However , at this time indie includes a whole new that means. Indie serves as a mainly up until now hidden and better version of other rock. Well-liked indie bands and artists include Passing away Cab meant for Cutie, The very Strokes, Elliott Smith, The Decemberists, The particular Arcade Fire, The Misiva Service & a few many others. Heavy metal has now reached a really new degree. Sub-genres regarding heavy metal just like black combination, death stainlesss steel and thrash metal which is certainly very deafening, aggressive and fast approached the industry. Preferred hardcore metal bands include Slipknot, Because i Lay Coloring, Korn, Indicacion Jean and also Cannibal Depouille. Alternative stone has now grow to be an all effort hit utilizing bands that include Incubus, Pink Hot Chili Peppers, Chevelle, Coldplay, and also the Foo Mma fighters. Pop ordinary is another common genre. It is rock combined with a more general approach together with popular song lyrics. Pop rock bands can include Fall Out Youngster, All-American Rejects, Ashlee Simpson, Avril Lavigne, and others. One other form of favorite songs that came in relation to was the hiphop rock. People symbolized the actual fusion with the raw, streets music and also hard natural stone pelting sounds. It was a fast hit along with the fans with both the categorie. Examples of these kinds of were Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Religious beliefs no More, Rage Against the Machines, etc Really are fun Music inside the Indian Predicament Rock favorite songs caught about in Asia during the the middle of 70's. From the hearing reports of my dad and his friends in small time bands actively playing the good oldies like Elvis Presley, The actual Carpenters, Typically the Beatles, The particular Shadows, Joe Dylan and various other artists their guitars. Just read was many these types of small online communities which were predominantly Catholics which played the many dance volumes mainly for marriage ceremonies & the Christmas flow. These were the main jive & the turn numbers that others used to love to dance in order to back in the day. In regards towards the 80's artists like Directed Zeppelin, Ominous Straits & Jethro Tull became noiseless popular. People used to order these music cassettes in addition to listen to these kinds of music particular audio cassette players & Sony Walkman. That nonetheless was a quite a while ago. Points soon transformed with the Gulf of mexico War for 1991 opening the entrance to medium in The indian subcontinent. MTV was initially one of the options that were beamed, along with CNN. Apart from Put music what exactly caught at quickly had been rock. Nevertheless as an viewers, the amounts in Asia were yet minimal. It previously was only bands like Outl Leppard, Note Jovi and also U2 that will caught the fancy of a lot of people. For a large extent, rock began and concluded with Profound Purple's Interstate Star. The love for rock only designed name-dropping and wanting to tone fashionably edgy. All that adjusted quickly converted to from the calendar year 2000 onwards. Hard rock and roll quickly snagged on in conjunction with its in the us Heavy Metal and is also literally worshipped in many technological innovation colleges across India. Numerous groups are formed in a number of areas where the exact rock landscape is still lively. These include Goa, Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune & Delhi. A lot of popular India bands come from these kind of areas and still have composed rather famous bites that are well recognized to the Indian native Rockers. Many engineering educational facilities still shell out tribute for you to Rock by hosting Natural stone shows in which fans from various parts from the country hasty to gather head bang with harmony. The earliest rock band with India to get famous seemed to be Indus Creed. Famous Native american rock rings of today comprise of bands for example Zero, Pentagram, Parikrama, These individuals Clones plus various some. One taking place rock displays of Mumbai used to be often the Independence Really are fun gig on Rang Bhavan popularly often known as I-Rock which used to be jam-packed and packed as it was seriously popular and had rings playing with all over the country. Away from late very good of i-rock has deceased down because of the change in time and venue due to specific restrictions. Some other new genre of rock music containing probably advanced in The land of india is Fusion rock that involves blending Of india classical equipment with that on the electric guitar, key pad & accus. This is whatever is definitely springing up in the country together with rock melodies in Hindi rather than English language and even in Hinglish. I even now feel that you can find very poor liberalization for Coarse music in your country but since time goes by by elements will definitely are considered getting better. You evident simply to Channel V's 'Launch Pad' that arises every year the fact that hunts to search for the Countries most well liked and ideal Rock band. Alongside Channel Sixth v, MTV even offers started one thing called seeing that Rock with Desi Beats that hunts for fusion rock groups of the region and popularizes the best. One other evident undeniable fact that rock tunes is reeling in up easily was the release of the dvd 'Rock On' directed by just & with Farhan Akhtar. Conclusion For that reason I ardently believe that Natural stone music which consists of legendary Past can never perish out. It will probably always be a component of culture and may always be find out as truley what shapes customs & firmly affects world. It is lastly meant for customers to understand that Stone is just with regards to the music and also the passion this drives inside youth. It should not be stereotyped with drug abuse alcoholism & other bassesse. For this to happen this gives lingual braces the people that need to change their valuable ways along with it is essential in the famous performers to set a example as they owe the idea to their lovers as much as that they owe it to the new music. Another important element is that although opportunities near your vicinity for Coarse music have become low & it is extremely hard to become significant, society need to encourage the kids that have a desire for this new music.
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Skillful Relating Copy My job is to make your relationships easier. Over the last four years I have helped thousands of people to have more successful, satisfying, and skilful relationships. We spend our whole lives in relationship; with our friends, our parents, our partners, our colleagues and our children. Our pattens in relationship play out in big and small ways in almost every moment of our lives, which, when it’s not going well can feel confusing and overwhelming. We feel stuck. Having the same argument over and over again is exhausting, whether it''s with your boss or your partner. But when we make even a small change to the ways in which we relate, it can have massive impacts in every area of our life.
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Sandeep Dhopate Born into a family of engineers, photography was not my first choice of a career. I followed a preset and as many would say, “safe”, path by pursuing an education in engineering. When I finished my formal training in Computer Engineering from Mumbai University, another preset trajectory propelled me towards higher studies in the US. I acquired a Masters degree in Computer Science. Soon after graduating, I was inundated with lucrative job offers from various IT companies in the US. Needless to say, the universal lure of material gains tempted me to take up one of these offers and thus began a 12 year long stint in the corporate world. Starting as a humble computer programmer I slowly climbed up the corporate ladder to finally be the Vice President of a media firm heading Project Management and Product Development. But through all those years, there was one hobby I pursued consistently. A hobby that provided me an escape from my daily qualms. Deep down, there was no peace or satisfaction in the work I was doing. That, coupled with some family issues, added fuel to the fire and I gradually started realising that this hobby called “Photography” was not just a hobby for me. It was something I was doing to connect with myself. By observing the world around me, I searched for meaning in my life and tried to find ways to reason with all that was unacceptable. And then one day, I decided to forgo all bindings that kept me from feeling connected. I had a gut feel that making images was my raison d’être. After letting go of all my material belongings, my safe job and my personal attachments, I took up a life of a nomad. Its been 6 years now and the wanderer within me is raring to explore more, question more and discover more. My work displays a blend of distinctive artistic vision nurtured with vivid personal experiences and a technical finesse mastered through several years of application. I produce works that create a visual impact strong enough to draw a viewer in and induce contemplation. Over a short period I have received several awards, and my work is regularly displayed at exhibitions and photo festivals both in India and internationally. A wanderer at heart, my work continues to explore the overlap between spirituality and sensuality, often questioning contemporary beliefs established through a collective blind acceptance of a generalised truth.
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Josie Holford: Rattlebag and Rhubarb |  We awaited demobilisation All that winter of 1918 While we toiled in the grime of Taranto Loading ammo and cleaning latrines When they treated the whites to a pay rise It was like someone lobbed a grenade All our years of resentment exploded Saying, to hell with their rules and parades From No Parades by Chris Hoban. Listen here: Chris Hoban's song pretty much sums up the experience of the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR) in WW1. (And do give it a listen - it's haunting in its story-telling and evocation of the music of the period.) It's a story of how racism bigotry and mistreatment betrayed the loyalty, patriotism and courage of 15,000 men all of whom volunteered to fight for the Empire. It's also a story of mutiny, colonialism and the kickstart of the movement for self-determination and independence. What first spiked my interest in the BWIR was reading through the names in the record book of the Taranto Town Cemetery Extension. The Town Cemetery was used for British and Empire burials from June 1915 to April 1919, but by January 1918, it was necessary to open a military extension. After the Armistice the 102 Commonwealth burials in the town cemetery were removed to this extension. There are now 449 WW1 Commonwealth burials in the extension. There among the names of the dead are 147 from the British West Indies Regiment. Why were they there and what had happened to them? I started to get interested in the history of the regiment and that of course led to the Taranto mutiny of the winter of 1918-1919. Here's the story. Background to the Mutiny Taranto is an industrial town on the Mediterranean. Italy entered the war on the Allied side in May 1915 and the Royal Navy began using Taranto as a Mediterranean base soon thereafter. Taranto became a key transit point on the supply lines to and from Egypt. Mesopotamia, Palestine and Salonika. Lines of communication were established between the eastern theaters of war that ran then through Taranto, Turin, Lyons and Le Mans to Cherbourg It's where ships came in to re-coal and where troops passed through on their way from the near east to the Western Front or back to Britain. A huge tented encampment was set up to accommodate them and No 79 General and No 6 Labour Hospitals followed with more permanent brick and concrete structures added over time. It was a base and rest camp and labour units, including the 8th, 10th and 11th Battalions, British West Indies Regiment, were brought in to service the camp as well as load and unload the ships and trains. In 1915 the British War Office - which had initially opposed recruitment of West Indian troops - created the British West Indies Regiment (BWIR). It served in Europe, the Middle East and Africa. In spite of promises made at the time of recruitment, BWIR did not give black soldiers from the West Indies the opportunity to fight as equals alongside white soldiers. Instead, the War Office largely limited this trained infantry regiment to labour duties. Over 15,600 West Indian men volunteered for the BWIR, two-thirds of whom were from Jamaica. Others came from Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, the Bahamas, British Honduras, Grenada, British Guiana (now Guyana), the Leeward Islands, St Lucia and St Vincent. 185 were killed and 1,071 died of illness as a result of the war. The first battalions of the BWIR were stationed on the Suez Canal and were first used as labour battalions. They saw front line service in Palestine and Jordan serving with distinction as part of General Allenby's force that drove out the Turks and contributed to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. They earned medals and commendations for bravery and were mentioned in despatches. Later BWIR battalions were sent to the Western Front and then to Italy where they served in auxiliary roles that included digging trenches, construction of roads and gun emplacements, acting as stretcher bearers, loading ships and trains, and working in ammunition dumps. This was dangerous work often carried out in France and Flanders within range of German artillery and sniper fire. After the Armistice in November 1918, eight battalions of the BWIR – 8000 or so men - were stationed at Taranto in preparation for demobilization. They were joined by the battalions returning from Egypt and Mesopotamia many of whom had served in combat. Long standing grievances and growing resentment over unfair treatment, pay and promotion issues had been brewing for some time and in early December they erupted. This was a time of uprisings, riots and disturbances across the British Army. Men who had signed on for duration wanted to go home and get on with their lives. Mutiny and revolution were in the air. The BWIR had some very specific long-standing grievances and a growing resentment over unfair treatment, pay and promotion issues and in December 1918 they reached boiling point. The underlying issue was of course the betrayal of the promise made to them at recruitment: that they would be treated on an equal footing with the other regiments of the British army. Instead they had been primarily used for manual labor and treated as 'native" labor battalions and not as front line troops. Although designated as an infantry regiment and entitled to the same terms of service as other British regiments, commanders and officials often subjected the BWIR to the menial conditions dictated for 'native' corps. Military commanders and officials regarded the BWIR as inferior and treated them accordingly. On the Western Front they were excluded from facilities enjoyed by other British soldiers. The medical care and recreational facilities offered to West Indian troops was often inferior as a result. Estaminets – simple civilian-run cafes that offered the ubiquitous egg-and-chips respite from army food - were off-limits for Chinese and African Labour battalions and that restriction was extended to the BWIR, even though they were officially a unit of the British army. When they were wounded or became sick they were treated in 'native' hospitals and received poor treatment. Commissioned officer rank was restricted to those of 'pure" European descent and pay increases, granted to the British army in 1917, were withheld until protests from West Indian soldiers. Equally problematic was the official reluctance to deploy West Indians as combat troops. It meant that they had fewer opportunities to show the battlefield courage so prized by the military; fewer opportunities for medals and decorations. Their contribution - carrying ammunition, loading trains, building roads, railways and gun emplacements, cleaning latrines, cooking, carrying the wounded, digging trenches and graves, clearing the deadly debris of battle - had none of the supposed warrior glamour and glory of the battlefield. Ironically, it was the labour battalions that built the graveyards and cemeteries that are the symbols of remembrance. The Black Soldier's Lament – written by Canadian veteran George A. Borden in the 1980s - reflects the bitter disappointment of the injustice, the sense of shame and loss of manhood. At Taranto, soldiers reported being ostracized: "since we came here, we couldn't understand why these British soldiers they didn't seem to want any attachment with us. We had always seemed to get on good together in Egypt," a soldier from British Guiana recalled. They were given labour duties, loading and unloading ships and trains, as well as being ordered to clean latrines for white units. Meanwhile, sick and wounded BWIR men continued to succumb to illness and disease. In August 1918,12 men from Barbados had signed a respectful petition (you can read it here) outlining their grievances about pay pointing out that soldiers from white regiments had received a pay increase while they – together with "native" regiments - had not. They specifically identified this as a betrayal of the promises made to them at the time of recruitment. In addition, black soldiers had not been permitted to rise through the ranks, despite good recommendations. The Hon. J C Lynch, Chair of the Recruiting Committee, sent a letter in support of the petition indicating the justice of the claims. He also described the respectable (middle class) and often professional or land-owning backgrounds from which these men came. The 12 signatories were Joseph Chamberlain Hope DCM, Vernon G Thomas, Edward E. Packer, Vincent Lionel Talma, Leslie A. Greaves, John Berkeley Johnson, L'Estrand C. Deane, Alexander L. Marshall, Lashington L. Skinner, T Thompson, Herman P.J. Ince, and G.F. Bowen. Nothing came of this petition. After Armistice Day, on November 11 1918, the eight BWIR battalions in Europe were concentrated at Taranto in Italy to prepare for demobilization. They were subsequently joined by the battalions from Egypt and Mesopotamia. The combat veterans arriving in Taranto from the east were subjected to the same discrimination and second class status and treatment as the labour battalions. Brigadier-General Cyril Darcy Vivien Cary-Barnard was base commandant known for his strict segregationist regulations. According to some accounts, the men had been refused leave to enter town and he forbade black soldiers from using facilities alongside white soldiers. They had separate canteens they were not allowed to go to the cinema when white troops were there. When sick they were sent to the 'native' hospital where they received inferior treatment. They were prevented from being able to rise through the ranks. They were employed on fatigues and laboring duties in spite of assurances that this would not happen. All of these men had volunteered to serve and all of this was counter to the promises of equal treatment and opportunity they had been given on recruitment. Discontent was rife at Taranto just as it was across a broad spectrum of the British Army in the weeks after the Armistice. Canadian troops stationed in Britain, for example, staged three major riots. The BWIR had quite specific and particular grievances however, and they arose from the unequal and demeaning treatment they received. Soldiers returning from the Middle East had enlisted first and were ready to be mobilized. They resented being used as porters for white soldiers in transit and they resented being subject to the rigid segregation policies that barred them from equal access to canteens and cinemas. The designation "native" was imposed denying the BWIR access to proper medical facilities Major Thursfield of the 5th battalion protested to the camp commandant Brigadier-General Cyril Darcy Vivien Cary-Barnard about the betrayal of the promises made to the men. Cary-Barnard was a decorated veteran of the Boer War where he served with Lumsden's Horse. He served with distinction on the Western Front. He was decorated for conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty, wounded, mentioned in despatches and promoted. And from October 1917, to 31 January 1919 he was Base Commandant, Taranto. At camp commander, Cary-Barnard had a reputation for harsh discipline and a dismissive attitude toward the legitimate grievances of the men of the BWIR. Field punishment was meted out for even trivial offenses removing the discretion from junior officers whose attitudes he regarded as too lenient. Cary-Barnard's response to Thursfield's protest was abrupt, brutal, racist and dismissive. The men were only niggers… no such treatment should ever have been promised them …they were better fed and treated than any nigger had a right to expect… he would order them to do whatever work he pleased, and if they objected he would force them to do it. On 6 December 1918, sergeants from the BWIR forwarded a petition with 180 names to the Secretary of State repeating the demands of the earlier petition, including for the pay increase granted by Army Order No.1 1918 to all Imperial troops. They also expressed their resentment at being barred from the possibility of rising through the ranks and outlined some of the history of West Indian service in the British forces where this color bar was not observed. They also requested an increase in the separation pay – money that was sent home to help their families. Inflation and war profiteering had led to huge increases in the prices of basic commodities and their families were suffering hardship in their absence. Captain Reginald Elgar Willis of the 9th battalion had travelled with the fifth contingent from Kingston on March 30th 1917. Promoted to Lt.Col., Willis had a reputation as a harsh disciplinarian. On December 6th 1918, ordered his men to clean the latrines used by Italian laborers. They refused and some men surrounded his tent and slashed at it with knives and bayonets before dispersing. There was some shooting and wild talk. Some men made demands that demobilization process be speeded up so that they would be home by Christmas. The next day the 9th and 10th battalions refused to work and there were clashes. They were forcibly disarmed and ordered on a route march. On December 8th, Pte. Samuel Pinnock was killed by Acting Sgt, Robert Richards who was charged with negligently discharging his rifle and was sentenced to four months labor. This was the only fatality during the mutiny period. Unrest and insubordination continued for four days with men refusing refusing orders and refusing to work. Unnerved, the military authorities reacted harshly and swiftly. The camp commander requested support and a battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment and a machine gun company were order to Taranto traveling "in fighting order with ammunition in their pouches". The mutineers were arrested. The 9th battalion was disbanded and the men distributed among the other battalions. The whole regiment was disarmed. Sixty men were charged with mutiny and 47 were found guilty. Most received sentences of between 3-5 years. One man - Pte. Arthur Sanches - who was considered the ringleader - was sentenced to death. This sentence was commuted to 20 years penal servitude. (He did not serve full term as in 1934 he was a member of the delegation that presented a petition to the Governor of Jamaica – Sir Arthur Jelf - requesting improvements to the roads and water service supply on the lands granted to ex servicemen.) Many accounts state that one man was executed for his part in the mutiny. This does not seem to be correct. One man was shot at dawn on January 20th 1919. He was Pte. Albert Denny of the 8th battalion who was executed by firing squad for the murder of Pte. Edgar Hilkiah Best 13573 10th Battalion of Barbados in a robbery on the 5th of September. The British authorities did make concessions and mobilization plans were speeded up. The Colonial Office prevailed on the War Office and in February 1919 the BWIR got, in full, the increased separation allowances withheld from them in the Army Order No.1. Even after the courts-martial the spirit of resistance continued. Some of those who who had been convicted and repatriated to the West Indies staged further revolts; disturbances occurred on the SS Orca which docked at Kingston, Jamaica. There, BWIR men allied themselves with seamen repatriated from Britain to protest their treatment. There was also discontent at Plymouth where in February 1919 four men of the BWIR were found guilty and received 2 years detention. In the midst of an even harsher camp regime enforced after the revolt, on December 17th 50-60 sergeants of the BWIR met and formed the Caribbean League. They held four meetings in December and early January and discussed not only their grievances but also their plans for what to do when they returned home. Out of their discussions emerged a sense of a pan-Caribbean identity and political awakening. They called for greater cooperation between the islands and mainland Caribbean territories and they talked of seeking independence and self-determination. At the second meeting one man - Sgt. Baxter - said that the black man "should have freedom and govern himself in the West Indies" and that "force must be used and if necessary blood shed to obtain the object". Such words would have alarmed the colonial establishment and probably drowned out the more modest aim of the League, "the Promotion of all matters conducive to the General Welfare of the islands constituting the British West Indies and the British Territories adjacent thereto." They agreed to strike for higher wages on their return home. They talked of a Caribbean–wide governing body with a headquarters in Kingston, although the choice of Jamaica led to some inter-island rivalry and controversy about the location.This was a distinctly social democratic and reformist agenda but also problematic for those determined to maintain the status quo of economic and power arrangements. At first the Caribbean League was treated with cautious approval by the military authorities as they saw it as a way to help contain and manage the discontent of the troops. At one of the later meetings however, one of the participants - Sgt. Leon Poucher, a Trinidadian reported to his commanding officer that they talk had turned toward self-government and strike action. This concern was relayed to the colonial authorities in the West Indies who were spooked by the thought of thousands of radicalized and angry ex-servicemen returning to their homes determined to seek change. The Caribbean League did not survive demobilization which was completed by August 1919. Although it was short-lived it seems to have had a powerful and radicalizing impact on those who participated. It gave rise to a new and confident voice of resistance that was to make an impact on the politics and social conditions of the post-war Caribbean. Take a look at this poem written at the time:Before enlisting Monteith had been a school teacher in Jamaica. He had written a number of patriotic poems praising the war effort and the Empire that had been published in the Jamaican Times. These words reflect a personal transformation and a new political outlook that many of the men of the BWIR would take home with them. In some ways this new spirit was presaged by the thinking at enlistment. By joining the imperial war effort to fight for king and country many hoped to prove something. Look at this 1915 article in the Jamaican journal the Grenada Federalist: As coloured people we will be fighting for something more, something inestimable to ourselves. We will be fighting to prove to Great Britain that we are not so vastly inferior to the white. We will be fighting to prove that we are no longer merely subjects but citizens – citizens of a world empire whose watch word should be Liberty, Equality and Brotherhood. The was an opportunity to show proof of worth, of the right of equality and freedom. Deliberately keeping these men from the combat duties of the front line served to thwart those aspirations. It had instead another outcome - that of radicalizing a generation of activists. In the West Indies, a number of BWIR soldiers played important roles in the growth of the working class, union and independence movements. They organized unions, led protests, contributed to reform movements and they laid the groundwork for the move to self-determination and independence. The BWIR served honorably in the Egypt, the Middle East, on the Western Front and in Italy. When given the opportunity, they proved themselves as combat troops. Faced with discrimination and humiliation they fought back against injustice. The BWIR was kept away from the victory parades that marked the end of the war. It was disbanded in 1921. In spite of their efforts, a confidential 1919 Colonial Office memo on the Taranto mutiny makes it clear that the British Government realized that things had changed: Nothing we can do will alter the fact that the black man has begun to think and feel himself as good as the white. Sources: The National Archive (UK) Imperial War Museum No Labour, No Battle: Military Labour During the First World War, Ivor Lee and John Starling Holding aloft the banner of Ethiopia, Winston James Race, Empire and First World War Writing, Santanu Das (editor)
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SSS Online Portal | History of Bangladesh is full of power shifts, disasters, conflicts and victory. Though Bangladesh is a small country in Asia, historically it is very important. She has seen important rises and falls in history. The earliest history is a little vague. The political life of ancient Bangladesh can be found in the Greek and Latin History. In 326 BCE, when Alexander the Great invaded India, he withdrew from his conquered place as he anticipated a counter attack from the Bengal region. The Bengal region was then ruled by some valiant rulers. Bengal region was ruled by the Hindu kings. The Muslims first invaded the area in 13th Century. They seized control and established their independent rule. They ruled for nearly two hundred years without any major foreign invasion. But in 15th Century, the traders from different countries of Europe started coming to Bengal region. The Portuguese, Dutch, French and British came one by one into this region. The main reason of the European traders for coming to this region was to make money from the local market. They wanted to spread their influence in the field of trade and economy in South Asia. Though the traders had economic motives when they arrived, soon they took interest in the local politics. In 1757, the last Muslim leader of Bengal region was defeated by the British. The British started ruling the Bengal region. They imposed their rule upon the people of that region. They controlled West Bengal for approximately two hundred years. The British people had to leave India and Bengal region for strong pressure from the local intellectuals and ordinary people. Near the end of the Second World War, the size of the British Empire got reduced. The empire was breaking down. Though Gandhi and Viceroy Lord Mountbattan both tried to unite the Hindus and Muslims, the Muslims felt insecure. They were worried because they thought they will be neglected in India as this is a region dominated by the Hindus. Due to the situation, Lord Mountbattan decided to divide the subcontinent in 1947. Two countries were born instead of one. One is India and another is Pakistan. According to the partition agreement, India would be a Hindu state and Pakistan would be a Muslim state. Pakistan was divided into two parts: East Pakistan (Bengal) and West Pakistan (Punjab). Even after the partition, there were conflicts between the Hindus and Muslims. So, finally Muslims left India and moved to Pakistan. The Hindus left Pakistan and moved to India. Though there were disparity between the history, culture, lifestyle, language and customs of the two parts of Pakistan, they were united on the basis of shared belief in Muslim religion. But problems arose soon when the rulers started distinguishing the people of West Pakistan from the East Pakistan. The disparity in all sectors made the people of East Pakistan angry. The discontent grew due to the unfair policies and partial treatment of the people of East Pakistan by the government. When Urdu was imposed upon the people of East Pakistan, they revolted. Many people die for the language. The language movement brought the courage among the people of Bangladesh and they dreamt of freeing the land from the invasion of Pakistan. Finally, in 1971, after a bloody war of 9 months, Bangladesh became independent. Bangladesh Travel Guide – Three Cities to Visit With air travel becoming ever more affordable regardless of destination, scheduling a trip to exotic locations like Bangladesh is becoming the norm rather than the exception in today's travel culture. Likewise, the expansive reach of the internet now allows any traveler to check a prospective tourist destination in advance so much so that one can now plan a trip entirely on a mobile phone mobile internet device. Such advancements in travel and tourism have simplified the process so much that all one needs to do is decide exactly where to go and everything else is taken cared of from there. From insurance quotes to itinerary booking, any traveler is now safe in the hands of advance travel planning. For this reason, it comes down to deciding which three cities in, say Bangladesh, is well worth the visit for any traveler looking to relax, unwind, and see the world. You can find many article source references on the subject but for ease and convenience, we are listing down the three cities in Bangladesh that is well worth anyone's time. Dhaka. The capital and largest city in Bangladesh, Dhaka is a melting pot of the old and the new. Dhaka is also an ideal springboard for further incursions into other parts of the country. It features the most extensive list of local tourism agencies which will do all things for you short of sending a "Good Night SMS." Dhaka is also an excellent venue for getting all the necessary supplies in case you plan on spending a night or two in many of the more exotic destinations that grant access to wildlife, camping, hiking, and other outdoor adventures. Instead of spending your time reading phen375 reviews, perhaps you'd lose more weight if you spend time in Dhaka and other Bangladeshi locations. Not only are you seeing the world, but you are also doing your body a favor as well. Sundarbans. Located in the southern part of Bangladesh, Sundarbans is home to some of the most recognizable natural attractions anywhere in the world. This is a prime location for beautiful forests, the biggest mangrove growth in the world, and expansive delta swamps. Are you looking for an alternative to the Africa Safari? Sundarbans ably fits the bill. While you may not be able to buy premium Kratom here, you get everything else in the name of a crazy and wild adventure and for any nature lover, that's a trip that is well worth the attraction. Kuakata. Far away from the commercialized beaches in many other Asian locations, Kuakata in Bangladesh offers reclusive beach locations that make you feel like you are in paradise. The beaches here are strategically located to give you a stunning view of both the sunrise and the sunset. Bring your labrador retriever with you and it may feel like home away from home. Online public relations information allows you to scout your trip ahead of time. If you want more information on Bangladesh prior to scheduling a trip, do your homework and look up all the necessary information. Past that, you will not regret booking a trip to Bangladesh. Easily one of the most romantic getaways on Earth, you'll find all the comfort, relaxation and quiet that you need in Bangladesh, in the company of animals, the stunning beach and an expansive blue sky. You'll probably ask yourself why you did not come sooner. The History of Bangladesh Compared to its more popular neighbors Indian, Pakistan and Burma, the history of Bangladesh is not as well known. However, this does not mean that the history of this small country in South Asia is anything less dramatic or interesting. Like dreamweaver templates, the history of Bangladesh presents its own set of challenges and subplots that are intriguing to any student of world history but importantly to those who have taken a keen interest at this country. Bangladesh did not become a formal sovereign state until 1971 but even before this, it already had a rich culture that was well documented in the region. This is because the thriving religions of Hinduism and Buddhism all had their roots somewhere in the region where Bangladesh is located. As such, the land on which modern-day Bangladesh has stood has been a stirring witness to rise and fall of many civilizations in the area. No amount of anti wrinkle cream can hide the fact that Bangladesh has laid witness to countless wars for various purposes from the early Gupta and Harsha Empires of the 3rd to 6th centuries CE to the last war that led to its independence. The long history of Bangladesh paved the way to the occupation of the British in the 19th century. The change in governing authority was more like a drug detox for the people of Bangladesh who had to get accustomed to a new set of political, religious and economic policies. It was never a melaleuca experience; rather it was a time of serious struggle for the people who had to adjust to foreign influences for the very first time. Still, this also marks the period where the people of Bangladesh were formally introduced to the benefits coming from the West particularly in the area of education and medical aid. Formal independence for Bangladesh was gained following the war in 1971. This was after Bangladesh was originally considered as East Pakistan. While the country remained under Indian influences for the next few years, Bangladesh began to be freely ruled by people from within the country. This marked a period of steady progress where Bangladesh opened itself to modernization, and economic growth via capitalism. With the introduction of modern advantages like online mba for students, the growth of it jobs, and even technological benefits like home alarm systems, Bangladesh is slowly but surely introducing itself into the world. Still, the history of Bangladesh continues to evolve today as the country fights to overcome serious social, political and economic issues in the 21st century. Its economy enjoys a solid BB- rating which is higher than that of Pakistan and neighbor Sri Lanka but it also continues to suffer from rampant perceptions of corruption and crime. As Bangladesh forges ahead, there is no doubt it will be present in many an ebook reader detailing its ascent into the world stage. Only time will tell if Bangladesh makes the leap from being a developing country into a development one. That is something that the government and its people must work hard at achieving in order to be able to provide a bright future for the future generations of Bangladeshi citizens. The Three Must See Cities in Bangladesh If you are all for travel and tourism to exotic destinations particularly those in the Southeast Asian region, then there are three must-see cities in Bangladesh that you need to visit to complete your whirlwind tour of The Far East. While the name of these cities are fairly hard to remember or might cause you to cheat at scrabble, there are plenty of reasons – mainly religious and cultural – that make Bangladesh and its cities a definite stopover during a trip in the region. Here are the three must-see cities in Bangladesh and what you should expect when you drop by these unique tourism destinations. Dhaka. The capital of Bangladesh, its primary attraction has to be its mind-boggling "collection" of rickshaw transports. By conservative estimates, there are roughly 400,000 rickshaws running around Dhaka on any given day and you do not need a masters of accounting to tell you that such a number is truly astounding especially when you consider that Dhaka is not even close to being considered a major metropolitan district by global standards. Rickshaws are the lifeblood of Dhaka as a city and they bring tourists closer to the city attractions figuratively and literally speaking. Dhaka is also home to plenty of cultural attractions like the prominent national holidays on March 26 commemorating the nation's Independence, February 21 as the Language Martyr's day, and the 16th of December as Victory Day. These carry the local Buddhist and Hindu influences in the region and are excellent attractions to those interested in learning about East Asian culture. Any masters in education or even those planning RN to BSN online programs but would want to take a break before plunging to the rigors of intensive studying can certainly benefit from the refreshing atmosphere that is Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of course, we mean that in the full cultural sense of the word. Chittagong. Next to Dhaka, Bangladesh, Chittagong is the next biggest city in the country and is home to a multicultural collection of beliefs influenced by Islamic, Buddhist, and Hindu cultures primarily because of its location as a port. Chittagong is also home to the rich historical chapters that helped defined Bangladesh as the struggles opposing the conquering invaders of the Second World War had its roots here. At its very best, Chittagong is undergoing a dramatic face lift and is becoming an attractive home to many an umbrella company as the city is widely considered as one of the fastest growing metropolitan districts in the world. If you want to see a third-world city in action, or if you are planning to grow your business in East Asia, there is little doubt that Chittagong is the best place to be in as it also gives you access to neighboring territories like Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Northeast India, and even Southern China. Khulna. Rounding up the list of the three must-see cities in Bangladesh is Khulna which, not surprisingly, is the 3rd largest city in the country after Chittagong and Dhaka. Khulna is a vital location for many a masters in health administration professional as majority of the world's battles against infectious diseases are being waged here, including malaria and water-borne diseases. Still, it cannot be denied that Khulna remains to be a vital and strategic location for business and economics in the region as it is like a city with a coach hire advertisement sign as it seeks to remodel itself into a vital economic hub next to Chittagong. As Bangladesh grows, so will Khulna with all the potential that it offers. While Bangladesh is far from being one of the most recognizable cities in the world, its potential for growth is more than apparent. Consequently, it remains to be a popular destination for exotic tourism escapades or even backpacking trips for religious and spiritual discoveries. The next time you find yourself in Bangladesh, check out Dhaka, Chittagong, and Khulna for all the great attractions that it offers. With these, you can make your Bangladesh visit one that will be truly memorable for many years to come. Travel Tips While Visiting Bangladesh If you have never been to Bangladesh and you are looking for more information on the country, its citizens, the roads, the sightseeing that is worth awhile there, the best types of hotels to stay in or what precaution measures should you be taking if you are planning on going here for the summer, you should read article here and learn everything there is to know about Bangladesh and Bangladesh tourism in particular. First and foremost, you are going to have to think about the prefect time of the year when you can visit Bangladesh. Once you are done with this type of planning, you should go ahead and decide what type of transportation means should you better opt for. Taking the bus could represent an action that is going to submit you to a constant threat of terrorism is some areas of Bangladesh. Driving to this far-distant country could also prove to not be a great idea. Taking your time and doing the proper amount of research about traveling to and visiting Bangladesh should also help you understand if taking your english mastiff along is a good idea or not, especially if you are going to be travelling to cities such as Sylhet and Chittagogn Hill Tracts. There are no top dental hygienist schools awaiting for there, but rather cruel acts of terrorism that might be welcoming you on these lands. As a matter of fact, the general lines of recommendations refer to the avoidance of tourism travelling to these parts of Bangladesh, as you will also be required to go through some rather harsh formalities. The official authorities are going to be asking for a 10-day notice in regards to your travel plans in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In other words, the situation can get so delicate there, that, at times, not even the best wrinkle creams on the planet should be able to help you forget all about your terrorism-related experience. Violent street disorders, local abductions of citizens or politicians and bus or public vehicle burning activities are not uncommon here. Ordering some books using Amazon Australia and doing some heavy reading about acts of terrorism should aid you learn more about this threats of the 21th century. Plus, pick pocketing and armed robberies are also often times occurring in Bangladesh, so special attention needs to attributed to doing your shopping there. As for the road travelling itself, you also need to pay special attention to the poor road conditions and the poor quality of the roads. Speeding and aggressive overtaking of the road are going to yet pose another threat to you, so if you are thinking about going to Bangladesh in order to be a part of some mph programs, you should probably think again. Upon preparing your incursion here, you might as well think about asking some masters of social work students to tell you how to handle travelling to countries that are under the threat of terrorism. Bangladesh Breakdown Country Analysis Bangladesh The Vibrant Culture of Bangladesh When eyeing a country to visit in Asia, it helps to be acquainted with the vibrant culture of Bangladesh, a small country of 148 million people sandwiched between India and Burma. Not too long ago, the reputation of Bangladesh was such that it was a poor country reliant on agriculture, tourism, and fishery as its primary means for livelihood. However, the growth of industrial and commercial markets primarily coming from India and spilling over to Bangladesh and fueled by more research into technologies designed to push the region forward has dramatically uplifted the quality of life in Bangladesh. As such, it is now one of the more enticing destinations for tourists from all over the globe. With regard to the culture of this vibrant country, everything begins with the influence of history and religion to what has become of Bangladesh today. It is heavily influenced by the cultures from India and the Cambodian peninsula which is discussed in better detail when you click here. Bangladesh also has very strong ties to Islamic traditions from nearby Middle East and this is also an essential determinant in today's economy where company ratings can be traced to connections in the Arab peninsula. The same can be said of the music coming from Bangladesh. While the country does not produce Taylor guitars for export, you can bet that it has a long list of musical instruments that pool together the country's rich history and cultural heritage. Such instruments include the ektara, dhol, dotara and tabla and are important musical pieces in North Indian classical music. The richness of the musical genre also spills over into the dance scene as there are many folk dances, not different from those in South Africa, which are predominantly buoyed by the local tradition in the area. More importantly, the myriad of festivals and celebrations in Bangladesh are major tourist attractions the whole year around and are strong enough that the industry fuels subsequent other businesses like home remodeling companies that kick into high gear at the onset of the tourist season. Festivals like the Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha of the Islamic calendar are well received and widely sought out by foreigners more than you would expect with a free cell phone. The same can be said of colorful Hindu festivals like Kali Puja, Durga Puja, and Saraswati Puja while Buddhist festivals like the birth of Buddha are also celebrated. There is so much to see and enjoy in Bangladesh, borne on the shoulders of its rich cultural heritage. Book a trip today and see for yourself why Bangladesh is one of the most traveled destinations in Central Asia. It's a trip that will surely fill your heart with great memories and one that will open your eyes to the richness and diversity of Bengali culture. Is Bangladesh Worth Visiting? Whenever we hear of tourist destinations marketed heavily, we always end up asking ourselves whether that place is worth visiting or not in the first place. A classic case, for example, is Bangladesh where tourism ads have been revving in full gear for a while now. Those ads do not shy away from proclaiming all the good things in Bangladesh so much so that, just from reading the ads, one would surely be enticed to check out the potential travel destinations. You find yourself reading, and then shortly after, clicking the first link to people's testimonies about Bangladesh. So is it really worth visiting? Should you even bother to plan a trip to Bangladesh? The true answer is that it really depends on your goals as a tourist. Let's be honest; it's unreasonable to expect that you will find the best in First World amenities in Bangladesh. You can't expect to see first class counterparts of your Dentist Salem Oregon or Vancouver WA dentists. If you are expecting the best that the world has to offer when you visit Bangladesh, then you will be sorely disappointed. However, this does not mean that Bangladesh is the complete opposite of what you'd expect from a first class tourist destination. The capital, Dhaka, is fairly industrialized owing to the huge volume of businesses that finds its way into Bangladesh. As a result, the amenities have followed suit and international hotel brands are not setting shop in Bangladesh. On the one hand, you may not find a Domestic Violence Attorney Seattle counterpart in Bangladesh, but finding a Westin hotel or a Radisson Blu Garden Hotel is more than enough to make up for your worries. But of course, this is not why one should come to Bangladesh. For that, you would have to be interested in the culture. Bangladesh draws inspiration from the unique intersection of the Hindu and Buddhist religions resulting in one of the more unique cultural marriages in the world. Its literature, music and arts, and norms are heavily influenced by this social union. While you may not find fantasy football names here, the festivals and attractions will be more than sufficient to keep you engaged. The cities also offer a unique insight in Third World life. Bangladesh is dominated by huge populations packed in the metropolitan areas offering a unique avenue for observing the life of many who seek to make it in the big city. Between the cars, scooters, and rickshaws during the rush hour traffic, plus the added beauty of Bangladesh's many waterways, there is plenty to see and explore in the city. You can even watch people window cleaning high alongside tall skyscrapers, if only to see how the life in this progressive country relies heavily on manpower resources. Bangladesh has plenty to offer for the right person and is certainly a good place to find something new. Learn more about what Bangladesh can offer so you can personally decide if indeed, this is a country that is well worth visiting for a tourist getaway. Economic Progress in Bangladesh There seems to be a common perception from many in the Western world that most countries in Asia outside of the notables like China, Japan, Singapore, and Russiaare wallowing in continued poverty and have yet to enjoy the benefits of economic progress. Do a quick survey in Americaasking about the economic progress in Bangladesh and the long-standing perception is that the country is more than likely to have never heard of the somanabolic muscle maximizer scam and many similarly complicated ploys. All told, it is hard to picture a country as notoriously languid as Bangladesh snapping out of its funk and finally climbing the rungs of economic progress. Is this perception true or can we be any more farther from the truth? Consider the facts vetted by multiple UN agencies and recently released to pronounce Bangladesh's slow but sure arrival on the world economic stage: 6% GDP growth amidst the global economic crisis when most western countries were seeing declines 8% growth on the industrial sector 6% growth in the services department 4% growth in agriculture 90% of all annual public spending is now supported by domestic sources rather than borrowed from international agencies like the IMF and World Bank The economic progress shown by Bangladesh over the last few years has been nothing short of astounding especially when considered in the light of Bangladesh's recent economic struggles. In a relatively short period, the country has moved from basic cash advance transactions to being an attractive hub for foreign investments in South Asia. Bangladesh primarily draws on its manpower competitive advantage to funnel jobs from rising economic powers China and India so much so that in recent years, company equivalents to a Beaverton Auto Accident assistance firm are beginning to exist. A big portion of the rise in economic performance is driven by key changes to policies which have fostered a business-friendly climate well beyond your everyday plumber chester business. Specific examples include fair and speedy processing steps for local and foreign investors alike leveling the playing field and allowing outsiders to put up their business quickly and efficiently. A Scottish Trust Deed business equivalent deciding to establish a base in Bangladesh would take no more time than a local businessman putting up an agricultural company. The same can be said of legal measures to protect from nationalization, the strict enforcement of intellectual property laws, reduced duties on imports as well as subsidies on exports, and even corporate tax holidays among other things. The long road to economic independence is slowly off for Bangladesh although it is certain that more time is required before people begin to buy Kratom just because they can, rather than do it out of need. Still, any road to progress, no matter how slow, is much better than taking a few steps backward. No doubt,Bangladesh's recent economic data suggests it is trending in the right direction with more reason for continued optimism. Only time, and the vigorous implementation of more business-friendly policies, can guarantee that growth will be sustained. In the interim, there is cause for a minor celebration. In the long-term, there is certainly cause for much hope. The Flourishing Export Business in Bangladesh The People's Republic of Bangladesh is one of the flourishing countries in Asia, despite it being a flood-prone nation during the rainy season. It has quite a lot of resources that has attracted investors for import and export businesses and local trading as well, generating a positive input in supplier and client history. While farmers and crop cultivators make up the majority of the country's population, the export business in Bangladesh generally come from the supreme group of fabrics and textiles that they manufacture. They are also known to have large deposits of minerals such as limestone, hard rock and silicone sand. Even though the country has quite a lot of resources in almost every industry, especially in the agricultural side, the absence of competent technologies to harness them is one of the main reasons why their assets have yet to reach the full potential of being explored and properly utilized. They have yet to take advantage of the high-end equipments that will transform their raw materials to several things that are deemed useful to every country. Nevertheless, their current export ventures in the garment business are still a promising one for the Bangladeshis. They are also doing export on leather, paper, tea, ceramic items, to name a few, and all of which have given positive inputs in the economy. The major counterparts of Bangladesh in their imported and exported products are India, China, Japan, USA, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and other countries in Europe. Companies involved in this major activity stay in touch with suppliers and customers alike through the virtual phone service that helps them stay organized and connected with each other at all times. In doing so, they are keeping their economy in the balance by importing the goods they need and produce products for local and internal consumption, by means of export. True, Bangladesh may still be laid back in terms technology innovation, but their manpower has never failed to sustain and maintain their status in the global market. Aside from the thriving economy of Bangladesh, the country has also quite a number of natural resources to be proud of. It is primarily because of the Sundarbans, which is considered to be the world's biggest mangrove forest, where the Royal Bengal Tiger resides, among many other beautiful creatures in the wild. Shapla is the country's national flower, known to many as water lily, while Kathal, or jackfruit, is their national fruit, and of late, they have chosen their national tree to be that of a mango. With the natural beauty of the country and persistence among its citizens, Bangladesh will continue to attract new markets and globally be recognized as one of the leading exporters of prime commodities. Neighboring countries may have yet to learn more from their ways and adopt their simplicity and sincerity in approaching things. Needless to say, they have gone far with lesser modern mechanism, and will continue to achieve much more if they are given the opportunity to be explored. Is Bangladesh in Crisis? Bangladesh politics offers some great insights into what can happen when abuse of authority can corrupt an otherwise peaceful march to progress and equality. From late 2006 to 2008, Bangladesh was embroiled in a deadly and violent political crisis which claimed the lives of many people. Many a professional institute focusing on global political affairs point to the root of the whole conflict as the mismanagement of political authority when it was conferred by the Bangladeshi constitution during a period of political transition. There are basically two dominant political parties in Bangladesh; the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and the Awami League. In late 2006, a caretaker government was formed to oversee the administration of the national election following a two-decade long political conflict. This was not Ibiza where blue horizons were seen up ahead. Instead, the Awami League questioned what it termed where unfair acts by the caretaker government designed to manipulate the results of the upcoming election. When the Awami League announced that it would boycott the upcoming election, the political crisis boiled over leading to riots and clashes which claimed the life of many political supported on both sides. The cessation of hostilities in late 2008 was made possible by the intervention of the UN and the EU in Bangladeshi political affairs. This intervention led to the creation of an interim government where the President was not elected. It only served to momentarily diffuse the tensions like lulls on movie trailers online but as long as the issues remain, the threat continues to be present and waiting for the right moment to manifest itself. Enter 2013 when the EU and UN have suspended their participation in the election monitoring process owing to claims that a credible political system for fair and equal voting does not exist. This has set the stage for what can be another deadly round of political crisis in Bangladesh. Like sciatica that only lies dormant, now is perhaps the time where it can all resurface again with even more deadly consequences. The planned 2013 elections in Bangladesh give rise to two very important issues that require attention not only by the local ruling government but also by international watchdogs with a stake in the country. These are the rise of election-related violence as parties go against each other in the pursuit of their own respective agenda, and the role of the increasingly imbalanced military which can escalate violence even further. Both elements are so serious it cannot be addressed by the metaphorical coconut oil for face approach. Something needs to be done if a new round of violence is to be prevented. So what can we expect from this political turmoil? There is no clear answer to that question, but there are sound suggestions. First, the sitting government led by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina from the Awami League must take careful steps to assure the BNP that a fair election will occur, much like when the Awami clamored for BNP to do the same in 2008. Second, a conciliatory approach needs to be taken akin to employing a car accident attorney to objectively settle matters. Third, the military must remain non-biased on the issue, but also restrained in its quest to control the conflict. This is a goal that is far easier said than done. So is Bangladesh in crisis? It might not be, YET. Only time will tell if the parties involved can come into a peaceful resolution of their differences so they can forge a credible government which will carry Bangladesh to its future;if not, then there is little doubt that a political crisis is about to happen again. And this time, the consequences can be even deadlier. ICC Twenty20 World Cup 2014 Held In Bangladesh The best cricket players in the world recently gathered in Bangladesh to compete in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 tournament. Organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC), the games were played from March 16 to April 6, 2014 in three cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sylhet. Although this was already the 5th ICC World Twenty20 competition, it was the second consecutive time that an Asian country, Bangladesh, hosted the event. The 2012 version was held in Sri Lanka. Established in June 15, 1909, the International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body of the popular sports of cricket. The ICC is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and has 106 member countries including Bangladesh, Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Canada, and other countries. There are 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 37 Associate Members, and 59 Affiliate Members. The ICC World Twenty20, aka ICC World T20 or World Twenty20, is an international championship of Twenty20 cricket normally held every two years. The first ever tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa and was won by India. Twenty20 cricket, commonly shortened to T20, is a form of cricket that was first played in England and Wales for professional inter-county tournaments in 2003 and administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). Introduced to create a more lively form of cricket, a Twenty20 game can be completed in approximately three hours. Each inning lasts about 75-90 minutes with 10-20 minutes interval. Such is the worldwide popularity of the Twenty20 game that the ICC adopted the format and made it into an international competition in the form of the ICC World Twenty20 tournament. The ICC World Twenty20 is played on a group stage and knockout format. Points are awarded to teams during Round 1 and Super 10 stages. 2 points for win, 1 point for no result/tie, zero for loss. During the 2014 tournament, 16 warm-up matches were played in March 12-19, 2014. In the Group stage, teams were clustered into Group A and Group B. In the Super 10, teams were organized into Group 1 and Group 2. In the Knockout stage, four teams competed in the Semifinals until two teams remain and competed in the championship round. The following teams directly qualified for the Super 10: Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and West Indies. The following teams qualified for the group stage: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Ireland, Nepal, Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, and Zimbabwe. After holding thirty-five matches at three different venues, the tournament closed by declaring Sri Lanka as the champion. Virat Kohli of India was declared the Man of the Series as well as the player with the most runs of 319. Most wickets awards were given to Imran Tahir of South Africa and Ahsan Malik of Netherlands, each with 12 wickets. To learn more about wicket, visit icc-cricket.com to get more information. If you have the desire to learn cricket, then go for it, have fun, and play. Please browse through the Web pages of our portal to find out more about the SSS organisation and our objectives, and to make a donation by clicking on the Donate logo, on the right hand side of the page. About SSS Welcome to SSS!Society for Social Service (SSS) is a local non-profit, non-political, non-governmental voluntary organisation. It was established in November 1986 by the initiative of a group of development workers of Tangail district in order to promote the socio-economic condition of the underprivileged and indigent Bangladeshi people with special attention to women and children.
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EpochMod.com - Arma 3 Mod Epoch Mod is a hybrid of genres with elements of science fiction and horror. Epoch is set in 2035, just two years after a massive world wide extinction. The exact cause is unknown and the only people left are clones with no memory of the past. Documents found in the world tell a us that before the mass extinction event, The largest technology corporation had made great breakthroughs. This technology changed the world in many ways and is thought to be the cause of the extinction.
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Vautrin Immobilier | What's New? Tampa Florida real estate is booming. Property pricing is up and sales are increasing. Around the United States and around the world the real estate market is picking up and homes are selling better than they have in years. You can find traditional loans or if you are interested in working on non-traditional home buying you can find rent to own homes in Florida or rent to own homes in California. What's the real estate news? House prices across the country will edge down 1pc during 2013 as the London market shows signs of cooling, according to property analysts. UK Real Estate prices falling for second straight year. Price trends on historical French properties read more Lease to Own Homes Credit problems plague people across the globe. These problems can lead to many other problems not limited to difficulty purchasing vehicles, getting jobs, opening checking accounts, and purchasing or renting a home. For those who are experiencing credit problems hope seems like a long lost commodity when it comes to the very American dream of owning your own home. Lease to own homes or rent to own homes are something that are not being used by just the people with credit problems. Many people around the globe are now selling property with a lease to own option. In face, even some cities are promoting lease to own or rent to own property. Rent to own homes in Florida are springing up all over the internet. Of course you have to handle it a little more carefully but having purchased homes in this way, they are--or can be, a real bargain. read more Info Home loans make the process of buying a new home more affordable. Rather than coming up with all of the money that you need at one time, you'll pay it back in installments. This is the only way to buy foreclosure homes or bank-owned homes. This means that your credit needs to be fairly sound, or at least that you're looking at a loan that you have a hope of obtaining.. As you may already know, these types of loans give you many opportunities that wouldn't be possible without them. When you buy a home, you should understand as much as you can about the process, as well as the questions you will be answering. This way, you'll be familiar with how things work and you'll find the entire process to go more smoothly.. You have a lot of questions about an overseas move,a vacation home abroad, or even buying a home right here in the United States. Whether you're US based or coming to the US from another country, we've got links and answers to help. read more Affordable Homes While once an opportunity that seemed to be reserved for either the wealthiest among the general population home ownership is now something that is accessible to a larger segment of the population than ever before. This includes owning a home in another country aside from your own. Whether you are from the United States, seeking a property in Europe or the UK or from another country looking for real estate in the United States, we can help by pointing you at an ethical real estate agent to work with you. If you're one of the many millions of people who have had credit problems and you still want to own your own home, you have some wonderful options. Today you can find some unique methods of payment that will allow you to own a home now and to begin building your credit back to where it once was. Things you'll want to consider are: Lease to own homes Rent to own homes Owner will carry homes. read more Technology If you're looking for a new home today, don't forget to take advantage of every method that you have at your disposal. One of the most important will be technology. One of the fastest ways to find your dream home today is by the use of the internet. What's your ideal home? Do you know what you're looking for and have your criteria laid out? An MLS local to your city of choice will be a great place to start your search. In some cases you can find rent to own homes or owner will carry homes in Arizona or other places which had a high rate of foreclosure online. There are even people who will go out and look at the home for you, charging a small fee so that you need not be in the area. Some people even have gone so far as to buy a home online without seeing it, although this certainly isn't recommended. If you're buying a home abroad or in another state a long distance away it can take a lot of effort. Much of this can be done online. Learning more about your geographic areas of interest will be the first order of business. read more Agent Will you be using a real estate agent to purchase your new property in the states? Business or residential, a real estate agent can help you to plan your international move or to purchase the business that you're looking for. Even if you'll be buying an OWC home or a rent to own home you can still use a real estate agent to help you to find your way through the maze of home ownership. An ethical and knowledgeable realtor can help you to find precisely what you are looking for in a much shorter time span. read more
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New Weight Loss Diets Reviews | Weight Loss Diet - Exercising Is Necessary For A Weight Loss Diet To Work For successful and lasting weight loss, regular exercise is necessary along with a balanced diet. With physical activity, you burn more calories and keep your metabolic rate high. Besides helping you in losing weight, exercise also helps in regulating stress, prevention of many health conditions and improving your mood. How Exercise Helps You In Losing Weight While You Follow A Weight Loss Diet Burn More Calories It is necessary to maintain a calorie deficit to lose weight. Besides burning calories, while working out, you burn calories throughout the day due to increased metabolic rate. When you burn more calories every day, it gets easier for you to maintain a calorie deficit. However, if you restrict your calorie intake and don't work out, your metabolic rate tends to go down and you burn considerably fewer calories throughout the day. Higher Energy Levels Exercise oxygenates your blood efficiently and improves circulation throughout the body. Besides blood circulation, it also improves lymph circulation which results in effective transportation of nutrients to tissues. Exercise also improves your sleep quality and you tend to feel energetic when you wake up. Improves Mood Regular physical activity not only improves your physical fitness but also improves your mood. Exercise effectively normalizes our stress levels and also secretes hormones such as endorphins. The normalization of stress levels and secretion of endorphins improves your mood when you work out. Regular physical activity You don't need to buy an expensive membership to a gym or hire a personal coach to improve your fitness. You can work out while you stay at home using a fitness equipment such as a treadmill or an exercise bike. Treadmills A Treadmill lets you work out safely and conveniently while offering you the health benefits of an aerobic workout. Are treadmills worth the investment? Treadmills are highly versatile, and they can give you a perfect aerobic workout. They support a variety of programs and you can choose according to your preference. You can track your heart rate, play music, watch videos, track progress and a lot more. Let's look at some of the benefits of treadmill exercise. Weight Loss with a treadmill You can burn calories in your backyard or rooftop or living area and achieve your weight loss goals. You can also set your treadmill at an incline to simulate outdoor running. If you increase the gradient further, the workout becomes more challenging and increase workout intensity. If you want to increase the intensity of your workouts further, you can also add weights. Aerobic Workout Aerobic exercises can significantly reduce the risk of cardiac arrest, helps to lower the blood pressure, lower cholesterol levels and improve cardiovascular health. Aerobic exercises also prevent bone loss and improve muscle tonality. Safety Treadmill protects you against the hazards like rash bikers, inattentive drivers, wrong side of the city, air and noise pollution, etc. Regularity It is easier to follow your exercise routine with a treadmill as compared to going out to run. Whether it's raining or snowing, it doesn't matter. You can always workout if you have a treadmill at your home. Forgiving Surface Running on uneven surfaces can cause back injuries and other problems. A treadmill offers you a flat and forgiving surface to run and avoid aches and injuries. Variety of Programs You can find plenty of innovative treadmill programs to follow. Your workouts don't have to be monotonous. Variety not only keeps the workouts interesting, new routines always pose a challenge for your body. Fun You can always do fantasy workouts while you run on a treadmill. You can watch your favorite shows or talk to your partner or keep an eye on your toddler while you workout. Exercise does not have to be a chore. Treadmill Exercise At Home Vs Running Outdoors Instant Access & Anytime Workout You can just hop out of bed and start exercising. You don't have to follow gym timings or park timings. You can workout any time of the day. No Recurring Expenses Unlike monthly gym memberships, it only costs you once and it can be your fitness companion for years to come. Incline You burn more calories when you run on inclines as compared to flat surfaces. You can alter the incline as per your fitness level. Knee Joint Strength Regular treadmill exercise at an incline can help you strengthen your knee joints. Reduced Chances Of Injury Running on a treadmill offers you a controlled environment and you are far less likely to trip or stumble or hit an obstacle. Heart Rate Monitoring Heart rate monitors can be very useful tools to help you track your progress and let you work out at the optimal heart rate. Data Whether you are a geek or not, tracking your progress with real data can be very useful. You can always pair your workout with the heart rate monitor and follow a specific workout. It will allow you gauge your progress with real data. Privacy Some people like the idea of working out in a private setting. Jogging in a park or working out at the gym takes the privacy element away from you. No Complex Movements Everybody can use this fitness equipment and improve their fitness level. Whether you are obese or old or young or fit, treadmill benefits everybody. As it does not require complex movement, people with lower level fitness feel safe while using it. Elite athletes can use it to build their endurance or use it during interval training to boost their performance. Sharing with family members or friend Your investment in a treadmill can also benefit your family members or friend you stay with. That would not be the case with a local gym. There are more than 90% gym dropouts because a gym hasn't all the above-mentioned benefits. Bottom Line There are numerous benefits of running indoors in a controlled environment. A treadmill can help you avoid cardiovascular issues, obesity, diabetes or knee-joint problems. You burn more calories if you use incline. Heart-rate monitoring and stored data help you gauge your performance and help you stay fit. A treadmill is one of the most important equipment at the gym and one you should probably get at home to draw its benefits anytime you want. Everybody can benefit from a treadmill, young or old, obese or fit. A treadmill can work with plenty of programs and in a variety of ways. When you combine the benefits you get by working out using a treadmill with a well-balanced diet, you can easily achieve your lasting weight-loss goals. Here our treadmill recommendation.
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Home Redefining Secondhand Shopping with Quality, Cleanliness, Selection & Price Secondhand Shopping sometimes brings with it thoughts of dingy stores and low quality. At the Arc Stores we are Redefining Secondhand Shopping in four key ways: Quality, Cleanliness, Selection and Price. We only sell quality clothes and merchandise – if we wouldn't wear it, we won't sell it! Our stores are clean and well-kept so you'll enjoy shopping at Arc. We have a wide selection of clothes and products so you can find what you are looking for, and even with the higher quality we demand, we have prices that are better than other stores! Read our interview on Mint.com to learn more about the Arc Stores! Vintage Collectible Black Kellog 1000 Telephone Red Bar Anri Ferrandiz Hand Carved "Wanderlust" Figurine Click on the logo to see Arc Store eBay auction items We have been on a mission for over 60 years to help the people of Butte County The Arc helps individuals with disabilities to have meaningful lives, lives that we sometimes take for granted. The Arc Stores are a key part for the Arc of Butte County and provide valuable job training and opportunities for our developmentally disabled citizens and provide a great value for the overall community. More About Us IT'S EASY TO DONATE! Your donations keep us growing and offering great products. We take donations at all of our locations during store hours. Bring us your gently used clothing and household items, and we'll do the rest. How to Donate
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EpochMod.com - Arma 3 Mod Epoch Mod is a hybrid of genres with elements of science fiction and horror. Epoch is set in 2035, just two years after a massive world wide extinction. The exact cause is unknown and the only people left are clones with no memory of the past. Documents found in the world tell a us that before the mass extinction event, The largest technology corporation had made great breakthroughs. This technology changed the world in many ways and is thought to be the cause of the extinction.
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Dancesport UK - Dance Shoes, Apparel, Equipment & Accessories Supplier Online Britain''s first and favourite site dedicated to Ballroom and Latin American dancing
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Cañada Alamosa Project The Cañada Alamosa Project is a joint archeological undertaking of the Cañada Alamosa Institute, Monticello, New Mexico, and Human Systems Research of Las Cruces, New Mexico. Its purpose is to study, understand, and relate the stories of the generations of people who lived along Alamosa Creek, a perennial stream flowing through Socorro and Sierra Counties to the Rio Grande''River in southwest New Mexico, during the past 2000 years. Karl Laumbach, the project archaeologist and team excavations have been conducted at four major pithouse and pueblo sites in upper Cañada Alamosa (Monticello Canyon). They are the Victorio Site (pithouse and Tularosa Phase), Pinnacle Ruin (Magdalena Phase), the Kelly Canyon Site (Socorro Phase), and the Montoya Site (Mimbres Phase). The efforts and support of many individuals and organizations have been essential to CAP’s accomplishments. They include students and archaeologists from the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Eastern New Mexico University, Portales; volunteers from Earthwatch Institute, Maynard, MA; staff of the New Mexico Farm and Ranch Heritage Museum, Las Cruces; and staff of the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, Socorro, and many other scholars, scientists, students, crew members, and neighbors. Field teams lead by Karl Laumbach of Human Systems Research and Stephen Lekson of the University of Colorado performed a brief reconnaissance survey of the area in 1988. In 1991-1992, Laumbach led a more extensive survey which included the first recordings of the Victorio and Montoya Sites. The effort was funded by the Department of the Interior as it considered nominating the area for national monument status. That never came to pass, but the resulting research, including an ethnohistoric study by Lekson, became the starting point for the Cañada Alamosa Project. Monticello Box Ranch, a small ranch containing a cluster of significant sites in the canyon, was offered for sale in the late 1990s. Laumbach persuaded the sellers to offer it as a preservation property. The effort bore fruit when Trudy and Denny O’Toole acquired the property in 1998. The O’Tooles established the non-profit Cañada Alamosa Institute, Inc. and joined forces with Laumbach’s non-profit employer Human Systems Research, Inc. to create the Cañada Alamosa Project.The Alamosa drainage encompasses approximately 725 square miles and ranges in elevation from 4,400 to 10,334 feet above sea level. The drainage includes privately held lands as well as lands administered by the United States Forest Service (Cibola and Gila National Forests), the Bureau of Land Management (Las Cruces District), and the New Mexico State Land Office. It takes in portions of Socorro, Sierra, Grant, and Catron counties. The principal research goals of the Cañada Alamosa Project are to answer questions about human habitation and migration in a cultural borderland, the drainage of the Rio Alamosa, and to place those findings in the broader context of researchers’ and the public’s understanding of the ways human communities evolve through interaction with a dynamic environment and each other over time.
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Cleveland Seniors | Seniors & Baby Boomers in Cleveland ClevelandSeniors.Com, The online place for senior citizens and baby boomers in Cleveland, Ohio and beyond. Senior news, information, advice, coupons, recipes and schedule of events. For seniors and baby boomers 50 and over.
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Steven J Koskie CPA LLC : Home People from all walks of life look to Certified Public Accountants to help them with the financial issues that touch their lives. Whether it''s income tax, business issues, investment opportunities, or a myriad of other possible situations, people turn to CPAs to help them in ways no other profession can. With years of experience in public accounting and private industry, our firm is uniquely equipped to help our clients.
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OffCite Blog | Design. Houston. Architecture. A shipping container packed with furniture designed by Houston-based Jamar Simien and crafted by hand in Malawi will arrive soon in Houston, after narrowly missing inundation by Cyclone Idai during transit through Mozambique. The pieces are crafted out of rare but sustainably sourced African hardwoods, while the indigenous methods reflect Malawian culture and highlight the trades of the craftsmen who practice there. Over the course of more than a few conversations with Jamar Simien, it became clear to me that his designs and his countless endeavors are all viewed through the lens of legacy. His multifaceted design studio Contour Functional Art has covered so much ground, literally, in a short period of time. Since the summer of 2018, he's started Contour, taught art to African school children, planted over 100 African Mahogany trees, began the process of building a design school in Malawi, helped a group of Malawian craftsmen start businesses of their own, and tutored countless people on how to build up their community. Jacaranda School for Orphans with Jamar Simien. An artist, landscape architect, designer, Jamar is more likely to refer to himself as an educator, perhaps in the tradition of his upbringing. His mother was an elementary school teacher. Jamar recalls her taking him to the school during the summer. From the basketball court he could see that her classroom light was the only light on in the school. "She is the most positive person I have ever met. She tried to share as much insight with me as possible. I loved playing basketball. When I was growing up in the mid nineties, we went through some rough times. And I had two ways to escape. One was art, the other was basketball. My mom encouraged me so much --- if you love art, you need to practice. If you love basketball, you need to practice. She instilled structure and positivity in me, and the importance of not only starting something, but the pertinence of completion. She invested sweat equity in me, and now I'm trying to pay it forward with my collaborators in Malawi." Originally drawn to landscape architecture at LSU for it's connections to nature, and his love of drawing, Jamar ended up in Houston when he got a job at the award-winning urban planning firm OJB. "I used to tell my kids this story when I taught art. They enjoyed hearing stories about my life and my job before teaching. At The Office of James Burnett, there was this big beautiful majestic oak tree right outside a window curtain wall. This was the fall of 2008, during the height of the recession, towards the end of my time at OJB. Every single day I'd come into the office, get my coffee, sit down at my desk, check my email and I would see this squirrel going up and down the tree. Chasing birds, chasing little animals, hiding --- all these things. I named the squirrel Charlie, and Charlie looked like he was having so much fun, and I wasn't. Despite working on huge real estate projects around the world, all I really wanted to do was draw. And you know, you don't get to do much of that anymore in architecture. You're going to be in AutoCad, you're going to be in other computer programs all day...I just wanted to pull out a pen and sketch all of the ideas that were running through my head. I felt like I had so much more to offer. That was when I decided I wanted to teach. I told myself, you know what, I'm going to be an art teacher. Sometimes you begin one journey but the path varies. I believed that teaching was going to turn into something greater, I just didn't know what that would be." African Mahogany end table. Courtesy Contour Functional Art. He left OJB to teach art for several years. Along the way, he mentored at-risk youth after school, established a long-running summer art camp and made school history by leading several art students to the state competition in consecutive years. In July of 2018, Jamar visited his godson and best friend in Malawi, a small country in East Africa. While he was there, he had the opportunity to watch some local craftsmen creating traditional wooden bowls out of African Mahogany. This experience is when the idea for Contour coalesced. "Once you start traveling you quickly realize how small the world really is, and how closely connected we actually are. How we share many of the same values and goals. How if given the opportunity, we can actually positively affect each other through brief or extensive interactions. Contour was created to not only design and build functional art, but to empower artisans globally --- and help them design and build their own future. We're all connected. In my case, I am connected to so many talented Malawian artisans because we share the same passion for art." Since that trip, along with his business partners Brandon Destouet and Ike Igbo, Jamar has turned Contour into what it is today. Brandon oversees technology and marketing for the company, while Ike oversees logistics in Africa, including shipping finished furniture to America. What is unique about the work that Contour produces is the journey it takes as it goes through production. Every piece begins with a man named Feston, who has connections with villages and individuals across Malawi. When a tree has been downed through a cataclysmic weather event, or has fallen from age, these individuals will contact him to let him know. He then will travel to the site to confirm the tree fell of natural causes, and collects the wood, milling it at his workshop by hand. Milling of African Mahogany tree in Malawi. Photo courtesy Contour Functional Art. This milled stock then travels to Carlos in Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi, for kiln drying. This is an important step of the process to ensure the natural product will retain its stability over its long life. Once the stock has been dried, it is transported to Chipa's shop. Chipa is a general contractor, and employs craftsmen of different trades in his shop. Hardwick oversees all metal fabrication, primarily out of reclaimed rebar (a popular building material in Malawi) while Mike oversees all of the wood fabrication with his team. Throughout this process, Contour works with each of these stakeholders to educate and train them on essential business skills, workflow optimization and financial best practices, teaching and training at every step of the process with the goal of creating and sustaining new businesses owned and operated locally by Malawians. One example of this is the recent expansion Feston has been able to complete at his shop. This added space allows him to rent out spaces to other aspiring entrepreneurs in the community, fostering growth and opportunity outside of the reach of even the work immediately associated with Contour. Another way to look at it is by the numbers alone - 10 employees working under Feston, 15 employees under Carlos, and another 15 employees under Chipa. Jamar says, "A good designer can see the potential in a sketch --- just like a good educator can see the potential in a person." His work with these men shows that ideological marriage of the designer and the educator, using product and production to bring out the best in the people he works with. Jamar is a man concerned with the idea of legacy. With his own, as well as yours, and mine. He wants to create legacy furniture pieces that last forever, and retain a meaningful footprint on the other side of the earth. Through their partnership with the nonprofit Root to Fruit, with every fallen tree that Contour crafts into one of a kind furniture, they plant up to 20 trees across the country of Malawi. These donated trees help sustain the life of communities by providing food, shade, medicine, firewood for cooking and heating, and so much more. Through Contour's outreach program called R.O.S.E., he wants to help craftsmen build their own legacy within their community. Reinvest, outreach, sustain and empower are all unwavering values of their vision to create positive change in East Africa. Mtangatanga dining table. Courtesy Contour Functional Art. The furniture that Contour is producing are beautiful, unique pieces --- crafted by hand out of rare materials in a far away place. But they are more than that. The best designs have meaning that goes beyond the object, and with the pieces that Contour is producing there is much more to them. They point a path forward, making a statement that good design is considerate of the people and the place it comes from. They speak to craft, and a nondestructive manufacturing process that does as much to build the product as it does to build up the people behind the product. In the post-globalization world we all currently live in, it is work like that which Jamar is doing through Contour which stands as a potent and evocative counter argument to an ever more international style, pointing a path forward for designers the world over towards products that truly have real impact across their entire lifespan. Products like the furniture Contour produces, what Jamar calls "functional art", have the power to fundamentally change what our relationships are with the objects with which we surround ourselves. That is a good legacy indeed. M. Lawrence Dillon is an industrial designer, writer, and architecture nerd living in Houston, Texas.
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Odyssey of a Self Taught Artist Marc Simmons Marc Simmons of Hartford, Connecticut, is a self-taught artist who works as an accountant by day and paints by night. He has been painting since 1979. Winner of the Kuriansky Foundation Award at the 16th Annual Faber Birren National Color Award Show, Mr. Simmons has exhibited at the Boulder Valley Art Council in Colorado, the Ashwell Gallery in Beverly, Massachusetts, and the New Britain Museum of American Art in Connecticut. While viewing the exhibit in the Homer Babbidge Library, pay close attention to the dates for each piece, for chronological order is useful in demonstrating Mr. Simmons'' development in terms of style and technique. For instance, his first painting, The Accountant: Picture Essays in Multiplicity will be included in the show as well as Rabbit by the Sea and Giraffe and Child, which were early attempts at painting the human figure.Marc Simmons Odyssey of a Self Taught Artist, one of Connecticut''s most talked about self taught artist in 1996, His paintings depict stories of people along the way, scenes from things, and general celebrations of life. Odyssey of a Self Taught Artist Paintings by Marc Simmons depict contemporary religious painting, The Last Supper painted in acrylic in 1986, took four years to complete, five feet high by eight feet wide on canvas. The controversal girls on the beach and the last supper have been displayed together at the University of Connecticut Health Center with outcrys of removal. The Last Supper also was on display at the University of Connecticut Babbage Library and Real Art Ways in Hartford Connecticut.
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Prototype | Prototyping Your Future / HCI IxD Any large organisation, be it public or private, monitors the media for information to keep abreast of developments in their field of interest, and usually also to become aware of positive or negative opinions expressed towards them. At least for the written media, computer programs have become very efficient at helping the human analysts significantly in their monitoring task by gathering media reports, analysing them, detecting trends and – in some cases – even to issue early warnings. We present here trend recognition-related functionality of the Europe Media Monitor (EMM) system, which was developed by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) for public administrations in the European Union (EU) and beyond. EMM performs large-scale media analysis in up to seventy languages and recognises various types of trends, some of them combining information from news articles written in different languages. EMM also lets users explore the huge amount of multilingual media data through interactive maps and graphs, allowing them to examine the data from various view points and according to multiple criteria. A lot of EMM's functionality is accessibly freely over the internet or via apps for hand-held devices. Introduction Automated Content Analysis (ACA) is likely to be more limited than human intelligence for tasks such as evaluating the relevance of information for a certain purpose, or such as drawing high-level conclusions. Computer programs are also error-prone because human language is inherently ambiguous and text often only makes sense when the meaning of words and sentences is combined with the fundamental world knowledge only people have. However, computers have the advantage that they can easily process more data in a day than a person can read in a life time. Computer programs are particular useful in application areas with a time component, such as monitoring the live printed online media, because they can ingest the latest news articles as soon as they get published and they can detect changes and recognise and visualise trends. Due to the amount of textual information they can process, computer programs can be used to gain a wider view based on more empirical evidence. These features make ACA applications powerful tools to complement human intelligence. At least for the written media, the manual paper clipping process of the past – cutting out newspaper articles and combining them into a customised in-house news digest – has to a large extent been replaced by automatic systems. Computers can take over repetitive work such as gathering media reports automatically, categorising them according to multiple categories, grouping related documents, recognising references to persons, organisations and locations in them, etc. Using this filtered and pre-processed data, human analysts can then focus on the more demanding tasks of evaluating the data, selecting the most relevant information and drawing conclusions. The work of analysts will be more efficient if the computer programs can extract more information and the more high-level information they can recognise. Trend recognition is deemed particularly useful as it partially summarises events and it may help users detect hidden developments that can only be seen from a bird's perspective, i.e. by viewing very large amounts of data. Trend visualisations may serve as early warning tools, e.g. when certain keywords are suddenly found frequently or when any combination of other text features suddenly changes, compared to the usual average background. Trend prediction would then be the next logical step: based on regular historical observations specifically co-occurring with certain trends, it should be possible to predict certain trends when the same feature combinations occur again. Such an effort was described by O'Brien (2002) for the challenging domain of conflict and instability. A major challenge for complex subject domains such as societal conflict or war is that the data needed for making a reliable prediction may simply not exist and/or that some specific factors may decide on whether or not a conflict arises, factors that lie outside the realm of statistical analysis (e.g. the sudden sickness or death of a political leader). In any case, features for predictions should probably include data that can only be found outside the document corpus, such as statistical indicators on the economy and on the society (More REFS). The main disciplines contributing to ACA are called computational linguistics, natural language processing, language engineering or text mining. In recent years, this field has made a leap forward due to insights and methods developed in statistics and in machine learning, and of course due to the strong increase of computer power, the availability of large collections of machine-readable documents and the existence of the internet. In Section 2, we will give an overview of EMM, its functionality and its users. We will particularly point out the usefulness of aggregating information derived from the news in many different languages, which has the advantage of reducing any national bias and of benefitting from information complementarity observed in media sources written in different languages. In Section 3, we will then present a variety of trend presentations and data visualisation techniques used in EMM. These include time series graphs using numbers of articles on a certain subject, the usage of automatically extracted information on named entities mentioned in any selection of news, map representations combining geographical and subject domain information, opinion trends, graphs comparing information derived from the social media with that from the online version of printed media, and more. In Section 4, we summarise the benefits of automatic media monitoring, not without pointing out limitations of ACA and the potential dangers of relying on automatically derived information based on large volumes of textual data. Europe Media Monitor (EMM) A brief Overview 2.1 Overview Europe Media Monitor (EMM) stands for a whole family of media gathering and analysis applications, including NewsBrief, NewsExplorer, the Medical Information System MedISys, BlogBrief, NewsDesk and more (Steinberger et al. 2009). EMM was entirely developed at the JRC. While the main users are the EU institutions and the national authorities of the 28 EU member states, EMM was also made accessible to international organisations (e.g. various United Nations sub-organisations, the African Union and the Organisation of American States) and to the national authorities of selected partner countries of the EU. The first version of NewsBrief came online in 2002 while NewsExplorer came in 2004, but both systems processed smaller volumes of news and they had less functionality. EMM currently gathers a daily average of about 220,000 online news articles per day in seventy languages from approximately 4,000 different web sources (status May 2015). The news sources were manually selected with the purpose to represent the major newspapers of all countries in the world and to include European-language news (especially English) from around the world. For reasons of balance, it was decided not to include all easily accessible news sources, but to monitor a comparable number of news sources per country, with a focus on Europe. EMM additionally processes news feeds from over twenty press agencies. It visits news-like websites such as governmental and non-governmental web pages and it monitors social media such as Twitter, FaceBook and selected blog sites. The public versions of EMM do not show commercially acquired documents and usually have less functionality than the EC-internal versions. Separately for each language, the news articles then undergo a series of processing steps, including language recognition, document duplicate detection, Named Entity Recognition (NER) for persons, organisations and locations, quotation extraction, sentiment/tonality analysis, categorisation into one or more of the over 1,000 different subject domain classes. EMM then clusters related articles into groups, which allows users to examine the load of articles in an organised fashion. The different EMM applications provide different functionality, described in the next section. Family of EMM news monitoring applications NewsBrief (Figure 1) is the most widely used system. It provides users with near-real-time information on their field of interest in all seventy languages. Separately for each language, news gathered within a sliding four-hour window (8 hours for some languages) are clustered, but older articles remain linked to the cluster as long as new articles arrive. For each cluster, automatically extracted meta-information such as named entities and quotations are displayed. Continuously updated graphs show the ten currently largest clusters and their development over time. By clicking on any of the clusters, users can see the list of all articles and click on each article to read the entire text on the website where it was originally found. For fourteen languages, an automatically pre-generated translation into English is available. For event types with relevance to health, safety and security, NewsBrief also displays automatically extracted event information (eight languages only), including the event type, location and time of the event, number and type of victims (dead, injured, infected), and – where this was mentioned – the perpetrator (the person or group inflicting the damage). The limitation of the event types is due to the user groups, which are mostly concerned with providing support in case of disasters, epidemics, etc. NewsBrief offers subscriptions for automatic updates per category by email, for institutional users also via SMS. BlogBrief provides the same functionality as NewsBrief, but instead of news, it processes English language blogs by bloggers who have been hand-selected due to their importance or impact (e.g. politicians and journalists). MedISys is rather similar to NewsBrief, except that all its content categories are related to issues that are relevant for Public Health monitoring. Its news categories include all major communicable diseases and other Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear (CBRN) dangers, symptoms, as well as subjects of scientific or societal value such as vaccinations and genetically modified organisms. NewsExplorer provides a more long-term view of the news (in 21 languages only) and it provides a cross-lingual functionality. Rather than displaying and grouping the current news, NewsExplorer clusters the news of a whole calendar day and displays the clusters ordered by size. For each cluster, hyperlinks lead users to the equivalent news clusters in any of the other twenty languages (where applicable) and to historically related news. NewsExplorer also includes hundreds of thousands of entity pages (persons, organisations and more), where historically gathered information on each entity is aggregated and displayed, including name variants, titles, clusters and quotes where the entity was mentioned, quotes issued by that person, other entities frequently mentioned together with this entity, and more (see Figure 2). NewsDesk is a tool for human moderation. It allows media monitoring professionals to view and select the automatically pre-processed news data and to easily create readily formatted in-house newsletters. EMM Apps for mobile devices such as iOS and Android phones and tablets first became publicly and freely available in 2013 (See Figure 3). Due to the personal nature of such devices, it became first possible to display customised starting pages for each user. For the iOS EMM App alone, about 26,000 downloads were recorded up to May 2015. This customisable version of EMM became very popular so that this functionality was implemented in a new web version of EMM, called MyNews (see below). The EMM App uses a whole new concept and way to interact with EMM Metadata, referred to as Channels. A channel is a stream of EMM articles that all share the same metadata: Channels can be (a) any News Category, (b) the Top 20 Stories in a particular language, (c) a Country/Category combination, (d) an entity recognised by EMM or (e) a search in the full-text index. Users can create such channels for themselves and they can group channels into sets, allowing them to browse freely between channels in any of these sets. When users open a channel, they get access to all the articles that are present in the channel at the time, plus the other metadata that EMM has identified and associated to that channel. Users can of course also browse the attached meta-data, turn them into new channels and pin them to the current set. Crisis management tools and products have been found to be challenging to design and produce due to the complexity of dynamic customisable data-sets defined by each individual user. The main problems in designing such tools are ambiguity, multi-platform support, data representation and other pitfalls commonly seen in mobile technology development. We adhere to a model-based methodology focusing on core functionality and logical interactions with the data-set, user-centric design and data visualisation while supporting other development activities including a requirement analysis for a wide set of devices and operating systems, verification and validation. The result of the development cycle is a layout structure in which a wide scale of EMM crisis management tools has been developed. There are many digital solutions aiming to support humanitarian and emergency response tools by means of open source information gathering and text analysis. A strong trend among those tools is the ability to detect and analyse vast amounts of data, highlighting important developments relevant to each user and use. Many solutions are already operational today, the majority of these solutions requires the user to open a webpage a few times every day to get updated. Other solutions are relying on communicating with external servers, which is expensive and demanding in maintenance. They additionally usually require user authentication, which can compromise privacy and security. Our own solution allows custom notifications based on changes in the specific data set the user has defined. When a logical threshold is activated the system displays a notification directly on the user's mobile device. By merging our notifications with the core system notification system of the mobile device, we alert the user only when it is appropriate. For example, notification will wait silently when the user is asleep and will schedule the notifications to be presented a few minutes after the user has started using the device. This is being done without any user intervention or pre-settings. This novel solution differentiates itself from most notification solutions in the fact that it does not rely on any server side technology. The application itself calculates when and how notifications are presented to the user based on an internal logic crossed with background fetching of the current total data set. MyNews is the first customisable web interface to the news items supplied by the EMM engine designed for desktop browsers. It only became available in 2015. It requires logging in and is only available in-house, i.e. it is not accessible to the wider public. MyNews is highly customisable, since it allows users to define their own specific view by selecting the topics they are most interested in. This is achieved – similarly to the EMM mobile apps – by allowing users to tune news channels focused on very specific topics. They can create as many channels as they like, and they can organise them into sets (see Figure 4). There are many different ways to create new channels, which increases greatly the flexibility of the tool, combining as a union or as an intersection of article selections based on (a) text language, (b) news categories, (c) entities, (d) news from a certain country or (e) news about a certain country, (f) top stories (i.e. the biggest clusters of news talking about the same event) or (g) freely chosen search words. When visualising the contents of any of the channels, the meta-data relating specifically to this selection of news is displayed visually (see Figure 5). The Big Screen App, available since 2014, offers a view of EMM that is visible on large screens in central locations at user organisations. It shows a revolving and continuously updated view of what is happening around the world, targeted to the respective user communities, using text, maps and graphs. Citizens and Science (CAS) is a project that aims to gauge the relative importance of reporting on Science & Technology (S&T) in traditional and social media. It does this by comparing the reporting volume from a number of European Nations and the USA of items that correspond to a number of predefined S&T categories. The sources of these items are taken from the traditional online news media, public posts from FaceBook and tweets from Twitter. CAS allows investigating the relative dominance of certain themes across different media (traditional vs. social), languages and countries and it can help find empirical evidence of biased reporting (see Figure 6; more detail in Section 3.2). Details on ingested news, sources, numbers, geographical distribution Event extraction Multilinguality in EMM Multilinguality is an extremely important feature in this news monitoring application. Covering so many languages is not only important because the European Union consists of 28 Member States with 24 official EU languages. The coverage of news in 70 different languages is also due to the insight that news reporting is complementary across different countries and languages, both regarding the contents and the opinions expressed in the media. By gathering and analysing different languages, EMM reduces any national or regional bias and it increases the coverage of events and of opinions. While major world events such as large-scale disasters, major sports events, wars and meetings of world leaders are usually also reported in English, there is ample evidence that only a minority of the smaller events is reported on in the press outside the country where the event happens. Many EMM users have specialised interests such as the monitoring of events that may have negative effects on Public Health (e.g. disease outbreaks, reports on food poisoning, lack of access to medicines) or on the stability or welfare of a country (e.g. clashes between ethnic groups, accidents, crime). An analysis has shown that the vast majority of such events is not translated or reported abroad (Piskorski et al. 2011 – PROVIDE DETAILED NUMBERS). The links between related clusters across different languages in NewsExplorer show that only some of the news items in each country or language have an equivalent in other languages while the majority of news clusters talk about subjects of national interest. Figure 7, taken from the live EMM news cluster world map, also gives evidence of the uneven distribution of language reporting for locations on the globe: News mentioning locations in Latin America are mostly reported in Spanish and Portuguese; there is little news on Russia and China that is not written in Russian or Chinese, respectively, etc. Only by combining the world news in all different languages do we get a fuller picture of what is happening . Trend observation and distribution statistics in EMM In this section, we want to give some concrete examples of trend monitoring, as well as of bird's views of large amounts of media data giving insights in the relative distribution of news contents. The selection of examples shown here is based on wanting to present different visualisation principles or types, but it is naturally also driven by the interests of EMM users. Since EMM monitors in near-real time (time stamp) large amounts of media reports from around the world and it keeps track of the information (e.g. news provenance, news source, publication language, URL, media type, time of publication, etc.) and it additionally extracts categories and features (e.g. subject domain; number of related articles; names of persons, organisations and locations; sentiment; combinations of features; average values, etc.), it is in principle possible to produce and visualise statistics on any feature or feature combination. This can be done for a specific point in time (most EMM users are interested in now), it can be done for any moment back in time, it is possible to compare current values to average values, and it is possible to perform a time series analysis, i.e. it is possible to show any change over time. Note, however, that, while all such meta-data extracted by EMM can be stored, the original full text of the news has to be deleted after the analysis, for copyright reasons. Users will thus be able to see the meta data and a snippet of the news text (title and the first few words), but if they want to see the full text, they have to follow the hyperlink provided. Whether or not the full text is still accessible then depends on the news source. In the following sub-sections, we will present some types of trend observations and visual presentations of distribution statistics. Bar graphs and pie charts The simplest and probably clearest way of presenting static data is achieved using bar graphs and pie charts. Figure 5 shows three different bar charts to visualise different aspects for the same selection of news documents (provenance of the news, countries mentioned in the articles, and subject domains/entities referred to). These charts give the reader an overview of the whole collection of documents and it thus helps them evaluate and categorise the contents before reading them in detail. Figure 7b shows the language distribution of a multilingual set of European news articles talking on the subject of Science & Technology and comparing it with the language distribution in all articles covering the same time period. It is immediately visible that English and Polish language articles (left) are over-proportionally talking about S&T, while German and French S&T articles are under-represented, compared to the average. Maps visualising geographical distributions Map views are rather popular and intuitive. Figure 5 shows an aggregated map view (number of articles per continent/country/region, depending on the zoom level) while Figure 7 shows all news clusters (or those in a selection of languages). Many types of map data are available, allowing to combine any EMM information with third-party information, as seen in Figure 8 . Any map data in EMM is hyperlinked to the underlying news articles together with the extracted meta-information so that users can verify the contents and read the underlying news sources. Trend graphs Trend graphs show a simple correlation between at least two variables, of which one is time. Typically, they take the shape of line graphs or bar graphs where one axis represents time. Figure 1 shows the size (number of news articles) of the ten largest English language news clusters and their development over the past 12 hours, with a ten-minute resolution (update frequency). The interactive graph clearly shows which stories are most discussed. By hovering with the mouse over any of the points, the most typical news article header of that moment in time is shown so that users can get informed of the development of that story. The system decides on the most typical article header statistically by selecting the medoid, i.e. the document that is closest to the centroid of the vector. By clicking on any of the curves, a new page will open showing the articles that are part of that cluster plus all meta-information available to the system. This graph thus shows ten trend lines in one graph, for the sake of comparison. Similarly, Figure 6 visualises the numbers of news articles and of Social Media postings over time on four science areas. The graph shows longer-term developments. The chosen resolution is one day. For each of the four science areas, two trend curves are displayed to facilitate the visual understanding of the relative long-term development. Such graphs can be rather revealing. For instance, Figure 9 compares Science & Technology reporting in Europe and in the US. For better comparison, the numbers have been normalised: the x-axis shows the percentage of S&T articles compared to all articles, instead of absolute numbers. This graph reveals that the intensity of reporting on S&T in Europe lags behind that observed in US-American media (0.5% of all articles in all languages in the EU vs. 2.8% in the USA report about S&T). Comparing only English language articles in predominantly English-speaking countries (UK and Ireland in Europe; graph not shown here) with the English language articles in the USA, the difference is smaller, but it still notable (1.5% of articles in the UK and in Ireland vs. 3.2% in the USA). To put these numbers into perspective: the reporting on the reference categories Conflict, Ecology, Society and Sports, considering only the English language, was respectively 2.56%, 0.14%, 0.59% and 5.46% for the USA and 1.93%, 0.09%, 0.45% and 6.63% for the EU. This means that the reporting on S&T issues does not fall far behind the reporting on Sports in the USA, but in Europe reporting on Sports is 4 times more than on S&T issues. Note that, in EMM, sports articles are additionally only taken from general news streams because EMM does not scan sports pages of news sites. Looking in detail at a specific topic such as Space, we observe that there is a very strong correlation between the peaks, but the volumes are much smaller in the UK and Ireland, compared to the USA (See Figure 9). Other than a weak correlation between product announcements in the media and on twitter, we have not observed a clear media-driven discussion on the social media, i.e. we have not been able to establish any correlation between media reports and the user-driven content. Such data is a good starting point for the work of social scientists, who can then search for an interpretation and for explanations. Economists and politicians may then think of possible remedies (if needed and wanted). Figure 10 shows the interactive long-term news story timeline produced in EMM-NewsExplorer. The graph shows the number of news articles per day in the daily news clusters about the same event or subject. By hovering over any of the bars, the news cluster title is displayed so that users can explore what happened that day. By clicking on that day, the users are taken to the page with information on that day's news cluster in order to read the articles, see the related meta-information and follow hyperlinks to related reports in other languages. The graph allows exploring developments over longer periods of time and refreshing one's memory on what happened when. Figure 11 shows the development of positive or negative tonality (or sentiment) measured in English and French news articles, using a one-week resolution. Early warning graphs Figure 8 visualises results on the most recent events of a certain type, allowing stakeholders to become aware of the latest developments, to deepen their understanding of what happened (by reading the related news articles) and to take action, if needed. Another type of early warning is achieved with statistical means, as shown at the top of Figure 10, taken from EMM's Medical Information System MedISys. The graph called daily alert statistics shows the currently biggest threats world-wide, with decreasing relevance from left to right (the red threats are the ones with the highest alert levels). MedISys counts the number of articles in the last 24 hours for any country-threat combination (e.g. tuberculosis and Poland) and compares it to the two-week average count for this same combination. This ratio is then normalised by the number of articles for different days of the week (there are less articles on the weekend). The alert statistics graph then shows the results of all calculations, ranked by the value of this ratio . Note that the ratio is entirely independent of the absolute numbers as it rather measures the unexpectedness. Each country-threat combination is shown in two columns: the left one (light blue) shows the observed number of articles while the right one (red, yellow or blue) shows the expected two-week average. An important feature of this graph and of MedISys/EMM as a whole is that this alert is language-independent. The same categories for countries and for threats exist for (almost) all EMM languages, meaning that the articles may be found in one language only (e.g. Polish or Arabic), which often is different from the languages spoken by the MedISys user. The graph is interactive: Users can click on any of the bars to jump to a new page where all relevant articles for this country-threat combination are displayed, together with a heat map and a trend line showing the development over the past 14 days. The Spain-legionellosis threat combination in Figure 10 no longer is a top threat as it had already been reported on for four days. Further graph types used in EMM Figure 11 shows a node graph visualising co-occurrence relations between people. For each person, the 100 most associated entities (persons or organisations) are displayed. The subset of common entities is highlighted in red. The graph is interactive: by clicking on any of the entity nodes, they jump to a page with the news mentioning that entity and displaying all automatically extracted meta-information (e.g. Figure 2), or to the Wikipedia page for that entity. Further entities can be added to the same graph. EMM-NewsExplorer produces the correlation data by counting which entities are mentioned together with which other entities in the same news items. In order to suppress media VIPs such as the US president from the purely frequency-based correlation lists (called 'related entities' in NewsExplorer), a weighting formula is used that brings those entities to the top that are mostly mentioned together with this person and not so much with other persons. The data, referred to in NewsExplorer as 'associated entities', is produced on the basis of mention co-occurrence in the news in 21 different languages, i.e. it is less biased by the reporting language than data produced by a monolingual media monitoring system. EMM recognises direct speech quotations in the news in about twenty different languages and keeps track of who issued the quotation and who is mentioned inside the quotation. Figure 12 shows a quotation network indicating who mentions whom (arrows). Persons most referred to are automatically placed closer to the centre of the graph. During the 2007 presidential elections in France, it was observed that Nicolas Sarkozy, who was the winner of the elections, was consistently more central than his opponent Ségolène Royal. Quotation networks are no longer used in EMM. The same applies to topic maps, which display the most prominent subject matters referred to in a document collection. The topics are grouped into islands of relatedness (using a method known as Kohonen Maps). The more prominent a group of topics is in the collection, the higher the mountains on the island, with peaks being snow-covered. Summary and conclusions, pitfalls Computers have the ability to sieve through large volumes of data in little time and the technologies required for Automated Content Analysis (ACA) have matured to a level where automatically produced results can be useful for the human analyst. We have argued that a man-machine collaboration for the analysis of large volumes of media reports will produce best results because people and computers have complementary strengths. We have presented the main functionality of the European Commission's family of Europe Media Monitor (EMM) applications, which currently gathers an average of 220,000 online news articles per day from about 5,000 online news sources in seventy languages (and also from social media postings about certain themes), categorises the news into about 2,000 different categories, groups related articles, extracts various types of information from them, links related articles over time and across languages and presents the analysis results in a variety of ways to the human end user. Moderation tools support the users in viewing the data, in selecting and amending it and in producing in-house newsletters for the information-seeking decision takers. Monitoring not only English or some widely spoken languages is important in order to avoid bias and also because the news is complementary across languages, both for contents and for the sentiment contained therein. Automatic tools that process and analyse documents turn unstructured information into a structured format that can easily be processed by machines and that also provides useful data for the human user. This results in a data collection, where for each article, we know the news source, the country of origin, the language, the timestamp of the publication, the news categories, the persons, organisations and locations mentioned therein, related articles within the same and across different languages, quotations by and about persons. Additionally, we have data about trends, i.e. whether news related to the same event or subject are increasing or decreasing in numbers over time, and there is some information on sentiment/tonality. This structured collection makes it in principle possible to produce any statistics and to establish any trends related to these types of information. For selected subjects and feature combinations, the JRC regularly publishes its analysis, allowing EMM users to have a deeper insight into the publications on subject areas of their interest. In this article, we presented a range of different types of analyses and visualisations in order to give an overview of distributions and trends observed during large-scale media analysis. Such an extraction and aggregation of data is not usually the final objective, but it normally is the starting point for an intellectual human analysis. Analysts can get inspired by the data, questions may arise, suspicions may get confirmed or contradicted. Used carefully, we believe that the analyses produced by EMM or similar systems can be very useful because they may be used as an inspiration and as empirical evidence for any argument human analysts may want to make. However, we find it extremely important that users be aware of the limitations and of possible pitfalls when using such data, be it from EMM or from other automatic systems: First of all, media monitoring is not reality monitoring. What the media say is not necessarily factually true and media attention towards certain subjects usually differs from the real-life distribution of facts or events, giving media consumers a biased view. Media reporting is heavily influenced by the political or geographical viewpoint of the news source. It is therefore useful to analyse a large, well-balanced set of media sources coming from many different countries world-wide. EMM aims to reach such a balance, but sources are also added on request of users, it is not always known what political standpoints newspapers have, and not all news sources are freely accessible. For this reason, EMM displays the list of media sources so that users can form their own opinion. Any analysis, be it automatic or man-made, is error-prone. This is even true for basic functionalities such as the recognition of person names in documents and the categorisation of texts according to subject domains. Machines might make simple mistakes easily spottable by human analysts, such as categorising an article as being about the outbreak of communicable diseases when category-defining words such as tuberculosis are found in articles discussing a new song produced by a famous music producer, which is easily spottable by a person. On the other hand, machines are better at going through very large document collections and they are very consistent in their categorisation while people suffer from inconsistency and they tend to generalise on the basis of the small document collection they have read. For these reasons, it is crucial that any summaries, trend visualisations or other analyses can be verified by the human analysts. Users should be able to verify the data by drilling down, e.g. viewing the original text data in the case of peaks or unexpected developments, and especially to get an intuitive confidence measure by viewing a number of cases that lead to conclusions. Most of EMM's graphs are interactive and allow viewing the underlying data. It would be useful if system providers additionally offered confidence values regarding the accuracy of their analyses. For EMM, most specialised applications on individual information extraction tools include such tool evaluation results and an error analysis (e.g. XXX-REF). However, the tools can behave very differently depending on the text type and the language, making the availability of drill-down functionality indispensable. End users should be careful with accuracy statistics given by system providers. Especially commercial vendors (but not only) are good at presenting their systems in a very positive light. For instance, our experience has shown that, especially in the field of sentiment analysis (opinion mining, tonality), high accuracy is difficult to achieve even when the statistical accuracy measurement Precision and Recall are high. Overall Precision (accuracy for the system's predictions) may for instance indeed be high when considering predictions for positive, negative and neutral sentiment, but this might simply be because the majority class (e.g. neutral) is very large and the system is good at spotting this. Accuracy statistics may also have been produced on an easy-to-analyse dataset while the data at hand may be harder to analyse. Sentiment, for instance, may be easier to detect on product review pages on vending sites such as Amazon than on the news because journalists tend to want to give the impression of neutrality. Machine learning approaches to text analysis are particularly promising because computers are good at optimising evidence and because machine learning tools are cheap to produce, compared to man-made rules. However, the danger is that the automatically learnt rules are applied to texts that are different from the training data as comparable data rarely exists. Manually produced rules might be easier to tune and to adapt. Again, statistics on the performance of automatic tools should be considered with care. Within EMM, machine learning is used to learn vocabulary and recognition patterns, but these are then usually manually verified and generalised (e.g. Zavarella et al. 2010; Tanev & Magnini 2008). To summarise: we firmly believe that Automated Content Analysis works when it is used with care and when its strengths and limits are known. Computers and people have different strengths which – in combination – can be very powerful as they combine large-scale evidence gathering with the intelligence of human judgement. References Atkinson M, Keim D, Schaefer M, Franz W, Leitner-Fischer F, Zintgraf F. (2010). DYNEVI - DYnamic News Entity VIsualization. In: J.Kohlhammer, D.Keim (eds). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology. Golsar (Germany): The Eurographics Association. pp. 69-74 . Atkinson Martin, Jakub Piskorski, Erik van der Goot & Roman Yangarber (2011). Multilingual Real-Time Event Extraction for Border Security Intelligence Gathering. In: U. Kock Wiil (ed.) Counterterrorism and Open Source Intelligence. Springer Lecture Notes in Social Networks, Vol. 2, 1st Edition, 2011, ISBN: 978-3-7091-0387-6, pp 355-390. Atkinson Martin, Jakub Piskorski, Hristo Tanev, Roman Yangarber & Vanni Zavarella. Techniques for Multilingual Security-related Event Extraction from Online News. In: Przepiórkowski Adam et al. Computational Linguistics Applications, pp. 163-186. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2013. Atkinson Martin, Jenya Belayeva, Vanni Zavarella, Jakub Piskorski, S. Huttunen, A. Vihavainen, Roman Yangarber (2010). News Mining for Border Security Intelligence. In IEEE ISI-2010: Intelligence and Security Informatics, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Balahur Alexandra & Hristo Tanev (2013). Detecting event-related links and sentiments from social media texts. Proceedings of the Conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL'2013). Balahur Alexandra, Ralf Steinberger, Erik van der Goot, Bruno Pouliquen & Mijail Kabadjov (2009). Opinion Mining on Newspaper Quotations. Proceedings of the workshop 'Intelligent Analysis and Processing of Web News Content' (IAPWNC), held at the 2009 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conferences on Web Intelligence and Intelligent Agent Technology, pp. 523-526. Milano, Italy, 15.09.2009. Balahur Alexandra, Ralf Steinberger, Mijail Kabadjov, Vanni Zavarella, Erik van der Goot, Matina Halkia, Bruno Pouliquen & Jenya Belyaeva (2010). Sentiment Analysis in the News. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'2010), pp. 2216-2220. Valletta, Malta, 19-21 May 2010. Barboza P, Vaillant L, Mawudeku A, Nelson NP, Hartley DM, Madoff LC, Linge JP, Collier N, Brownstein JS, Yangarber R, Astagneau P (2013). Early Alerting Reporting Project Of The Global Health Security Initiative. Evaluation of epidemic intelligence systems integrated in the early alerting and reporting project for the detection of A/H5N1 influenza events. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):e57252. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057252. Epub 2013 Mar 5. Jakub Piskorski, Hristo Tanev, Martin Atkinson, Erik van der Goot & Vanni Zavarella (2011). Online News Event Extraction for Global Crisis Surveillance. Transactions on Computational Collective Intelligence. Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS 6910/2011, pp. 182-212. Krstajic, M.; Bak, P.; Oelke, D..; Atkinson, M.; Keim, D.A. (2010). Applied Visual Exploration on Real-Time News Feeds Using Polarity and Geo-Spatial Analysis. Web Information Systems and Technologies WEBIST 2010, Valencia, 7-10 April 2010. Krstajic, M.; Mansmann, F.; Stoffel, A.; Atkinson, M.; Keim, D.A. (2010). Processing online news streams for large-scale semantic analysis. 26th International Conference on Data Engineering (ICDE) Workshops, pp.215-220, 1-6 March 2010. Linge Jens, Ralf Steinberger, Thomas Weber, Roman Yangarber, Erik van der Goot, Delilah Al Khudhairy & Nikolaos Stilianakis (2009). Internet Surveillance Systems for Early Alerting of Health Threats. EuroSurveillance Vol. 14, Issue 13. Stockholm, 2 April 2009. Linge, J.P., Mantero, J. Fuart, F., Belyaeva, J., Atkinson, M., van der Goot, E. (2011). Tracking Media Reports on the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany. In: Malaga. P. Kostkova, M. Szomszor, and D. Fowler (eds.), Proceedings of eHealth conference (eHealth 2011), LNICST 91, pp. 178–185, 2012. PUBSY JRC65929. Piskorski Jakub, Jenya Belyaeva & Martin Atkinson (2011). Exploring the usefulness of cross-lingual information fusion for refining real-time news event extraction. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP'2011), pp. 210-217. Hissar, Bulgaria, 12-14 September 2011 Pouliquen Bruno, Hristo Tanev & Martin Atkinson (2008). Extracting and Learning Social Networks out of Multilingual News. Proceedings of the social networks and application tools workshop (SocNet-08) pp. 13-16. Skalica, Slovakia, 19-21 September 2008. Pouliquen Bruno, Marco Kimler, Ralf Steinberger, Camelia Ignat, Tamara Oellinger, Ken Blackler, Flavio Fuart, Wajdi Zaghouani, Anna Widiger, Ann-Charlotte Forslund, Clive Best (2006). Geocoding multilingual texts: Recognition, Disambiguation and Visualisation. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'2006), pp. 53-58. Genoa, Italy, 24-26 May 2006. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger & Clive Best (2007). Automatic Detection of Quotations in Multilingual News. In: Proceedings of the International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing (RANLP'2007), pp. 487-492. Borovets, Bulgaria, 27-29.09.2007. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger & Olivier Deguernel (2008). Story tracking: linking similar news over time and across languages. In Proceedings of the 2nd workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2008) held at CoLing'2008. Manchester, UK, 23 August 2008. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger, Camelia Ignat & Tamara Oellinger (2006). Building and displaying name relations using automatic unsupervised analysis of newspaper articles. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Statistical Analysis of Textual Data (JADT'2006). Besançon, 19-21 April 2006. Pouliquen Bruno, Ralf Steinberger, Jenya Belyaeva (2007). Multilingual multi-document continuously updated social networks. Proceedings of the Workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2007) held at RANLP'2007, pp. 25-32. Borovets, Bulgaria, 26 September 2007. Sean P. O'Brien (2002). Anticipating the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. An Early Warning Approach to Conflict and Instability Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 46 No. 6, December 2002, pp. 791-811 Steinberger Ralf & Bruno Pouliquen (2009). Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition. In: Satoshi Sekine & Elisabete Ranchhod (eds.): Named Entities - Recognition, Classification and Use, Benjamins Current Topics, Volume 19, pp. 137-164. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 978-90-272-8922 3. ( Steinberger Ralf (2012). A survey of methods to ease the development of highly multilingual Text Mining applications. Language Resources and Evaluation Journal, Springer, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp. 155-176 (DOI 10.1007/s10579-011-9165-9). Steinberger Ralf, Bruno Pouliquen & Erik van der Goot (2009). An Introduction to the Europe Media Monitor Family of Applications. In: Fredric Gey, Noriko Kando & Jussi Karlgren (eds.): Information Access in a Multilingual World - Proceedings of the SIGIR 2009 Workshop (SIGIR-CLIR'2009), pp. 1-8. Boston, USA. 23 July 2009. Steinberger Ralf, Flavio Fuart, Erik van der Goot, Clive Best, Peter von Etter & Roman Yangarber (2008). Text Mining from the Web for Medical Intelligence. In: Fogelman-Soulié Françoise, Domenico Perrotta, Jakub Piskorski & Ralf Steinberger (eds.): Mining Massive Data Sets for Security. pp. 295-310. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tanev Hristo & Bernardo Magnini (2008). Weakly supervised approaches for ontology population. In: Paul Buitelaar & Philipp Cimiano (eds.): Ontology learning and population: Bridging the Gap between Text and Knowledge. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 167. Tanev Hristo & Josef Steinberger (2013). Semi-automatic acquisition of lexical resources and grammars for event extraction in Bulgarian and Czech. Proceedings of the 4th Biennial International Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing, held at ACL'2013, pp. 110-118. Tanev Hristo (2007). Unsupervised Learning of Social Networks from a Multiple-Source News Corpus. Proceedings of the Workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2007) held at RANLP'2007, pp. 33-40. Borovets, Bulgaria, 26 September 2007. Tanev Hristo, Bruno Pouliquen, Vanni Zavarella & Ralf Steinberger (2010). Automatic Expansion of a Social Network Using Sentiment Analysis. In: Nasrullah Memon, Jennifer Jie Xu, David Hicks & Hsinchun Chen (eds). Annals of Information Systems, Volume 12. Special Issue on Data Mining for Social Network Data, pp. 9-29. Springer Science and Business Media (DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-6287-4_2). Tanev Hristo, Jakub Piskorski & Martin Atkinson (2008). Real-time News Event Extraction for Global Crisis Monitoring. In V. Sugumaran, M. Spiliopoulou, E. Kapetanios (editors) Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2008 ), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Cool. 5039, 24-27 June, London, UK. Tanev Hristo, Maud Ehrmann, Jakub Piskorski & Vanni Zavarella (2012). Enhancing Event Descriptions through Twitter Mining. In: AAAI Publications, Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp 587-590. Dublin, June 2012. Tanev Hristo, Vanni Zavarella, Jens Linge, Mijail Kabadjov, Jakub Piskorski, Martin Atkinson & Ralf Steinberger (2009). Exploiting Machine Learning Techniques to Build an Event Extraction System for Portuguese and Spanish. In: linguaMÁTICA Journal:2, pp. 55-66. Available at: . Turchi Marco, Martin Atkinson, Alastair Wilcox, Brett Crawley, Stefano Bucci, Ralf Steinberger & Erik van der Goot (2012). ONTS: "OPTIMA" News Translation System. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL), pp. 25–30, Avignon, France, April 23 - 27 2012. Van der Goot Erik, Hristo Tanev & Jens Linge (2013). Combining twitter and media reports on public health events in MedISys. Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on World Wide Web companion, pp. 703-718. International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2013. Zavarella Vanni, Hristo Tanev, Jens Linge, Jakub Piskorski, Martin Atkinson & Ralf Steinberger (2010). Exploiting Multilingual Grammars and Machine Learning Techniques to Build an Event Extraction System for Portuguese. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Processing of Portuguese Language (PROPOR'2010), Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27-30 April 2010. Springer Lecture Notes for Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 6001, pp. 21-24. Springer. Observing Trends in Automated Multilingual Media Analysis Authors: Ralf, Aldo, Alexandra, Guillaume, Hristo, Martin, Michele, Yaniv, Erik European Commission – Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra (VA), Italy e-mail: [email protected] ( corresponding author )
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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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Right From the Hip | Observations & Opinions | Politics, Law & Current Events In which our Vagabond Seeks a City in Motion. It is early Saturday evening, the doors are open, the coffee house beckons. I enter into a crowd – young and old, in pairs, groups and singles, are standing in line, checking their phones, reviewing the menu board, sitting astride chairs, leaning on counters, stirring their mugs, contemplating their next move, and conversing with animation and verve. After securing a mug of herbal orange blossom tea and plain pound cake (something different and contemplative), no booths are available. I occupy a seat at a long, central bench and table with the other patrons. Immediately next to me sits a young couple, face to face, wearing various shades of blue denim (she also sports a floppy, soft-brim robin egg blue hat), who have stopped talking to enjoy one of the house's calorie-generous desserts. Their desserts are laden with strawberries, fresh, fragrant, jumbo-sized, strawberries, tumbling generously, abundantly, off the dessert cakes which shyly peek out underneath. These are six-dollar desserts, suitable for serious courtship. The whipped cream had disappeared already. Their strawberries are not shy - they flaunt their bright deep red strawberry color, their inviting texture, they flirt their white edges. These strawberries profligately cast about their unmistakable ripe fragrance. Indeed, the fragrance demands attention. For an unmeasured moment, these strawberries own the bench and my perceptions – my other senses have quietly stepped down and wait for the strawberry fragrance to master the stage, to take its bows, to aromatically speak for strawberries everywhere. Each strawberry is joined with all strawberries - connected in a web of genetic code, agricultural pedigree, sense perception and idea. The smell, the fragrance and appearance of these strawberries, and for a distinct slice of time, the connected picture, the taste, the idea of many strawberries, all strawberries, as an adjective as well as a noun, occupy my thoughts. If there had been no name for strawberries ever given, I would have conjured a name for them, then and there. Strawberries are versatile. We can give Latin names to their various genus, Fragaria. We may note that each apparent achene, or seed, on the outside is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it, perhaps explaining why the couple beside me ordered them for dessert. Philosophers might debate whether or not there exists a non-physical essence of strawberry, an ideal Platonic form of strawberry, or be skeptical that we could ever be sure that what we perceive as strawberry was reliable. Mischievous children have picked them to throw at each other. We can observe them on wild vines, clip, transplant and cultivate them in our gardens, study what combination of sun and water gives them the greatest growth and sweetest flavor, pick them gingerly to set at our breakfast table, eat them singly or in groups in little morning fruit bowls. We have financed agri-businesses to grow them in vast number, might someday sell strawberry futures on a commodities exchange, have hired agricultural workers to pick them in mass quantity. Graduate students in economics might measure the economic impact of establishing a minimum wage for strawberry pickers, while employers make certain their immigration papers are in order. We can contest the right of strawberry pickers to go on strike, and use courtrooms to enjoin secondary strikes by other fruit pickers. Independent truck drivers can transport them in refrigerated, insured freight carriers at free-on-board rates. District managers of supermarket chains can offer them for retail sale in little green baskets at trendy supergrocers which have memorable advertising logos and trained-to-be-friendly checkout people, and serve them in coffee houses at upscale prices. In laboratories we can measure their molecular carbon chains, forensically identify them with gas and mass chromatography, and fit them into biochemical schema of study. We can mash them into lipstick or cream for purposes of skin and beauty enhancement, advertised by slender, photogenic models. We can handwash our dirty dishes in our neglected kitchen sinks, or shampoo our thinning hair with liquid soaps flavored with them. No small series of achievements, for an aggregate accessory fruit. But we have strawberries as descriptors also, as concepts and additions to the language in which we think and speak and describe, in which we write poetry and love sonnets. They act as triggers or stimulants, to remind us of things, things we may want to remember. I bend my head over my tea and soak a piece of my cake into my orange-blossom tea. But these strawberries are not yet done their work. The fragrances of my coffee-house neighbors' strawberries trigger vivid memories. A series of pictures is summoned up, interior miniatures composing a sequenced event in my life, a road trip of an altogether different sort. Gently unfaded, affectionately insistent, parading in silence one at a time yet making a whole, a set of gliding images from the past paints over my vision. ____________________ My wife, Erma, and I were dating, and engaged. I was just 32. At the time, she was just 23 years of age, not quite 5'2" unless she stood on her tiptoes (she was generous in describing her height on various health and application forms), slender, lithe, with quick, athletic reflexes, light brown hair never allowed to grow long, a bright upturned face full of energy, green-grey eyes that were never quite the same shade from day to day, and a stand-your-ground manner suitable for the youngest child who had five older brothers. Erma had been a Christian since her experiences as a teenager in church youth group, and had been well taught by a beloved senior pastor, Reverend Pusey. She could field a ground ball or steal third base, tell every player on the Philadelphia Flyers in 1977 (she still had a Bobby Clark doll) or quote scripture by memory, intelligently and to the point under discussion. She was a secretary at DuPont, a job she had held since the day after she graduated from high school. There was emotional trauma in her childhood, including a miserable relationship with her father (the misery shared by her brothers and sister), and a tragic gun accident which took the life of one of her brothers, after her father irresponsibly brought home a rifle and gave it to his children without supervision or safety instruction. The collapse of the family unit brought economic difficulties. Erma bubbled over with hope and energy – she was ready to wrestle wildcats, hid her fears, counted her pennies, and laughed loudly and easily. Erma pooled shock, grief, loss and anger in reservoirs of her soul. She introduced herself to a pair of young men attending a Christian singles conference in Sandy Cove, Maryland, one of whom was me, because she recognized the church my friend Dave had announced at the beginning of the conference, and that was enough of a conversational opening for her. We took a trip to North Carolina, to visit her brother Noel, the only one of her family to graduate from college. Noel was a marketing manager for a large agricultural chemicals company, and he was moved about the country every few years. For several years he had lived near Research Triangle Park outside Raleigh. Our trip was a happy one; we packed up Erma's silver Honda Civic, years old but running like a Swiss watch, and toodled down the highway one Monday in the early summer. Life was opening up. My disorderly life, spread across two coasts, was moving in a good direction. Erma, deeply emotionally cautious, was hoping that the world held good things as well. After staying the first night with friends in Virginia, we arrived after a day of easy driving at Noel's, still single. As always, he was a gracious host, owner of a sensible but well-maintained home. His practice of buying and selling homes as he was transferred around the company proved to be economically rewarding. I don't know whether he liked his job in its own right, but years later when he was offered a retirement package at the age of 50, he took it, and to my knowledge, has never worked 9-5 job since. Noel was working 9-5 when we arrived though, so during the day we were left to our own devices around Raleigh, Chapel Hill, Durham and the surrounding areas. Open to guidebook suggestions, we went to the North Carolina Botanical Gardens in Chapel HiIl. We walked the displays of native plants, violet-purple iris, milkweed, wood anemone, maidenhair ferns, wild indigo, water-plaintains, bluestars. The Gardens have a display of carnivorous plants, pitcher plants, Venus fly traps, along with their orchids and lilies. I found a very tiny spider among the carnivorous plant displays, picked him up with a leaf, and deposited him into a Venus fly-trap, which promptly, as advertised, closed its tender petals. The wispy trigger hairs of the plant quite quickly formed a bars-of-a-jail cell effect as the plant's leaves closed reflexively – I could see the tiny spider, looking out, as forlorn and puzzled as any prisoner would be. At the time, I had nothing to say to him, and regretted somewhat causing his fate. With the advantages of hindsight and advancing years, today, I might encourage him with words of sympathy – "you and me both, brother," a final salute, issued nunc pro tunc. Erma and I went to see a movie in the evening. Mr. Hulot's Holiday. Monsier Hulot, the French actor Jacques Tati, "decides to vacation at a beautiful seaside, resort. Rest and relaxation don't last long, given the gangly gent's penchant for ridiculous antics." Released in 1954, you have to be in the right mood to see this slapstick farce. Erma and I were nearly alone in the theater, it was a Tuesday evening. We were in the mood – I laughed hard. Erma laughed uproariously, full volume. I never heard anyone laugh so hard – her cackles filled the theater – no nook or cranny escaped the piercing volume of her laughter. Many times. How can you not fall in love with a girl like that? If anyone else was in the theater at all (maybe one other couple), they certainly knew they weren't alone. The next day, we visited Duke University in Durham. The lawns and grounds were green, immaculate, carefully maintained; the buildings, the Chapel, all were elite-college campus beautiful. I daresay visiting parents longed to expend vast sums of money to send their children there. After walking around for several hours, near the end of the day, we found a small restaurant/coffee-shop. Because of the day and hour we were again nearly alone. The shop featured a strawberry desert, loaded with whipped cream. They were the freshest, sweetest, most flagrantly-and-fragrantly-delicious strawberries imaginable. It was a lifetime trophy desert. The taste, the aroma of the strawberries filled our noses, our palates, our tongues – our sweet, ripe taste buds went off like bells. Erma was just swooning with joy. It seemed as if we just sat and ate for hours (which could not possibly be true), as if the strawberry dessert stopped local time to go on forever. These strawberries had royal, domestic, South American and continental antecedents. According to Wikipedia, the garden strawberry was first grown or bred in Brittany, France in the 1750s by crossing Fragaria Virginia from eastern North America with Fragaria Chiloenses, brought from Chile. The French began harvesting wild strawberries in the 14th century. Strawberries were added to cream in the Court of King Henry VIII. What can I add to that? World production of strawberries is in excess of nine million tons, and not a strawberry too many. After we had spent a few days at Noel's, we drove east to go to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The Outer Banks are a resort area, but wilder, less cultivated than the homogenized resort areas one sometimes visits. We rented two separate hotel rooms to stay in the area around Kitty Hawk. I had sexual relationships prior to becoming a Christian. Erma had many dating relationships, but had learned her sexual ethics as a teenager at a conservative, evangelical church and drew a line she believed in. We did not sleep together on that trip. It helped to make our dating relationship simple, clean, pure, uncomplicated. (Our physical relationship began on our honeymoon - when Erma exited the bathroom and entered our bedroom the evening of our 11 a.m. wedding in Bear, Delaware. We had driven to a bed and breakfast in Milford, New Jersey, Linda and Rob Castagna's Chestnut Hill on the Delaware River. Looking at the teddy-bear decorated bed and room in the honeymoon suite and at me, Erma asked, "do you think we should pray?" I answered, "I already have.") But that wedding ceremony day was still in our distance, like a beckoning city on a hill. The next day on our excursion to North Carolina, we traipsed about on the Kitty Hawk beach. It was not yet warm enough for swimming; the beaches were nearly empty. I discovered that small fish, mullets or small kingfish, filled some of the deeper surf pools and beach ponds left by retreating waves. There is a picture of me taken by Erma, bending over at the waist, looking down, with my pants rolled up as I stood in the middle of one of these surf pools, wearing a plaid shirt with the sleeves rolled up, trying to catch little silver fish with my bared, cupped hands. Trying to catch small fish by hand was a predictably unsuccessful effort, but loads of fun to try. I looked perfectly ridiculous, and we were perfectly happy. On our trip back in the silver Honda Civic from North Carolina, driving north to Wilmington and Phoenixville, we sang hymns on the road. Neither Erma or I have any musical talent at all - neither of us can carry a melody. But there was no music critic in the car, no one to be distressed. We sang "Fairest Lord Jesus," in toneless acapella - it fit our mood and excursion well. _______________________ I was interrupted in my coffee-house reveries by a young man, of Asian background, whose face I recognized, but whose name I didn't know. He had been listening to me a previous week, when I was proclaiming out loud verses from the Book of Revelation, the lake of fire verses, the judgment verses, on a previous morning when the coffee house was much emptier than it was that Saturday evening. His interruption lead into quite an extended discussion, carried out over three locations in the coffee house. "Hello," he said. I responded with my own 'hello.' "I saw you here the other week. You were reading out loud. I was standing over there" – he indicated where he had been standing when I had my brief confrontation with the coffee house manager, Jen, over reading Bible verses out loud. I nodded 'yes' and offered my hand and introduced myself. "My name is Qi," he introduced himself with a small but perceptible bob of the head. His English was good, with a slight British accent. Qi looked to be in his early twenties, fifty years younger than I. His hair was black parted on one side, his chin and cheeks clean-shaven, his eyes brown, his lashes somewhat long, his build slim, probably 5' 10" in height and weighing 140 or 150 pounds, wearing blue jeans and a neat maroon pullover jersey. His facial expression was respectful, intelligent and friendly. "I wanted to ask you. Why were you reading out loud? And why did you choose those verses?" I had to think to recreate my thoughts and mood the previous week. "I can't answer that easily. God moves inside me without giving me explanations. Why those verses? I felt like I wanted to get somewhere - we ought to get somewhere. I saw those verses on the path." "I heard what you said to the manager. The owner doesn't mind?" His expression suggested that people reading out loud in a coffee house crossed a line in the culture he came from. "No," I told him, "the owner doesn't mind." We paused our conversation for a moment, so Qi could find a way around the bench and people to squeeze in opposite me. He was sitting right next to the strawberry-eating couple, also seated across each other on the bench, as I was. "Do you work, or are you a student?" I asked. Qi explained his background to me, responding to my questions. He was 23 years old, a graduate student seeking a Master's degree in statistics from the graduate department of a nearby university. He was an exchange student, a resident of China, whose family came from near Beijing. Much of his life was not spent in China however. His father was an investment banker, and they spent a number of years in different countries and cities, including London, where he learned as a teenager to speak English well, and learned his slight but discernible British accent. He was one of three children, and had two sisters, one older, who was married and living near Shanghai, and one considerably younger sister, who was living at home near Beijing, where his parents had returned. I asked him about China's one-child policy and he explained that his father had sufficient resources to obtain relief from the rule. Since the first child in the family was a daughter, apparently this exception was not difficult to obtain with respect to Qi. Having official sanction for having a third child was more difficult, but by then his father had political and economic connections. By this time the strawberry dessert-eating couple had left. Their seats were taken by others so it wasn't always easy to conduct our conversation. The coffee house was noisy, there was music in the background and people were sliding behind us at times to reach seats further down the long benches on which Qi and I were seated. When I paused my deposition-like questions, I asked if he attended any local church. He did, he explained, and had been for about a year. "What did you think when I read those verses out loud?" I asked. "How did you react?" "I like hearing the Book of Revelation read aloud. It doesn't often get read out loud. When you hear a sermon, somebody tells you what to think about it. There's always a doctrine or a system. Everything has to be explained." He thought for a few moments. "There's more in the words, than there is in the explanations." He said, and I quietly nodded in agreement. "Well, if you just listen to the words, read by somebody else, you wouldn't have a system," I offered. "You might have a language, though. A set of mutual symbols. Even if we didn't agree on what they meant." He listened to what I said and we talked about language, and symbols. His criticisms of symbolic language were well-thought out; a person whose native tongue is Chinese understands well the strengths and weaknesses of symbols to communicate. I suggested that symbols and graphic pictures cut through many language systems. The phrase "a woman clothed with the sun," eludes precise rational understanding, but it's an accessible image everywhere. We had the mutual and considerable pleasure of two people speaking thoughtfully to each other. "You don't agree with any systems about it?" I asked, meaning the Book of Revelation. "I don't know. My church teaches a system." "Which one is that? Dispensationalism? Premillennialism?" "Yes." "The Rapture, any minute. The Jews left to face the anti-Christ." "Yes. Yes." "You're not defending it very hard," I suggested. His facial expression indicated that I had discerned his feelings accurately. "Is that what you believe?" Qi asked me. "No. I'm a Postmillennialist. I believe in the Great Commission. Christ gave us an order. Go into the far reaches of the world. Convert the nations. So we will succeed. It's the prayer he taught us. 'Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done.'" "How does reading about the burning lake of fire out loud, help that?" Qi queried. "I'm not sure. Does the Spirit have to explain everything to me? I respond as I'm called. But I think everybody wants good news. Ask them, and they'll tell you the world is a mess. But then they want good news - warm and reassuring. God's judgment in a burning lake of fire is a very unpopular topic. But it wakes people up. It made you ask me questions." "Do you think bad news is more likely to win converts?" Qi was looking at me with a certain amount of respectful skepticism. "I think telling people the truth helps people see the truth." "But you, too. You didn't recite the burning lake of fire verses with a big smile on your face." "Perhaps so. Me too," I admitted. "Maybe there's enough bad news already," Qi suggested. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. That's true too. You're right. But why are all those burning lake of fire verses there? Fierce warnings, aren't they?" I asked rhetorically. "Maybe it's the bad news that already exists. Maybe the world loves judging. Maybe the world needs judging. There's a lot of judging inside of us already." As he said this, I thought I detected some personal history in Qi – perhaps his father was a judgmental person. "I think it's a warning - a guide and a look to the future. But I'll be careful about trying to interpret it, with you around. I'll let the words be the words. Burning lake of fire and all." I raised my hands slightly to indicate surrender – the acknowledgment of my limitations. "Don't some people believe the whole book was just meant for the 1st century Christians? They think it all relates to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman armies. That's it – nothing else." Qi's knowledge suggested some study; his tone suggested questions, perhaps questions deeper than interpreting the Book of Revelation. "Are you a preterist?" I asked him. I wasn't sure whether his question was a narrow, specialized question over eschatology, or rather a deeper question that any young person might have, about whether the whole structure of religion is connected to anything real at all. "I'm not sure what that means," he admitted. "About what you said. Preterists believe most of the Book of Revelation has already been fulfilled. It was a warning for the 1st century, for the early church. A tract for the times. Now it's done – it has no future significance," I explained. "If that's what you're asking." "No, I haven't thought about it much, but don't think I think that. How about you?" Qi asked. There were questions in this young man, but I didn't know quite what they were. "I think it's prophecy. The Word of God to us. It's no more fulfilled and done than the Sermon on the Mount is fulfilled and done. Does that answer your question?" I returned. "I guess we'll never know, this side of Final Judgment," he offered. "Maybe we just wait for the Rapture?" "It makes a difference now. It changes how we act, because of what we expect. If all you're doing is sitting around here, waiting for the Rapture, that's one kind of answer. But I'll buy you a cup of coffee, and we can wait together." As I was about to get up to buy coffee, a young woman, talking to her friend following behind her, was trying to make her way behind the bench to a seat. She was holding a sandwich on a plate and a glass. Someone moved on the crowded bench, not knowing anyone was behind him, and bumped directly into her. Her sandwich spilled and tumbled across the back of an unshaven but pleasant-looking blonde young man and onto the floor. There, visible for the world, near Qi's feet, were the ingredients for her sandwich, two slices of multi-grain bread, two chunks of avocado, two generous slices of tomato, and a large stack of bean sprouts, scattered across the floor along with a slice of dill pickle. She moved back apologetically, waving the now-empty sandwich plate in her hand, obviously embarrassed. The young man stood up, rather mildly and saw who had spilled sandwich fixings on him. He didn't seem angry - he was apologetic and rather embarrassed himself. No one quite knew what to do. For a few moments the two of them milled about each other in rather disorganized fashion. The coffee house manager was nearby. She saw what had happened and signaled for a staff person to assist. Qi and I both stood up to move out of the way and sidestepped our way to leave the benches and table. As we were moving, I made brief eye contact with the manager and we mutually and quickly nodded. I didn't want her to think I had been a problem again, but she saw I was an innocent bystander, not an repeat instigator of disturbances. While the clean-up was being accomplished, Qi, seeing our mutual nod, asked if I knew the coffee house manager. "Yes, her name is Jen Geddes. She's a Christian. She's nice – a calm person." We watched the cleanup. I thought I would share a bit more, thinking still about what Qi's questions might be. "Years ago, she was in the newspaper, picture and all. She had a bit of a temper. I think she came from a very fundamental background. She was in a church, and for whatever reason, something was going with a visiting pastor she definitely didn't agree with. She expressed her theological disagreement by shouting out loud, picking up a stool, and heaving it at this visiting pastor. She actually hit him with it and there were disturbances in the church. The police had to be called. As a sentence I think she got what is called ARD, a non-trial diversion. It usually means she had to do some community service and get some counseling. I was practicing as a lawyer at the time, so I paid attention. Some years later, she got the job here. I recognized her when she started. Very calm - very welcoming to everybody these days. I never talked with her about it. I always wanted to ask her what it was about. Part of it was reported in the newspaper – apparently, whatever it was the visiting pastor was saying, her response was along the lines of "are you really going to say that, in my ear?" The cleanup was over, but Qi and I found a different place to sit and resumed our conversation. He wanted to know more about the type of law I had practiced, which was a general community practice. We started talking about the law and about the U.S. Constitution and some well-known constitutional principles, which were not, as Qi described, the rule or norm in China. He described a culture and circumstance in China which might be characterized as intense and ubiquitous favoritism. "We have those problems here - in a big way," I acknowledged. "You have laws about it, though. In China, there is no law to appeal to, to correct such things. The party is the law, and the party officials who operate without needing any approval." "We do have laws," I acknowledged. I narrated for Qi a United States Supreme Court case, which is a staple of the Constitutional Law curriculum in law school. "In San Francisco, around 1880, most of the laundry workers were Chinese. Laundries used heat in wooden buildings. There was a statute that said you couldn't operate a laundry without a permit. The statute itself wasn't crazy - there was a genuine fire risk with boiling water used in the laundries – not a joke in San Francisco. But Yick Wo had been operating his laundry for years, when he was told he couldn't operate his laundry anymore without a permit. Unfortunately, if you were Chinese, you didn't get a permit. If you weren't Chinese, then you got one. Yick Wo was fined for operating without the permit, and he couldn't or wouldn't pay the fine, so he was put in jail. The Supreme Court ruled that the administration of that permit law was unconstitutional – even if the laundry owners weren't citizens. Even if the law itself made sense considered in isolation. The Chinese laundry owners still had a right under equal protection, under the equal protection laws of the 14th Amendment." "You would not find such laws in China," Qi lamented. "Well, it took us years to take the legal principle serious," I told him. "Taking your principles seriously takes time." Our conversation continued. We talked about Chinese coolies and how they worked. We talked about Christianity in China. We talked about the beginning of the movie Crazy Rich Asians where they're having a Bible study. We talked about missionaries and Hudson Taylor and the Chinese Inland Mission, and when Qi's family had become Christians. We talked about wars in Asia – in the Pacific against Japan. Qi had a very distinct opinion about the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese in WWII, which flowed over to his opinion over disputed islands in the South China sea. We talked about the wars in Korea and Vietnam. We talked about Mao, and Communism and the treatment of Christians in China during the cultural revolution. Qi's family had suffered and practiced their faith in secret, but had emerged. We talked about the Three-Self Church in China. "Sanzi Jiaohui" Qi explained, trying to help me to pronounce it correctly. "But my family has spent so much time overseas, it was not critical to us. We didn't argue about religion, we argued about how many hours my father worked." He looked not as happy making this last statement. I decided to change gears altogether. "You'll be married someday. You'll have a wife and probably children. Do you have a girlfriend?" I asked. "Yes. But she is in graduate school in Michigan now. So I only get to see her on vacations. Sometimes we meet in Chicago. We are making some plans, but they have to wait. We text. She likes it, but she thinks it's cold there." We talked about the weather in China, and in the U.S. We moved our location one more time, when a booth opened up. Time passed, but the Rapture still lay in the future. In the meandering talk and silence of our time together, we made friends. The Holy Spirit, as known to coffee houses as He is to great cathedrals, entered somewhere. Eventually Qi said it was time for him to get back home, and we parted company with the idea that he would be back in the coffee house, and we would have a chance to talk again. Perhaps further, on the Book of Revelation, he suggested. ___________________ And in the Spirit he carried me away to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. Revelation 21:10. Those trained in theology and ministry should present the bulk of the inspired message of Rom. Ch. 12-15. But there is an element of those passages I want to address. I have a law degree, was valedictorian at law school, have practiced law for many years, and have held elected office. I serve as a volunteer on various boards with legal and executive authority over substantial matters. The business of law and government is something with which I am familiar. Although words like "law and government" don't sound San Francisco hippy-ish, don't seem to blend into a coffee-house or a road trip to the last chapters of Revelation, that is my direction now. Rom. 13:1-10 is my topic. Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. Rom13:1a. The passage is central. It does not stand for, nor should it be understood, to be a command to political authoritarianism. It is an invitation to law, to legitimacy, to ascertaining the will of the people in a democracy, enacting that will within the confines of a constitutional system, and then respecting the laws that flow therefrom. Within the world at large, we may be subject to, or may become the governing authorities – but we are always Christians. The Apostle Paul had multiple purposes in so writing – he had a concern with the relationship of Christians to the outside world and to the political authority of the Roman empire. Paul was also concerned about how Christians relate among ourselves. Christian religious/political conflict among ourselves has been a challenge for Christian theology. Theological disagreement may be the reason or the excuse for the ecclesiastical, political or social separation of Christians. Once reasons develop, theological disagreement, leading to differing communions and groupings, becomes the vehicle for separation. As the Reformation commenced and continued through the 16th and 17th centuries, it appeared the immovable object had met the irresistible force. When Christian conscience met Christian government in vehement disagreement, the results were tragically unacceptable in individual cases. Theologically, the issues have never been resolved. One person wishes to pray to the saints, another does not, one expects an early Rapture with no warning, another does not, one thinks the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, another does not. There are innumerable such differences. The continuing disagreements demonstrate that we have no recognized method of either resolving the dispute, or even a recognized method of staying in communication with each other. The argument continues unresolved. The fallback position for various Christian disputants is spiritual distance and intentional distancing, and attrition over time. Politically, we have addressed the most negative consequences of those 16th and 17th century conflicts by privatizing religious conscience. The results of privatizing Christian conscience are only partially satisfactory, as the 21st century is demonstrating. Organizing a better society is problematic, if each Christian has no greater loyalty than to his or her conscience. Conscience slides into self-will. Beyond denominational or theological boundaries, no one is able to present, to debate, to respond, to adjudicate, to give, or to obey an order issued by a recognized body of Christians, on any issue – not just very large important issues. All issues are 'off the table,' as it were, beyond joint resolution. No one could today post 95 theses on the door of a church and have an audience. We are stalled on Christian conscience-autonomy. No one says 'my conscience is God' but that is the net result. Each spider sits on her own web. The Old Testament analogue is the Book of Judges. The civil and political theory and authority that God has established pertinent to us, and to all, has been two thousand years in the making. The development of this theory is an argument for and an example of common grace, extended by God to all, who makes his sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust. "All peaceful beginnings of government have been laid in the consent of the people," John Locke, the British philosopher wrote in his Second Treatise on Government, Sect. 112. His work was instrumental in the framing of American constitutional ideas. Within the United States, we are both the governed, and the governing authorities. Perhaps odd, perhaps obvious to say, but if we as Christians want to reach the heavenly city of God, we have to be capable of governing and being governed by each other. This does not suggest extinguishing the ordinary and necessary debate and contentions that accompany civil and religious life. But at some point, a methodology of decision-making has to be established. Decisions are to be made, and they have to be respected. These 'decisions' are Christian decisions, critical to the communications and communal life of all Christians. That is not intended as a challenge to fundamental theological positions. When our government formed, Maryland did not become Pennsylvania – each state assigned certain powers to a federal government, and retained the rest. Lawful is not lawless, even where there is hard questioning and debate over what is really or ought to be 'lawful.' There are many different ways to connect with each other in the exercise of our Christian faith. Our movement toward the Jerusalem from above is obstructed, if we are situated like a collection of hermit crabs, each communion barricaded in its own shell of theological position, ecclesiastical organization and personal conscience. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Rom. 13:1 b. God created and enables all things, in providing the motive power for all events, outside of whose permissive will nothing ever can happen or could happen. Such establishment includes "the authorities that exist." As Jesus said to Pilate, "You would have no power over me if it were not given you from above." God is the source of lawful authority. The present state of world and national affairs, including our legal and political structures, is not accidental. It may be temporary, or cause us to pray "How long, O Lord, will the wicked by jubilant?" But if we cannot obey our own lawful authority, exercising decisions derived from faith, there is no possibility of building a genuinely lawful structure. If we cannot debate our Christian statements, decrees, findings or laws, enable and enact our Christian decrees, respect or obey our Christian laws, because they come from the authority already announced and ordained by our God and Savior, we're not going to move. We are stranded in the valley of stasis. I am postmillennial, a believer in the Kingdom of God that comes into this world. The extension of Rom. 13:1 b is necessary. This verse sends us forward, makes us look to the future. The current set of authorities have been established by God. The next set of authorities will be established by God - and the next set, after that. We want this set of authorities, each set of authorities, to be better, more Christ-like. When we say more 'Christ-like,' it is not reasonable to expect that denominational and theological differences are going to evaporate. We want to be Christ-like as we assume, or obey, or exchange, this developing authority which expresses itself in constitutional forms among us - not because it results in theocracy or theonomy (or any other system of being ruled by the laws of the Old Testament). Rather, we remember that the "authorities that exist" may be us, or may not be; and if we're not holding office at the moment, we may retain our theological positions or political differences. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, has special significance when we are talking about different groups of Christians contending over beliefs, ideas, or courses of conduct which may be supported and advanced by force of decree, statement or law. If we are going to move toward a more complete Christian community, theological convictions count, inspiration counts, but also, impartiality counts. We want the debate (and the penalties for losing the debate on whatever topic is at hand) to be just and impartial. The rules, the conduct, the doctrine, whatsoever it is under discussion, and the statement or law that issues from them, or us, are to be impartial. The means and procedure of discussing, debating, challenging or appealing the decision regarding the resolution of Christian issues, have to be impartial. Due Process is a legal term but it paves a spiritual road. It means notice of the issue at hand, before the time and place of decision, and the opportunity to be heard on the point by the decision-makers. We hope valued impartiality flows into our political and national lives. But whether it does or does not flow nationally, we have to communicate these exchanges and accord this due process among ourselves in an impartial manner – and then voluntarily respect the outcome. The amorality of the present state of our national political life is not ultimately acceptable, but neither it is acceptable to go back to the political situation, rife with religious persecutions, that characterized Great Britain (and here in New England) in the 17th century. We do not criminalize people with whom we disagree. We will not move toward a golden, millennial age until we capture solutions to both sets of problems – spiritual unity which enables voluntary association and cooperation, and spiritual dissent. Our risen Lord Jesus has set us a mid-term examination. God has graciously provided us guidance. As explained by Locke in his Second Treatise, sect. 131: And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decrees; by indifferent [impartial] and upright judges, who are to decide controversies by those law; and to employ the force of the community at home, only in the execution of such laws; or abroad to prevent or redress foreign injuries, and secure the community from inroads and invasion. And all this to be directed to no other end but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. The peace that Jesus confers - "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you" (John 14:27), connects to this Lockean peace, safety and the public good. The kingdom of God ("Thy kingdom come," Jesus taught us to pray, Mat. 6:10, "on earth as it is in heaven.") and "the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations," Rev. 22:2, converge on this peace. They are intended for this-world Christian implementation, and this implementation and obedience to God's will is not beyond us. John Locke described the "peace, safety and public good of the people" in terms that were attainable. He presented his solution at the time of intense religious persecution that frequently was the excuse, rather than the reason, for political persecution. The experience of the Amish community in self-regulation provides some useful guidance. The Nashville Statement, signed initially by more than 150 evangelical leaders, affirming what is set forth or implied in Scripture about sexuality, particularly Romans ch. 1, is a productive step toward our self-regulation and our movement toward a Holy City. The Nashville Statement engendered disagreement and resentment. Nor do I endorse all views, on all issues, of those Christians who developed the Nashville Statement. The point is to cooperate as actively and as far as we can, but no further. Theological statements and decisions are presented to address conflicting positions. The resentment within large elements of our national society, of the Christian position on the sexual issues addressed in the Nashville Statement, is intense – but that is acceptable. Disregard of God's Word engenders its own consequences. We want to be frog-marched off the Titanic of modern secular culture and nominal Christianity - thrown unceremoniously into a little lifeboat named Jesus and the Bible. We expect to be marginalized with the world's imprecations following, as the Titanic leaves us behind. We may bob in the ocean of broad societal disapproval for a short season. It's not hard to see the iceberg coming. After the iceberg has done its work, we, the Christian community, build a better world. We may communicate our own internal understandings and direction without surrendering those theological positions which are essentially non-negotiable. John Locke calls out the following elements in the above-recited passage: legislative power, established law, impartial judges, a judicious use of 'force' to execute such laws, directed to peace, safety and public good – and we would add, for the community of our faith. The challenge is to connect that political peace, of which we are clearly capable, with Jesus' spiritual peace. The alternative, the Valley of Christian Stasis, is incapable of being characterized as good faith. That is not how the Book of Revelation ends. To disconnect the two kinds of peace, to say that the peace that Jesus provides is always and forever not of this world, is to take a position on eschatology. That is to take the position that the Kingdom of God is not coming (despite praying "thy Kingdom come") in this world except by the visible return of Christ but in no other way. It is to take the position that the Great Commission does not fully succeed (apparently, then, a command to partial failure?). It is to take the position that the ending of Romans ch. 16 ("so that all nations might believe and obey him") doesn't count. If the Kingdom of God is coming in this world, then those good ends that John Locke asserted - peace, safety, the public good - have to be realized in the context of a multitude of Christian expressions (the 'Seven Churches' of Revelation), giving rise to our City in Motion. The political events of the last two thousand years include what has politically taken place in this country in the last 250 years. We may begin with the Deist-influenced proclamation of the Declaration of Independence (which, despite its Deist influences, repeatedly and insistently invokes God, the Creator, the Supreme Judge, and Divine Providence), which is also directly of God. The Declaration of Independence, like all other expressions of common grace, is directed by and under the authority of our risen Lord, Jesus. Pilate's authority derived from Roman military and civil power gets the benefit of God's imprimatur, as spoken by Jesus. Then surely also so does the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Federalist Papers. We have political tools. We need to use them. We don't want to supplant the state, we want to create a miniature of a Constitutional and legislative system, for ourselves, entered into by three gates: by Christian faith, by subscription to the doctrine of Scriptural inerrancy, and by a commitment to a forward-looking eschatology. Beyond that, once through those gates 'of the outer courtyard,' we acknowledge a diversity of views, a gathering of seven churches, a lively exchange of ideas. We will make and find our city and move toward peace, joy, and the enjoyment of the presence of God, characterized by our love for God, and our love for each other. There, we will be in a position to lead useful and interesting lives and have enjoyable and interesting discourse. We do not resurrect the past, look to the past, long for the days of ancient Israel, look for theocratical forms of government, or long for the days when our particular theology will be adopted by everyone. Christianity is just beginning. "By calling this covenant new, he has made the first one obsolete. And what is obsolete and aging will soon disappear." Heb. 8:13. The orchestra is just tuning up - we're barely getting started. I have no use at all for nostalgia. To quote a modern theologian, Greg Bahnsen: Postmillennialists believe, therefore, that the kingdom of God will gradually grow on earth, visibly, publicly, and externally. . . It will grow through the gradual conversion of the nations – through the preaching of the Word of God. . . . This salvation of many people must have visible expression and influence and be seen in an outward culture in society. (Victory in Jesus, Bahnsen, CMP 1999, p. 27). (See also, Postmillennialism, an Eschatology of Hope, Keith A. Mattison, P&R Publishing, 1999; The Victory of Christ's Kingdom, John Jefferson Davis, Canon Press, 1996; Prophecy and the Church, Oswald Allis, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1978 (critique of dispensationalism); He Shall Have Dominion, Kenneth Gentry, Apologetics Group Media, 2009 (thorough defense of postmillennialism); and An Eschatology of Victory, J. Marcellus Kik, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1971) ("the Holy City is situated in time and history . . . " p. 245). (Noting also with all these authors, that their theology is learned, their eschatology is inspiring, their legal and political theory needs better direction.) Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves." Rom:13:2. Paul instructed Christians in the Roman Empire, where we began as a tiny minority. Stay out of trouble, direct your energy away from rebellion, stay away from political revolt or disobedience. Move in our spiritual life and the witness to the growing faith. Paul was concerned about building the church locally and across geographical distances and cultural groups. It was the Holy Spirit saying, "it's okay to obey the Roman authorities – in fact, you should, this is part of your obedience to me, unless (as is clear from the Book of Revelation), you are being asked to deny Christ or otherwise blaspheme." Christ warned his disciples to stay clear of the military and political disaster coming because of the Jewish rebellion brewing against Roman authority in his pointed discourse at the Mount of Olives. In whatever direction we decide to move, it must meet the fundamental standards enunciated by Paul. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment, but also because of conscience. That is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe him; if you owe taxes, pay taxes, if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor. Rom. 13:3-7. Christian, don't do the crime, if you can't do the time. The bearing of the sword is intended for punishment. The state has a monopoly on the use of force, for a good reason. Generally, Christian conscience acts in conjunction with the state (but not always, see, e.g., Martin Luther King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail). In his Letter to the Romans, Paul meant a number of different things by 'the Law,' understood by context: the Ten Commandments, the Law of Moses implying a special revelation of God's will to the Jews, natural law available to and applicable to all people, spiritual law to be followed by Christians out of obedience to the gospel, the law of love, Roman civil or criminal law to be obeyed at the risk of punishment, the law of conscience, including accusations or defenses of conscience, the law of interior struggle with sin, sin and death itself, and the new life of the Spirit - all are referenced in Paul's letter, all characterized in his writing as or associated with the Law. The Law shows us our sins by holding up a mirror to our conduct in the light of God's Law, sending us to call on Christ's atoning mercy. The Law protects the weak from wrongdoing at the hands of those stronger and is essential to a civil society. The Law in all its forms and expressions is surely the great chain, wielded by an angel, which binds Satan in Rev. 20:1 and 2. As the Holy City comes down out of heaven as described in the 21st Chapter of Revelation, it is not described as the City of Law. By implication, the City may be protected by Law. Law may reinforce its walls and its gate. Spiritual law may flow from and through the Church to separate those who may enter the City of God from those who may not. But the Holy City's light, foundations, jewels, gates, streets, river, fountains, or its Tree of Life are not described in terms of Law. In the Sacred City of divine and human joy, where Christ reigns by acclamation, by love and by power, the purposes of the Law have been fulfilled. Lawlessness has no place in the City as it can never enter in. The Abyss may be escaped, only to give rise to further battle and fire, but the Holy City is prepared as a bride. The description of the Millennial City calls us to something higher, further and more perfect than Law as a goal and end of human society. The Law has a purpose and an end, and it reaches fulfillment in Christ's work on the Cross. In a more perfect society, where equity is done everywhere, there is no need to petition a court of equity for relief. Where love and trust are more perfect among people, no judge is needed to assert jurisdiction, hear argument or rule for one party or the other. In a meeting with our beloved, we who love fold our papers, close our law books and put our contracts aside. Their purpose has been served. Love keeps no record of wrong, so we may leave the courtroom. We go to meet for a wedding ceremony and a feast. The beauty of the meeting calls us to travel the road. Questions arise about doing right, what obedience means, in a Constitutional democracy where we are asked to play a part. The part we play nationally, whatever it is, to which we are also called and from which we refuse to be disenfranchised, is not the same as the spiritual movement we pursue among ourselves. We are called to something higher than the surrounding political confrontation and factionalism (not an easy problem to solve; see Federalist No. 10 – Madison thought the danger of factionalism would be solved by the new Constitution, and clearly that has not been the case). John Locke thought the solution was self-evident. "[F]or nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, to destroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another. . . Thus the law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men, legislators as well as others. The rules that they make . . . must be conformable to the law of nature, i.e., to the will of God . . ." 2nd Treatise, sect. 135. To say something must be conformable to the will of God, or the law of nature or an eternal rule, has proved to be guidance not so obvious, beyond the first application, of not destroying life. Many Christians are united on this point at least. Given the number of abortions being performed annually in the United States and western world generally, even Locke's standard of 'not taking away life' appears to have given way to a notion of personal rights that is practically unlimited in its scope or application. In the case of abortion on demand, the notion is tragic on a massive scale, leads to infanticide (and the purposeful abortion of Downs' syndrome babies), is contrary to God's will, is destructive of our national political fabric, and presents an irresistible temptation to federal courts to exceed their Constitutional jurisdiction and intended scope of authority. Next to the Dred Scott decision, Roe v. Wade is the worst decision ever made by the U.S. Supreme Court, and its consequences have been destructive. The decision raises political problems regardless of religious faith – there is no serious legal question of any type that cannot be formulated into a query about individual rights and then answered in such a way as to make individual rights (defined to assure the preferred outcome) preempt and supersede any other type of right. In the case of abortion, all that is necessary is to deny the definition of human life to children in the womb. The definitions decide the outcome. When we now use the term 'civil rights' the meaning is – rights of the individual. In current judicial reasoning, advancing individual rights is always expansive of the good, as long as the individuals are out of the womb. In current judicial reasoning, the rights of the group are nearly always oppressive, subtracting from the net benefit of civil society. My civil rights cannot be added to the civil rights of my fellow citizens, in such a way as to develop a society promoting religiously-based ethical views. One hundred thousand people may not be lead in prayer at a government-sponsored or funded event, if one objects. If it is necessary to justify protecting children in the womb from destruction by making a religious argument, because the definition of the beginning of life implies theological and ethical reasoning, then the destructive consequences of advancing individual rights above other rights are wrongly justified as compelled by the implied language of the Constitution. An intellectual shell game has been played by our federal judiciary, of which Roe v. Wade is the most notorious example – get the definitions right, set up the conflict as the individual vs. the group (included in 'the group' is any assembly of state legislators) – and the desired judicial result will pop out like candy from a dispenser. From this Christian's viewpoint, and I am also a citizen of this nation, this is unacceptable. As an individual, my name is not "Congress," as in the 1st Amendment ("Congress shall make no law"). The idea that ethical decisions, which result in law, may not have religious foundations, is to be rejected. The idea that I may not join with others to vote for or to pass laws which at some point in their chain of reasoning, rely on religious belief or revelation, is to be rejected. A method of judicial reasoning which relies on carefully-crafted initial definitions and nomenclature to avoid the obvious, observable acts of medically terminating life, with the resulting infant body parts available for marketing, is to be rejected. Political acts which have ethical foundations, which themselves have religious foundations, are ordinary acts of Constitutional self-rule, not the establishment of a theocracy. We will do better, because God will compel a better result. The City of God is a promise to seven churches, standing for a society of communities engaged in the voluntary worship of God and obedience to Christ. Discovering the will of God, in our own relations with other Christians, raises harder questions than challenging bad national law or opposing abortion on demand. Discovering God's will mean moving forward to our own better self-governing society, even if we construct a model first on a 'table-top,' as it were. I quote a passage from Locke which will have a familiar sound to any reader familiar with the Declaration of Independence: Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of human frailty, will be born by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications, and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered, that they should then rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected . . . 2nd Treatise, sect. 225. Locke observed that the people may "rouse themselves." Indeed, 'rousing ourselves' is essential. But in what way did the Apostle Paul view 'rousing ourselves?' The difficulty with Paul's passage in Romans ch. 13:3-7, is its static nature. Those admonitions made sense then, for a small religious minority in a vast pagan empire. The Roman authorities were there, and the Roman Christians submitted to them, and were grateful to God for the opportunity to worship him in peace. There was no political development implied; it was intentional separation from Roman interference, by giving no cause for offence, for purposes of Christian religious practice. A difficulty with the passage of Locke cited above is that it takes the matter one, but only one, drastic step forward. If the authorities are inflicting a "long train of abuses . . . all tending the same way" then the people ought to put "the rule into such hands as may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected." Locke's concepts are binary, but they also will become static – either the people accept the "great mistakes and wrong laws without mutiny or murmer" – or, as the American people did in 177 6, they "rouse themselves" to "put the rule into such hands, etc.," in other words, to put governmental rule into American hands in the legislatures of the American states. Continuing, aspirational movement was not contemplated by John Locke either. The wasn't the problem he was facing 320 years ago, but it is a problem we are facing now. There is much the Book of Revelation does not do. There is one thing it does do, beyond its powerful encouragement in the face of persecution – it says, 'look, there's a goal here, a destination, and we want to get to it.' The Book has an end, and the end is a City. The Great Commission is equally dynamic – Jesus telling us "Go, make disciples." There's a goal here, a command, something we are supposed to be doing – and disciples, discipling and discipline has to extend to more than personal conscience, to the exclusion of Christian community. The argument against amillennialism is parallel to the argument against premillennialism (whether in its dispensational presentation or classical presentation) – those doctrines don't go anywhere. When it comes to Revelation ch. 21 and 22, these doctrines 'sit on their hands.' Rather, our doctrine of eschatology is postmillennial (Christ comes after ("post") the millennium) by our voluntary choice, by Revelation's destination, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit to reach a millennium in this world. Jesus is awaited at the end of the golden, millennial period, however long and wonderful that period may be, a thousand years or a ten times a thousand years – and we have acted in obedience to him in making or moving to such a society and such a world. (For the Kingdom of God will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property - one to receive five talents, one to receive two, another, to receive one). Our goal is forward. Neither John Lock or the Apostle Paul, or Jesus, say: "let's go back to an Old Testament theocracy as soon as we have a chance." Hence, my profound disagreement with all forms of political theocracy, theonomy, etc. We move to the future here, in terms of our political understanding – our Lord Jesus has not been asleep for the last 2000 years. For that matter, if you need open-heart CABG surgery as I did, you will not seek out a doctor who applies the methods of healthcare available in the days of Moses – there are no instructions in the Old Testament for a triple-bypass procedure. Common grace has done something with respect to medical care, as it has done something with respect to political theory which the churches may apply. After the passage quoted above about obeying the authorities, the Apostle Paul moved directly, with no further transition, to a society characterized by love that has already internalized the Law. The movement is sudden between Rom. 13:7, extolling obedience to external Roman authority, sharing neither political power or a faith with us, to Rom. 13:8. Here is our endpoint: Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellow man has fulfilled the law. The commandments, "Do not commit adultery," Do not murder," "Do not steal," "Do not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: "Love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. If we wish to go On the Road now (and we find ourselves On the Road whether we wish it or not) – static conceptions will not do. We construct with the law in the manner of a homebuilder, using our tools to lay on progressively wiser and more effective structural elements, until we reach the fulfillment of home-building, a home where we may love. That is the postmillennial vision – a millennial world, a golden age of faith, love and peace, before Christ returns. The thousand years of the millennium in Ch. 20 is both a reality and a symbol for that vision. The reality of God's ordaining will is a driving movement. Growth through the Holy Spirit is neither limited to or circumscribed by the symbol of a thousand year time period. We travel to an end and a society good beyond words. Our driving force and our destination comes from God. Golden ages are hard to come by, but not only can we get there, we will. Christ has called us to this, and his sobriety and his power in doing so is beyond question. ____________________________________
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Study Mumbai | Schools, Colleges, Coaching, Scholarships, Career in Mumbai American company Nike produces footwear, apparel, equipment, and accessories. Not only are its products popular, its advertising slogan "Just Do It" is also extremely popular; almost everyone is aware of this iconic advertising slogan. However, not many are aware that the iconic message was conceptualised decades back. Since then, Nike's core message has helped the company generate billions in sales, and it works even today. Back in the eighties, Nike was struggling to keep pace with competitors, including Reebok. Companies like Reebok, with its fitness focussed campaigns, was doing much better. Nike, on the other hand, was looking for ways to market itself better. An advertising agency suggested Nike to use "Just Do It" as its slogan in order to forge a better bond with potential consumers. Not many are aware that the slogan "Just Do It" is inspired by the last words of Gary Gilmore ("Let's do it"), who was convicted for murder and executed at Utah State Prison. Nike management decided to give it a try and it started showing positive results. Soon after in 1988, Nike launched one of the first ads for "Just Do It" that featured an 80-year-old marathon runner. The commercial became very popular in America. From there on, "Just Do It" has been the company's signature slogan for all its advertising campaigns. Here are some of the things that made this advertising slogan so popular: It inspires people and motivates them to get into action. The slogan doesn't tell people what to do, it tells them to do what they already know is the right thing to do without procrastinating. The slogan is simple, which makes it memorable. The slogan uses only three words. Besides being easy to remember, the message is personal, which makes people interpret the words on a personal level, and also helps them associate closely to the brand. When the slogan was first marketed, it was very difficult from the usual happy-go-lucky branding messages that were prevalent at that time. Nike's phrase was more serious and thought provoking. It emphasized hard work, and more importantly it demanded personal sacrifice. Nike's campaigns usually encourage people to lead a health and fit life. However, the message in the slogan applies to people from all walks of life. It motivates people to push themselves past their personal limits, it motivates them to overcome obstacles, it encourages people to shed their inhibitions and live in the moment. Over the years, Nike has come out with several powerful and personal stories, but this happens to be the most popular and memorable. Today, people all over the world know the phrase "Just do it" and it's almost interchangeable with the brand. The slogan has indeed played an important part in helping Nike turn into a global multibillion-dollar giant.
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ATLASPANTOU CO LTD Seventy five years on, with operations in Cyprus, Greece and the UK, the AtlasPantou group continues to be renowned internationally for the high quality of its work, exceptional client relations, customer satisfaction, reliability and competitive pricing.