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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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PRIDE AND PREJUDICE, the Musical: Inspired by the much-loved Jane Austen novel, Pride & Prejudice the Musical has a script by Josie Brown, with music and lyrics by Rita Abrams. Welcome to Pride and Prejudice, the Musical Read Our Reviews! Home life for the five Bennet daughters is punctuated by visits from military officers, card parties, and the occasional ball - pastimes guaranteed to throw them into the path of potential husbands, much to the delight of the garrulous Mrs Bennet and the horror of her quietly despairing husband. A local assembly sees the arrival in the neighbourhood of the wealthy and single Mr Bingley and of his aloof, handsome friend, Fitzwilliam Darcy… Can Elizabeth overcome her initial disgust at Darcy’s supercilious manner? Will he be able to overlook the outrageous behaviour frequently exhibited by her mother and younger sisters? Does true love finally conquer all? Inspired by the much-loved Jane Austen novel, Pride & Prejudice the Musical has a script by Josie Brown, with music and lyrics by Rita Abrams. Says composer Rita Abrams: It is a truth universally acknowledged that Jane Austen''s timelessly precious gift-that-keeps-on-giving will continue to delight and inspire the world for as long as there is a world. The story will soar on, beyond every form of media we humans can devise--which is why author Josie Brown and I were moved to make a musical of it, a humbling experience which demanded of us the best, and then some. While others have tweaked, twisted and revised the tale to make it theirs, we aspired to keep it authentic, as if Jane herself decided to add songs. And the sweet audiences at our Ruislip Operatic Society, UK world premiere in November seemed to approve. Happy Anniversary, Jane, and thank you from the bottom of our millions and millions of hearts. Says Librettist Josie Brown: Of all my writing accomplishments, no one project has touched my heart more than the musical I''ve created with Rita Abrams. My love for Jane Austen''s words are second to none. The opportunity to bring this particular story to life is an honor. For part of your celebration, please feel free to click onto these song samples -- and the full songs, too! -- below! IN BANNER PHOTO: Lizzy Moss as Jane Bennet; Brittany Anne Law as Elizabeth Bennet IAM Theatre Production. IN SIDEBAR PHOTO: Brittany Anne Law as Elizabeth Bennet; David Crane as Fitzwilliam Darcy IAM Theatre Production _____________________________________________________ The World Premiere was produced 27 November 2012 - 1 December 2012, by the Ruislip Operatic Society, London, England. View More photos here... PRESS San Francisco Chronicle / Uxbridge Review / Rita Abrams profile, Uxbridge Gazette ______________________________________________ SAN FRANCISCO 2016 PRODUCTION - IAM THEATRE Click the Video Boxes below for Musical Excerpts PRESS “PRIDE AND PREJUDICE — THE MUSICAL is funny and inviting right from the title. It is a pleasure and much more from beginning to end. So many things to admire, from the wit, bite and insouciance of Rita Abrams'' lyrics to her command of the musical forms that make the piece take wing and soar. The gorgeous Changing World ensemble (and then the differently shaded reprise) were especially fine. The song, Being Married, is a dry martini of double meaning. The production’s wonderfully, darkly charismatic Darcy (David Crane) won the night with his showstopper delivery of his moving torch-song ballad. The transporting final chorus brought the garden-growing end of Bernstein’s Candide to mind. And plenty of other delights along the way." —Steven Winn, former theatre critic, The San Francisco Chronicle The full cast, singing "Welcome to the Neighborhood" “Abrams and Brown are to be commended for their faithfulness to Jane Austen’s text keeping the plot line intact with lyrics that complement the story and instill much-needed humor to palliate the oppressive mores of its time. It is an auspicious and ambitious beginning with the 17-member cast in full 18th Century costumes that is carried through the entire evening, sharing the text and dancing with songs that range from music hall ditties to romantic ballads and even a show stopping tango. Abrams’ lyrics are often a joy to hear, proving she has not lost her touch that was highlighted years ago in the revues FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS and NEW WRINKLES. The construction of the play, the marvelous plethora of songs, and the descriptive social mores found in Jane Austen’s novels create a potentially successful professional stage life. To steal a quote, ''This musical has legs''.” —For All Events Mr. Darcy (David Crane), Mr. Bingley (Kodo Elder-Groebe), and Caroline Bingley (Kim Schroeder Long) singing "It Is a Truth" “(The musical) skillfully articulate the novel’s early 19th-century mores and morals, and lively, dense verbiage, which the writers lovingly retain. It’s truly an ensemble piece, from the funny opening “Welcome to Our Neighborhood” (which introduces the five unmarried Bennet sisters with the amusing invitation, “It would be our greatest gift if we / could facilitate your felicity — especially if you’re as wealthy as you look, sir”) to the sentimental closing “I Wish You Joy!” (One fan in the audience even teared up at the inevitable unions between Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy and Jane and Mr. Bingley.) The show’s biggest drama comes in a power ballad by David Crane as Darcy (after he’s rejected by Elizabeth), and Brittany Law as Elizabeth, as she comes to terms with her complicated feelings toward Darcy. —San Francisco Examiner Mr. Wickham (Fernando Siu) and Elizabeth (Brittany Law) singing "Wickham''s Lament" “…The songs are often funny and occasionally surprisingly bawdy…Brown’s adaptation conveys the gist (of the novel) fairly and effectively, and gives some sense of Austen’s sly humor, accentuated by the more whimsical drollery of the musical numbers. In true romantic comedy fashion, these elements initially seem like an odd match but gradually come together into what feels almost like a natural pair." —Marin Independent Journal Mrs. Bennet (Kathy Deichen), singing, "A Husband" "If you are an admirer of Jane Austen’s fiction, and have a soft spot for the more traditional style of American musicals than most of what has been generated on and off-Broadway in the past few decades, then you ought to hop in your car, page an Uber or engage whatever mode of transport you prefer, and head over to Fort Mason Center on the San Francisco waterfront. There, ensconced in what used to be the Magic Theatre’s venue, the Southside Theater, you’ll find Independent Actors of Marin’s (IAM) delightful production of Pride and Prejudice—The Musical. Be forewarned, however: You better hurry, because this staged version of Austen’s most beloved novel, which debuted in London in 2012, is scheduled to end its American premiere run on Sunday, October 9th. Given the uncertainties that face such projects, who knows when, or where, it will turn up next. The show is about as close to a perfect package of script, music directing, performers and overall production quality as one could realistically expect from a low-budget, non-professional company. Beyond that, the energy and talent of its mostly youthful cast give it a freshness that is often lacking in more lavish treatments." — Charles Brousse, The Pacific Sun Elizabeth (Britanny Law), singing, "How Dare He" "Emmy award winning songwriter Rita Abrams has managed to bring her considerable powers to Austen''s Pride and Prejudice in a way that brings that classic work alive, and keeps us thoroughly engaged...
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LFA Lawson-Fisher Associates P. C. (LFA) has been providing engineering services from its South Bend office to both public and private clients in a variety of engineering service areas for over 45 years. LFA offers a broad range of civil engineering project services principally focused in the areas of water resources, transportation, bridges and structures. We have extensive design and project management experience on a vast array of City and County projects. We have an exceptional level of experience and expertise upon which our prepared plans and recommendations are based. Our superior work across diverse client markets offer cost-effective, innovative solutions to meet the clients’ present and long term needs.  We understand the value of collaboration and realize on complex, larger projects that we will solicit the technical expertise of our project partners. Their particular expertise in certain areas compliments LFA in the interest of providing the best possible services for the client’s needs. LFA has a highly qualified and dedicated team of professionals working together to achieve a common goal of providing high-quality services to our clients as noted by our 94% repeat service record. We partner with our clients to develop long-term relationships, get to know their businesses and objectives and advocate their interest to meet client expectations. We’ve earned our clients trust by providing a consistently high level of professionalism and quality. Constantly striving to offer solutions that are often creative and are always effective. Understanding project constraints, clear lines of communication, and engagement with individual professionals involved in helping define the client’s needs and scope are key tasks for a successful project and outcomes. Constant contact with project partners and regular reports to the client is an essential task. This participative process is a key element to LFA’s success through the design development process. LFA project managers and supporting team in project partners have the technical experience and resources to coordinate the many parallel tasks to deliver the project. LFA designs optimal solutions to bring quality projects to completion safely, on schedule and within budget.
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WORD As BOND Word As Bond unites creative writers in Indianapolis to facilitate and promote creative writing and media arts programs that provide forums for self-expression and community empowerment. Through the power of words, we bring people together to transform their lives and the world. Word As Bond conducts free creative writing workshops for Indianapolis area teens. All Indianapolis creative writing programs are free and open to the public.
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The Medieval Chronicle | The Medieval Chronicle Society The Medieval Chronicle Society is an international and interdisciplinary organisation founded to facilitate the work of scholars interested in medieval chronicles, or more generally medieval historiography. Alongside annals, chronicles were the main genre of historical writing in the Middle Ages. Consequently they have always been of great importance to historians. The extent to which they…
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Connect Experience Write (CEW) - CEW home page Connect Experience Write (CEW) is an interpersonal handwriting program that uses sensory-motor integration and visual-spatial concepts to facilitate the development of handwriting skills in students
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Joy Wiggins, PhD | Home - Joy Wiggins, PhD | Leader, Speaker, Coach, Scholar Joy Wiggins is an equity and diversity consultant in Bellingham, Washington who provides human resource coaching, online courses and education about feminism, social justice, conflict resolution and more.
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Little Angels Academy - Child Care - San Diego, California Little Angels Academy is a Child Care center that offers infant, toddler, pre-school and after-school programs located in San Diego, California.
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Home | Welcome To Peganix The world around us is forever changing and so is the information and roles we hold in the different industries. Therefore you have to decide on your main goals, it’s time to consider your relevant strengths and ask yourself. What attributes do you already have that could help this goal become a reality? Are there any transferable skills you could utilize? Even if you don’t have any direct experience in the field your objectives are based in, a strength can be anything from dedication, a creative mind and a keen interest in a particular area of academia, through to excellent people skills or a knack for numbers. Identifying your strengths can also lead you to potential areas for improvement. As Peganix we are here to assist you meet all of your daily work/industries challenges as your role expands and constantly changes you need to know all the latest tips and trends to get your job done professionally as it is important that you do your job with the best advice, the best training, and the best strategies to further your career. Competence Development Master-Class For Secretaries and Administrators, PLC, Telemetry and SCADA Technologies, Maintenance Planning and Scheduling, Reduce Maintenance Costs by Better Planning with Your Existing Workforce, Port AND Terminal Expansion Workshop, HV/MV Switchgear Inspection, Maintenance and Technology, EFFECTIVE PROJECT MANAGEMENT SKILLS, CERTIFICATE IN BUSINESS ANALYTICS , i3BAR, Integrated, interactive and intelligent Excel Models for Business Analytics and Reporting, Research Quality Assurance for Good Laboratory Practice Regulation, GLP, Payroll Fraud And Wage Theft Workshop, Performance Management Workshop for Managers,Bridge Inspection AND Maintenance Workshop MANAGEMENT SUPERVISORY AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING , SUPERVISORY AND TEAM LEADERSHIP SKILLS , BUSINESS MANAGEMENT SKILLS , TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP SKILLS , EXECUTIVE/ADVANCED MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME , MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SKILLS , PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS WRITING SKILLS , WOMEN IN LEADERSHIP , BUSINESS BENEFITS OF MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT , APPLICATION OF DISCIPLINARY PROCEDURES , INTERVIEWING AND CV SKILLS , OCCUPATION HEALTH AND SAFETY WORKSHOP , DISCIPLINARY HEARING PROCEEDINGS DOCUMENTATION AND CONFIDENTIALITY , PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL AND MANAGEMENT , HUMAN CAPITAL MANAGEMENT (HCM) , PEOPLE MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND PROCESSES , IMPLEMENT AND MANAGE HUMAN RESOURCE AND LABOUR RELATIONS POLICIES AND ACTS HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT , MEASURING THE STRATEGIC VALUE AND IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES: CALCULATING TRAINING ROI , LESSON PLANNING AND PRESENTATION , TRAIN THE TRAINER (EDUCATION TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTITIONER) , TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT EQUITY COMMITTEES , MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION OF TRAINING COMMITTEES , MENTORING AND COACHING , DEVELOPING IMPLEMENTING AND MANAGING EMPLOYMENT EQUITY AND RELATED PROCESSES IN THE WORKPLACE , ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF LEARNING PROGRAMMES , FACILITATE AND DELIVER LEARNING PROGRAMMES , MODERATION OF LEARNING PROGRAMMES , LABOUR RELATION AND LABOUR LAW , STRATEGIC FACILITIES MANAGEMENT (SFM) , ACCIDENT AND INCIDENT INVESTIGATION , EFFECTIVE POLICY AND PROCEDURE DEVELOPMENT , EMPLOYEE BENEFITS HEALTH AND WELLNESS , MONITORING AND EVALUATION BUSINESS COMMUNICATION , BUSINESS COMMUNICATION REPORT WRITING AND PRESENTATION SKILLS , INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS AND PRESENTATION SKILLS , REPORT WRITING AND ANALYSIS , EFFECTIVE BUSINESS COMMUNICATION , EFFECTIVE PUBLIC SPEAKING , GOVERNMENT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION PROCESSES , EFFECTIVE REPORT WRITING AND MINUTE TAKING SKILLS , EMPLOYEE BENEFITS HEALTH AND WELLNESS , MONITORING AND EVALUATION ENGINEERING , MECHANICAL WORKSHOPS SUPERVISION , ADVANCED COST ENGINEERING COURSE , HV/MV SWITCHING IN MINING , BULK PIPE FITTING AND TURNING , SCADA AND SUBSTATION AUTOMATION , MARITIME AND SHIPPING LAW CONTRACT , CABLE ASSET MANAGEMENT , THE FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING , FLOW METER TECHNOLOGY SELECTION AND MAINTENANCE , METALLURGICAL FAILURE ANALYSIS AND PREVENTION , MINERAL PROCESSING PLANT OPTIMIZATION , ROADS ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE , PLC AND SCADA AUTOMATION TRAINING , BRIDGE DESIGN INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE , FORENSIC ENGINEERING AND FAILURE ANALYSIS , POWER SYSTEMS , AGEING BOILERS , WATER LEAKS MANAGEMENT , LIGHTENING PROTECTION , BASIC WELDING , PLANT AND PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION I.T , MICROSOFT ADVANCE OFFICE 2013 , STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING IN PRACTICE , INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN EDUCATION , DATABASE IMPLEMENTATION , INFORMATION RISK MANAGEMENT AGAINST HACKERS OTHERS , ADDRESSING WATER SCARCITY THROUGH WATER DEMAND MANAGEMENT IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS , ESSENTIAL FIDICNEC3JBCC 6.1 AND GCC FOR BUILT ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALS , MASTERING ADVANCED OPERATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT MASTER CLASS , COMPANIES ACT WORKSHOP , CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND WORKPLACE RESTORATION WORKSHOP , SOCIAL MEDIA RISK AND REPUTATION MANAGEMENT , EFFECTIVE BID AND TENDER FOR OIL AND GAS , EXAMINATION QUALITY AND ASSURANCE CONFERENCE , PRESSURE EQUIPMENT REGULATION MASTER CLASS , NEGOTIATING BETTER ENGINEERING CONTRACTS , MUNICIPAL CONSTRUCTION INSPECTION , MUNICIPAL ENGINEERING FUNDAMENTALS FOR NON ENGINEERS , SECURING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH FUNDING , REMUNERATION COMPENSATION STRATEGIES , PAYROLL FRAUD AND WAGE THEFT , WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS DESIGN OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE , AUDITING HR PROCESSES , STRUCTURAL RENOVATION OF BUILDINGS , CONCRETE ASPHALT MIX DESIGN , EARTHING AND LIGHTENING PROTECTION FOR ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND INDUSTRIES , ERGONOMICS DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR PROPOSED DRAFT REGULATIONS , THE INTEGRATED HEALTHCARE AND CLINICAL AUDIT
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Welcome to Speech Therapy Munich Anoushka Tesarek (M.A. Sprachheilpädagogik, LMU). I am a native English speaker with fluent German, offering speech therapy and learning coaching (Klipp und Klar Lernkonzept®) in schools and Kindergarten in Munich and the surrounding area. I offer advice, assessment and therapy relating to communication disorders in children, with a specialisation in bilingualism. In addition, I offer learning coaching to preschoolers -both assessment to determine whether your child is ready for school and a key skills enhancement programme to ensure a good start at school. School aged children with general learning issues (e.g. concentration, motivation difficulties), as well as specific problem areas (maths, reading, writing) will benefit from individually tailored learning coaching sessions. Brain Gym - learning aided by physical movement - is a tool I use to facilitate learning in all areas of my work.
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Welcome to Speech Therapy Munich Anoushka Tesarek (M.A. Sprachheilpädagogik, LMU). I am a native English speaker with fluent German, offering speech therapy and learning coaching (Klipp und Klar Lernkonzept®) in schools and Kindergarten in Munich and the surrounding area. I offer advice, assessment and therapy relating to communication disorders in children, with a specialisation in bilingualism. In addition, I offer learning coaching to preschoolers -both assessment to determine whether your child is ready for school and a key skills enhancement programme to ensure a good start at school. School aged children with general learning issues (e.g. concentration, motivation difficulties), as well as specific problem areas (maths, reading, writing) will benefit from individually tailored learning coaching sessions. Brain Gym - learning aided by physical movement - is a tool I use to facilitate learning in all areas of my work.
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PRMonitor - Home PR Monitor (Pty) Ltd distributes your press releases and other content to the most influential media outlets to facilitate access, and distribution, of press releases and other content with a wide range of press release writing and editing services.
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Jan W. Whiteley Home Introduces Jan W. Whiteley Business Writing, LLC, and explains why the words she writes win business. Characterizes her communications, editing, and strategy skills, and highlights her willingness to offer a free, no-obligation consultation.
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Healing Hope - Holistic Consultation Services for Pets & Their People Vet, Holistic, homeopath, Dog, Cat, Dental, anesthesia free, Pet care, canine, feline, doctor, DVM, Veterinarian,
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Meghan LeVota – A dreamer, and a doer. Meet Meghan LeVota, a dreamer and a doer. I'm a storyteller. I enjoy making complicated things make sense to the everyday person. I use my voice to make great things happen. I inspire others to share their voice and passions and use my skills in multimedia to facilitate that process. I dream of a world…
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Essay Writer - Top Quality Essay Writing Service Australia The most reliable essay writing service for Australia. Hire a professional essay writer that will give you the desired result.
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The best place to get the exceptional academic writing services!! We are always ready to facilitate students in the process of managing their academic tasks viably through our academic writing services.
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Activboard touch 78 driver activboard touch 78 driver Box Contents 78 DR 88 DR SCM3X063 DR DR TP2020 DR DR ActivBoard Touch Install and User Guide Page 5 Safety Information If the ActivBoard is suspected to be faulty or damaged contact Promethean or an authorised Promethean service agent for advice. activboard touch 78 driver The ActivBoard Touch is a USB HID standard interactive whiteboard with six touch points, optional digital pen, two stylus and a dryerase surface. The ActivBoard Touch is available in 4: 3 and 16: 10 aspect ratios (78 and 88 nominal sizes). ActivBoard Touch Engage students with the multitouch and dryerase ActivBoard Touch that provides a wide range of tools to support daily instruction at an affordable cost. Learn More activboard touch 78 driver ActivBoard Touch. ActivBoard Touch brings together intuitive touch interactivity and Prometheans awardwinning software to facilitate engaging, effective learning experiences. ActivBoard Touch is available as a 78 or 88 display with a dryerase surface. ActivBoard Touch Available in 78& 88 The ActivBoard Touch combines multitouch functionality, dryerase writing, and awardwinning software to foster a truly interactive learning experience. The ActivBoard Touch is a USB HID standard interactive whiteboard with six touch points, optional digital pen, two stylus and a dryerase surface. The ActivBoard Touch is available in 4: 3 and 16: 10 aspect ratios (78 and 88 nominal sizes). activboard touch 78 driver Hi Adam, The latest version of ActivDriver has been installed, v. We have also tried this ActivBoard with another Laptop, latest driver version, and The Promethean AB10T78D ActivBoard Touch is a 78inch interactive whiteboard display that incorporates multitouch functionality, dryerase writing and awardwinning software to provide an interactive learning experience at an affordable price. May 04, 2015 The ActivBoard Touch is the newest member of the Promethean interactive board family, and the first to be 100 touch sensitive (no pen to loose here). The ActivBoard Touch combines touch capability, a classroomtough magnetic surface and a respect for tight budgets. With its speed of response perfect for swipe, pinch, zoom, and manipulation gestures so familiar on smartphones and tablets, ActivBoard Touch is ideal for teachers operating in Windows 7 and Windows 8 environments.
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YoungAcademics A new platform to facilitate medical undergraduates'' involvement in academic medicine. A project by KCL Clinical Specialties Society.
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Real Estate | Home Improvement Why do you need a website? the most basic reason is to be known to people widely, unlimited places, not seeing time and unlimited people. The website can be used for many purposes ranging from fun, hobby, entertainment, fun, personal, trial, show off, friendship, community, making money, selling, education, to serious levels such as offices, institutions, and companies. The bottom line: if a person, hobby, product/merchandise, organization or community, institution or office you want to be known widely, can be seen or read by anyone and at any time and from any place, then you need a website. Well now to make websites for real estate investors very popular. Before that, I will discuss what is the function and usefulness of the website itself. What does the website mean? The website is one of the facilities that we can use on the internet network as a medium of information that can be presented in the form of writing/text, images, animation, and video. Websites are usually arranged in a series of menus or technical terms link/hyperlink which then connects to many pages that present information like I said above. The website is further divided into many types, there are company profiles, e-commerce, e-banking, e-government, e-learning, social networks, blogs, forums, news portals, search engines, encyclopedias, and others. Everything is basically the same, the difference is usually the function, content, and way of the user. Currently, the name of the website is actually already familiar, I estimate about 50% of the lower classes to the top, rural and urban residents already know and even use it (not have), for example using Facebook or search engines. Even children and junior high school often found already have their own blog/website. Believe it, don't believe it, then prove it yourself. Why does a government office or institution need a website Requested by the institution above it Want to improve information services globally Want to facilitate coordination with central institutions, and institutions that are within its scope of work Want to have an information database that is easily accessible to anyone, anytime and anywhere with the principle of openness. Why do companies or institutions of the business world need websites Introducing products and services to a wider world of markets Facilitate the presentation of information for business partners outside the region Providing online transaction services Increase company revenue Facilitate communication with branch companies Why personal needs a website From some friends who are active in the internet world, and also from personal experience, I can conclude the reason why needing a website is that: Want to share stories, knowledge, and experience about many things Want to get money Want to have lots of friends Want to trade online Want to learn to make the web Many individuals or companies use the real estate investor's business, one of them is using the website. The reason is that the business is currently developing. And one of them is leadpropeller is building software for that purpose. There you will be given the facility to search for the domain you want, as well as many other features. What is clear is that you will be supported by a professional team, so that your investor's real estate business runs, namely through the website.
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Music Academics Music School - teaching all instruments. Learn to read, write music, play by ear and play like a pro.
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Educational Games: Preschool & Kindergarten Kids Greysprings Fun games for kids to facilitate interactive learning. Puzzle activities for children to teach English Alphabets, rhymes, counting, colors, shapes, fruit/sports charts etc. The preschool games are great fun and education for toddlers as they enter kindergarten as KINESTHETIC Learners.
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Custom eMarketing » Web Site Promotion, Internet Marketing & Freelance Copywriting Services by Kern Communications Kern Communications'' proprietor is an Internet marketing consultant who provides web site promotion services and freelance writing services to large and small businesses alike. Our Web consulting, Internet marketing, search engine optimization (SEO) & freelance copywriting and copyediting services serve to increase your Web site traffic and facilitate online lead generation. If you''re looking for a seasoned Web marketing consultant to provide expert Web site marketing services, look no further than Kern Communications Custom eMarketing Solutions!
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Daily Writing Prompt - Daily Writing Prompt: Creative ideas for every writing style, and age level The purpose of this Daily Writing Prompt website is to initiate and facilitate the writing of intermediate, secondary and English language students around the world.
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Electronic Literature Organization – To facilitate and promote the writing, publishing, and reading of literature in electronic media.
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11 Plus Tuition Orpington | Eleven Plus Tuition in Orpington At ACE Tuition in Orpington, we facilitate the preparation for 11 Plus exams. Our goals are to make sure that your child gets access to the relevant material, correct methodologies and expert guidance thereby enabling him/her to achieve full potential.
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What Is Takes To Craft A Well-Written Thesis The following recommendations will highly facilitate your thesis writing. Don''t hesitate to use these ideas to succeed without effort.
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Connect Experience Write (CEW) - CEW home page Connect Experience Write (CEW) is an interpersonal handwriting program that uses sensory-motor integration and visual-spatial concepts to facilitate the development of handwriting skills in students
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Real Estate | Home Improvement Why do you need a website? the most basic reason is to be known to people widely, unlimited places, not seeing time and unlimited people. The website can be used for many purposes ranging from fun, hobby, entertainment, fun, personal, trial, show off, friendship, community, making money, selling, education, to serious levels such as offices, institutions, and companies. The bottom line: if a person, hobby, product/merchandise, organization or community, institution or office you want to be known widely, can be seen or read by anyone and at any time and from any place, then you need a website. Well now to make websites for real estate investors very popular. Before that, I will discuss what is the function and usefulness of the website itself. What does the website mean? The website is one of the facilities that we can use on the internet network as a medium of information that can be presented in the form of writing/text, images, animation, and video. Websites are usually arranged in a series of menus or technical terms link/hyperlink which then connects to many pages that present information like I said above. The website is further divided into many types, there are company profiles, e-commerce, e-banking, e-government, e-learning, social networks, blogs, forums, news portals, search engines, encyclopedias, and others. Everything is basically the same, the difference is usually the function, content, and way of the user. Currently, the name of the website is actually already familiar, I estimate about 50% of the lower classes to the top, rural and urban residents already know and even use it (not have), for example using Facebook or search engines. Even children and junior high school often found already have their own blog/website. Believe it, don't believe it, then prove it yourself. Why does a government office or institution need a website Requested by the institution above it Want to improve information services globally Want to facilitate coordination with central institutions, and institutions that are within its scope of work Want to have an information database that is easily accessible to anyone, anytime and anywhere with the principle of openness. Why do companies or institutions of the business world need websites Introducing products and services to a wider world of markets Facilitate the presentation of information for business partners outside the region Providing online transaction services Increase company revenue Facilitate communication with branch companies Why personal needs a website From some friends who are active in the internet world, and also from personal experience, I can conclude the reason why needing a website is that: Want to share stories, knowledge, and experience about many things Want to get money Want to have lots of friends Want to trade online Want to learn to make the web Many individuals or companies use the real estate investor's business, one of them is using the website. The reason is that the business is currently developing. And one of them is leadpropeller is building software for that purpose. There you will be given the facility to search for the domain you want, as well as many other features. What is clear is that you will be supported by a professional team, so that your investor's real estate business runs, namely through the website.
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LFA Lawson-Fisher Associates P. C. (LFA) has been providing engineering services from its South Bend office to both public and private clients in a variety of engineering service areas for over 45 years. LFA offers a broad range of civil engineering project services principally focused in the areas of water resources, transportation, bridges and structures. We have extensive design and project management experience on a vast array of City and County projects. We have an exceptional level of experience and expertise upon which our prepared plans and recommendations are based. Our superior work across diverse client markets offer cost-effective, innovative solutions to meet the clients’ present and long term needs.  We understand the value of collaboration and realize on complex, larger projects that we will solicit the technical expertise of our project partners. Their particular expertise in certain areas compliments LFA in the interest of providing the best possible services for the client’s needs. LFA has a highly qualified and dedicated team of professionals working together to achieve a common goal of providing high-quality services to our clients as noted by our 94% repeat service record. We partner with our clients to develop long-term relationships, get to know their businesses and objectives and advocate their interest to meet client expectations. We’ve earned our clients trust by providing a consistently high level of professionalism and quality. Constantly striving to offer solutions that are often creative and are always effective. Understanding project constraints, clear lines of communication, and engagement with individual professionals involved in helping define the client’s needs and scope are key tasks for a successful project and outcomes. Constant contact with project partners and regular reports to the client is an essential task. This participative process is a key element to LFA’s success through the design development process. LFA project managers and supporting team in project partners have the technical experience and resources to coordinate the many parallel tasks to deliver the project. LFA designs optimal solutions to bring quality projects to completion safely, on schedule and within budget.
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Joy Wiggins, PhD | Home - Joy Wiggins, PhD | Leader, Speaker, Coach, Scholar Joy Wiggins is an equity and diversity consultant in Bellingham, Washington who provides human resource coaching, online courses and education about feminism, social justice, conflict resolution and more.
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Healing Hope - Holistic Consultation Services for Pets & Their People Vet, Holistic, homeopath, Dog, Cat, Dental, anesthesia free, Pet care, canine, feline, doctor, DVM, Veterinarian,
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RTC-1 RTC-1 Employment Services is the ultimate channel that will facilitate the candidates'' skills and qualifications to employers in the Middle East and Africa
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Educational Games: Preschool & Kindergarten Kids Greysprings Fun games for kids to facilitate interactive learning. Puzzle activities for children to teach English Alphabets, rhymes, counting, colors, shapes, fruit/sports charts etc. The preschool games are great fun and education for toddlers as they enter kindergarten as KINESTHETIC Learners.
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The best place to get the exceptional academic writing services!! We are always ready to facilitate students in the process of managing their academic tasks viably through our academic writing services.
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The Medieval Chronicle | The Medieval Chronicle Society The Medieval Chronicle Society is an international and interdisciplinary organisation founded to facilitate the work of scholars interested in medieval chronicles, or more generally medieval historiography. Alongside annals, chronicles were the main genre of historical writing in the Middle Ages. Consequently they have always been of great importance to historians. The extent to which they…