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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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CasaComida | Latin cooking at its best The team behind Casa Comida have been cooking Central and South American food for people in our neighborhoods for a long time. We have now decided to share our secrets and recipes to teach you how to cook our delicious dishes wherever you are. We are trying to use ingredients that are easy to find so that you can cook the food you miss no matter where you live in the world. With our recipes you will never need to go out for Mexican or Cuban food again. You will be able to cook it yourself with your family and friends. Cooking Latin food in your own kitchen is the only way to unlock all the variation, all the flavors that this cuisine really offers. In a restaurant you will only get to taste a limit number of the different flavors that you can enjoy by substituting different peppers and vegetables in our recipes. We strongly recommend that you experiment with our recipes and make them your own. 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Happy Father day 2019 Quotes WIshes Messages SMS Images In USA, UK, Canada,India & Pakistan – Father day Sunday, 16 June 2019 – Happy Father day 2019 Wishes, Quotes, Greeting Messages, SMS For Facebook & Whatsapp, Celebrations Ideas with cards, Father day Images,Pics & Gifs Enjoy Happy Father day 2019 Quotes Wishes Images with Greeting Messages SMS Pictures & Wallpapers - Free Download Father Day Best Quotes Poems Jokes Meme Speech Stories Status with Gifs Images In Hindi, English, Urdu, Punjabi, Marathi, Spanish, Telugu & Malayalam For Whatsapp & Facebook Friends, Family, Son, Daughter & Wife! Happy Father day 2019 Quotes Wishes Messages SMS Images In USA, UK, Canada, India & Pakistan Father's Day History Father's Day is a celebration honouring fathers and celebrating fatherhood, paternal bonds, and the influence of fathers in society. In Catholic Europe, it has been celebrated on March 19 (St. Joseph's Day) since the Middle Ages. Father's Day History and traditions This celebration was brought by the Spanish and Portuguese to Latin America, where March 19 is often still used for it, though many countries in Europe and the Americas have adopted the U.S. date, which is the third Sunday of June (falling June 17 in 2019). It is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in the months of March, April, and June. It complements similar celebrations honouring family members, such as Mother's Day, Siblings Day and Grandparents Day. The early history of Father's Day 2019 A customary day for the celebration of fatherhood in Catholic Europe is known to date back to at least the Middle Ages, and it is observed on 19 March, as the feast day of Saint Joseph, who is referred to as the fatherly Nutrition Domini ("Nourisher of the Lord") in Catholicism and "the putative father of Jesus" in southern European tradition. This celebration was brought to the Americans by the Spanish and Portuguese, and in Latin America, Father's Day is still celebrated on 19 March. The Catholic church actively supported the custom of a celebration of fatherhood on St. Joseph's day from either the last years of the 14th century or from the early 15th century, apparently on the initiative of the Franciscans. In the Coptic Church, the celebration of fatherhood is also observed on St Joseph's Day, but the Copts observe this celebration on July 20. This Coptic celebration may date back to the fifth century. In the US Beginnings of Father's Day 2019 Father's Day was not celebrated in the US, outside Catholic traditions, until the 20th century. As a civic celebration in the US, it was inaugurated in the early 20th century to complement Mother's Day by celebrating fathers and male parenting. After Anna Jarvis' successful promotion of Mother's Day in Grafton, West Virginia, the first observance of a "Father's Day" was held on July 5, 1908, in Fairmont, West Virginia, in the Williams Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church South, now known as Central United Methodist Church. Grace Golden Clayton was mourning the loss of her father, when in December 1907, the Monongah Mining Disaster in nearby Monongah killed 361 men, 250 of them fathers, leaving around a thousand fatherless children. Clayton suggested that her pastor Robert Thomas Webb honour all those fathers. Clayton's event did not have repercussions outside Fairmont for several reasons, among them: the city was overwhelmed by other events, the celebration was never promoted outside the town itself and no proclamation of it was made by the city council. Also, two events overshadowed this event: the celebration of Independence Day July 4, 1908, with 12,000 attendants and several shows including a hot air balloon event, which took over the headlines in the following days, and the death of a 16-year-old girl on July 4. The local church and council were overwhelmed and they did not even think of promoting the event, and it was not celebrated again for many years. The original sermon was not reproduced by the press and it was lost. Finally, Clayton was a quiet person, who never promoted the event and never talked to other persons about it. Establishment of the Father's Day holiday On June 19, 1910, a Father's Day celebration was held at the YMCA in Spokane, Washington by Sonora Smart Dodd. Her father, the civil war veteran William Jackson Smart, was a single parent who raised his six children there. She was also a member of Old Centenary Presbyterian Church (now Knox Presbyterian Church), where she first proposed the idea. After hearing a sermon about Jarvis' Mother's Day in 1909 at Central Methodist Episcopal Church, she told her pastor that fathers should have a similar holiday to honour them. Although she initially suggested June 5, her father's birthday, the pastors did not have enough time to prepare their sermons, and the celebration was deferred to the third Sunday in June. Several local clergymen accepted the idea, and on June 19, 1910, the first Father's Day, "sermons honouring fathers were presented throughout the city". International history and traditions of Father's Day Father's Day in Australia In Australia, Father's Day is celebrated on the first Sunday of September, which is the first Sunday of Spring in Australia and is not a public holiday. At school, children handcraft their present for their fathers. Consumer goods companies have all sorts of special offers for fathers: socks, ties, electronics, suits, and men's healthcare products. Most families present fathers with gifts and cards and share a meal to show appreciation, much like Mother's Day. YMCA Victoria continues the tradition of honouring the role fathers and father figures play in parenting through the annual awarding of Local Community Father of the Year in 32 municipalities in Victoria. The Father's Day Council of Victoria annually recognizes fathers in the Father of the Year Award. Father's Day History and Traditions Father's Day in Canada In Canada, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June and is not a public holiday. Father's Day typically involves spending time with one's father or the father figures in one's life. Small family gatherings and the giving of gifts may be part of the festivities organized for Father's Day. Father's Day in India India traditionally has a two-week celebration since ancient days dedicated to celebrating ancestors called the Pitru Paksha. Father's Day is not celebrated in all of India. But is observed on the same day as the USA, the third Sunday of June by mostly westernized urban centres. The event is not a public holiday. The day is usually celebrated only in bigger cities of India like Chennai, Mumbai, New Delhi, Bengaluru, Kolkata, Hyderabad, and others. After this day was first observed in the United States in 1908 and gradually gained popularity, Indian metropolitan cities, much later, followed suit by recognizing this event. In India, the day is usually celebrated with children giving gifts like greeting cards, electronic gadgets, shirts, coffee mugs or books to their fathers. Father's Day in the United Kingdom In the United Kingdom, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June. The day does not have a long tradition; The English Year (2006) states that it entered British popular culture "sometime after the Second World War, not without opposition". Father's Day in the United States of America In the USA, Father's Day is celebrated on the third Sunday of June. Typically, families gather to celebrate the father figures in their lives. In recent years, retailers have adapted to the holiday by promoting greeting cards and gifts such as electronics and tools. Schools (if in session) and other children's programs commonly have activities to make Father's Day gifts. The U.S. Open golf tournament is scheduled to finish on Father's Day, as was the 2016 NBA Finals. How to Celebrate Father's day? Father's Day Gifts Ideas Father's Day is a perfect occasion to express your deepest feelings for dearest Papa and pamper him with loads of Father's Day Gifts. Ties and wallets are nice but don't you think that dad can feel bored getting the same formal and cliched gifts every time. So try to be a touch greater revolutionary and considerate this 12 months and gift a gift that leaves an eternal impact and creates sweet memories for an entire life. Sounds best and brilliant?? Ya… But the maximum daunting assignment is to decide at the right present for dad. Here are a few Gift Ideas for father's day with one-of-a-kind tastes and pursuits. These would possibly assist you to widen your method for selecting Father's Day Gifts. These father's day gift thoughts can certainly be implemented for granddads, uncles or men who're like your father. The maximum important element that must complement any Father's Day Gifts which you pick to consist of a heat hug and a large THANK YOU. For Trendy Dads If your dad is hep and love to carry a style announcement a remarkable idea might be to present him a pair of cool sunglasses. He might be possessing some already but he would welcome any other one with a warm smile. Perfumes and Deodorants also can accept though. For Sporty Dads Sporty dads are going to like a Father's Day gift that enhances their ardour for a laugh and sports. So you may gift him something that gels together with his vicinity of the hobby. Golf, cricket or tennis set might be a pleasing sporty idea. If he loves indoor video games you could pass in for premium chess or playing cards set or something else like Dartboards or scrabble primarily based on his desire. For Bibliophile Dads If your dad likes to spend time in books there may be no better idea than to present him a pleasant hard sure e-book. While implementing this concept be a touch thoughtful and preserve your dad's desire in thoughts. On the occasion of Father's Day, you could additionally choose books which mirror at the beautiful dating shared among a father and a baby. For Techno Savy Dads There are a whole lot of alternatives in the market for dads who like to undertake contemporary and trendiest in technology. If you've got a great budget you purchase a graceful new cellular set or i Pod. On the better give up you can pass in for a digital camera, camcorders, laptops and DVDs. Other thoughts on this class encompass digital shavers, massager or exercising system. For Dads on the Mechanical Side If your dear Papa loves to play with the mechanical object a shiny idea might be to gift him a device set entire with screwdrivers, wrenches, and hammers. And how approximately the Swiss Army Pocket Organizer?? Father's Day Gifts and Ideas to celebrate Father's Day 2019 Father's D Clothes and Accessories These are traditional but always favoured. You may also like to buy a formal shirt, a casual T-Shirt or a couple of trousers. Accessories that can be gifted on Father's Day encompass belts, wallets, portfolio luggage, cuff-links and of course ties! Movie or Theatre Tickets Book tickets for dad's preferred film with simply mom or the complete own family covered. Alternatively, you may get him a DVD of his preferred films or albums. A picnic or a trip to enjoyment park also can work as an exceptional Father's Day Gift Idea. Father's Day Gift and Idea Father's Day is one best event to show dad how a good deal you love him and explicit your heartfelt gratitude for him. And what higher manner are you able to display your affection than with something made lovingly by way of you!! Homemade Gifts are maximumly favoured by Dads on their special occasion. This is for the simple motive that gifts made with love by worrying youngsters contact the centre of a father's coronary heart. Gifts made by means of hand, howsoever small or imperfect, are much extra value than the fancy devices that you might purchase from the marketplace. Those can be valuable in terms of cash, however, the one made with the aid of hand is valuable. So realize you are really worth and plan out a way to galvanize Dad this Father's Day. Making Homemade Father's Day present may also assist you to unleash your hidden talent and convey it out in open. Think approximately your ability? What are you exactly at? Here are some ideas you can provide a try with this Father's Day. You can use your imagination and come up with your own extremely good million dollar ideas. If you can write creatively, write a song or a poem reflecting your feelings for dad. Get it framed and gift it on Father's Day. If you love music compose some special musical piece or a song for Father's Day. Present your performance in a Father's Day get together and make an everlasting impression on Dad. Those good at a painting may like to sketch a portrait of Papa or prepare a painting of his favourite haunt. You can also go in for preparing Dad's favourite meal on Father's Day to make him happy. If you need ideas Click Here for Father's Day Recipes. Children can also try craft activities for Father's Day. Use imagination, love, and ideas in our Father's Day Crafts page to make wonderful homemade crafts. Father's Day Craft Ideas Father's Day is a great occasion to reveal your love and gratitude for your daddy. So youngsters, make the nice use of the possibility and show your expertise by using making some modern Father's Day Crafts. Here are some simple and easy thoughts on Father's Day Craft Projects for Kids and Teens. We encourage kids to get stimulated by using these thoughts but they need to strive to add a dash of their own creativity even as making the most special personalized hand-crafted gifts for fathers. Your father will absolutely experience on top of the world whilst he gets a precious Father's Day Craft from his loving baby. Father's day craft and Idea Father's Day Crafts Ideas for Kids » Twig Frame » Father's Day Collage » DAD Picture Frame Craft » Pen Holder Collage » Business Card Holder Father's Day Crafts Ideas for Teens » Memory Album » All-Star Dad Box » Hugs and Kisses Box Father's Day Games Ideas: Father's Day Games – Play With Father Father's Day Games – Play With Father Father's Day Party Games Handprint/ Footprint I.D. Game Say About Dad Game Tie Matching Game Father's Day Indoor Games Monopoly, Scrabble, Clue, Cards, Haiku Father's Day Outdoor Games Kite Flying, Cricket, Golf, Skiing/ Boarding, Bowling --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Happy Father's Day 2019 Quotes Wishes An exciting, humorous, witty and idea frightening series of Father's Day Inspirational Quotes with the aid of a number of the maximum celebrated and revered personalities of our times. Read those Father's Day 2019 Quotes for perception into the lives of fathers at numerous ranges of fatherhood. You will renowned and appreciate the united states of America and downs in a fathers existence with those words of knowledge on fathers and fatherhood. When you examine those motivational fees on Father's Day word how the lifestyles of the father can be each lovely, exciting and at the same time be extremely challenging and difficult. Quote those Father's Day one-liners within the Father's Day Card you made for Papa and express your gratitude for all the pains he took to convey you up. Tell father how plenty he merits to be preferred and applauded for being the most excellent character on your existence. Happy Father's Day 2019 Quotes The most important thing in the world is family and love. Happy Father's Day Quotes My father gave me the greatest gift anyone could give another person, he believed in me. When a father gives to his son, both laugh; when a son gives to his father, both cry. One of the greatest titles in the world is parent, and one of the biggest blessings in the world is to have parents to call mom and dad. Until you have a son of your own… you will never know the joy, the love beyond feeling that resonates in the heart of a father as he looks upon his son. Anyone can be a father, but it takes someone special to be a dad, and that's why I call you dad because you are so special to me. You taught me the game and you taught me how to play it right. Father's Day 2019 Quotes from Daughter Father's Day Quotes from Daughter To a father growing old nothing is dearer than a daughter. My dad is my best friend, my father, and my boss. When I do something that is exciting and he likes it, it feels three times as good as you can imagine. Dad, wherever you are, you are gone but you will never be forgotten. Being a father has been, without a doubt, my greatest source of achievement, pride, and inspiration. Fatherhood has taught me about unconditional love, reinforced the importance of giving back and taught me how to be a better person. One father is more than a hundred schoolmasters. It is a wise father that knows his own child. Father's Day 2019 Quotes from Wife A real man loves his wife and places his family as the most important thing in life. Father's Day 2019 Quotes from Wife Nothing has brought me more peace and content in life than simply being a good husband and father. I think my mom put it best. She said, 'Little girls soften their daddy's hearts.' Father's Day Quotes from Wife I would want my legacy to be that I was a great son, father, and friend. Becoming a dad means you have to be a role model for your son and be someone he can look up to. My dad was my best friend and greatest role model. He was an amazing dad, coach, mentor, soldier, husband, and friend. Funny Father's 2019 Day Quotes You don't have to deserve your mother's love. You have to deserve your father's. Funny Father's 2019 Day Quotes Funny Father's Day Quotes Without my dad, I wouldn't be here. It doesn't matter who my father was; it matters who I remember he was. I would say my greatest achievement in life right now – my greatest achievement period is – and I'm still trying to achieve it – is to be a wonderful father to my kids. I want to congratulate all the men out there who are working diligently to be good fathers whether they are stepfathers, or biological fathers or just spiritual fathers. I am not ashamed to say that no man I ever met was my father's equal, and I never loved any other man as much. Father's Day 2019 Inspirational Quotes My dad's my best mate, and he always will be. Father's Day 2019 Inspirational Quotes Father's Day Inspirational Quotes My father used to say that it's never too late to do anything you wanted to do. And he said, 'You never know what you can accomplish until you try.' To me, having kids is the ultimate job in life. I want to be most successful at being a good father. Son, brother, father, lover, friend. There is room in the heart for all the affections, as there is room in heaven for all the stars. I have a Father's Day every day. A good father believes that he does wisely to encourage enterprise, productive skill, prudent self-denial, and judicious expenditure on the part of his son. Father's Day 2019 Quotes from Son Fatherhood is the best thing that could happen to me, and I'm just glad I can share my voice. My dad's not here, but he's watching in heaven. Father's Day 2019 Quotes from Son Father's Day Quotes from Son When it comes to Father's Day, I will remember my dad for both being there to nurture me and also for the times he gave me on my own to cultivate my own interests and to nurture my own spirit. Our dad was a great guy and we will never forget him. We looked up to our father. He still is much greater than us. I mean, I look at my dad. He was twenty when he started having a family, and he was always the coolest dad. He did everything for his kids, and he never made us feel like he was pressured. I know that it must be a great feeling to be a guy like that. We should all aspire in life to do a multitude of things well – to be a great father, to be a good husband, to be a good lover, you know, to try to do things the best you can is very important to me. My father always used to say that when you die, if you've got five real friends, then you've had a great life. Best Father's Day 2019 Quotes Greetings I wasn't anything special as a father. But I loved them and they knew it. Being a father helps me be more responsible… you see more things than you've ever seen. Old as she was, she still missed her daddy sometimes. Father's Day is hopefully a time when the culture says, 'This is our moment to look at who our men and boys are.' In our house, Mother's Day is every day. Father's Day, too. In our house, parents count. They do important work and that work matters. One day just doesn't cut for us. I'm always going to love my father. I'm a father; that's what matters most. Nothing matters more. The best thing about being a dad? Well, I think it's just the thing that every man wants – to have a son and heir. I can definitely say the older I've got the better I've become at being a dad and a husband. I'm a good dad; I spend a lot of time with my kids. The number one thing I've been doing is being a daddy. I decided in my life that I would do nothing that did not reflect positively on my father's life. I admire my father greatly. Best Father's Day 2019 Quotes Greetings Best Father's Day Quotes I was raised by my father; I was daddy's girl. This is the price you pay for having a great father. You get the wonder, the joy, the tender moments – and you get the tears at the end, too. My role model is my dad. My Dad is my hero. To be as good as our fathers we must be better, imitation is not discipleship. Dad taught me everything I know. Unfortunately, he didn't teach me everything he knows. I'm a strong person, I'm a strong family man, I'm a strong husband and a strong father. I imagine God to be like my father. My father was always the voice of certainty in my life. Certainty in the wisdom, certainty in the path, certainty always in God. For me, God is certainty in everything. The certainty that everything is good and everything is God. It's an ongoing joy being a dad. Man becomes man only by his intelligence, but he is a man only by his heart. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Father's Day 2019 Wishes – How to Wish Father on Father day? Father's Day 2019 Wishes – How to Wish Father on Father day? It's quite a true truth that there's no relationship inside the entire Universe which may be as compared to that of the daddy-infant courting. He is a person who opens up the layers of fulfilment, desire, desires and a remarkable experience of searching at matters with surgical precision. He kindles love, tenderness, courage, preference and plenty of such emotions in his toddler's coronary heart. He makes it certain to be gift along with his baby even wherein there isn't any room for apathy and allows his baby to combat the wrenching denouement. His effective love helps combat myriad of complexities that come within the course in the direction of a fulfilling existence. Often an issue has been made on if some other dating may be as fulfilling a father's courting is. By his words, actions and his approach closer to existence teaches the way of life. Sons gather the artwork of being an accountable member of the family taking care of each person in the own family at the same time as daughters discover ways to admire their own selection and be assured enough to combat for themselves. This tremendous contribution of a father day wishes a grand celebration. As the father's day methods humans begin trying to find methods to expose their like to their father. We have jotted down a few enthralling messages for father's day to be able to make your day a celebratory second. Here are the daddy's day messages that will help you out for a huge party: 1. When I became a kid my father helped me to develop, once I got here into my teenage my father helped me acquaint myself into the arena's affairs. Now that, I am into life, when I have a spouse and an infant-like I used to be, my father maintains assisting me out in encouraging my infant. Happy Father's Day Dad!! Father's Day 2019 Wishes – How to Wish Father on Father day? 2. I occasionally surprise, wherein does that strength come to him? My father, he's a superman, he's the electricity bank who glorifies now not simplest his life, however, his youngsters' lifestyles too. On father's day I need to celebrate my life for I even have someone such as you in it. I want to want a desire for you that all you need emerge as authentic. Happy Father's Day Dad!! 3. I am apprehensive of the fact with the intention to I ever be able to be someone like my Father!! He is the nice man or woman I even have ever been capable of meeting in my life. You are the one who helped me acquire power and supported me in each little situation. Thank you dad, for constantly being there!! 4. Dad, each time I sit down and reflect on consideration on you, my eyes get full of tears, my coronary heart receives packed with love and recognition for you. How can you be so excellent to me? You usually have loved me for what I am and helped me follow my desires. I recognise this can't pay off even a bit bit of your contribution in my life but nevertheless, I want to say thank you for something you have got carried out for me. Happy Father's day!! 5. On this Father's day, I want to do something to be able to make my father sense a feel of power the manner he used to provide me power. I want to embrace all your pain; I want to make you experience happy about being what you're. This is the ideal day when I can say I love you dad for what you're. Thank you for being who you're!! 6. I don't honestly experience the need for an afternoon t be committed to my fearless father. He is the lion of the family who continues away all the negatives from my lifestyles and be a shelter like no one ought to have ever been. The bond between you and me is so very sturdy that no one every can dare to interrupt it out. I will love you dad till the end of my existence! Happy Father's Day!! 7. Father's day is a time that gives me an opportunity to inform my father how plenty I care! It's the duration of the year which makes me sense extremely joyful and crushed with the thought of getting born to a person like you. I need to thank the Almighty who has blessed me with this type of splendid father and I want to say thanks to my father too for always being there. Thank you day!! Father's Day 2019 Wishes 8. Father's Day shall we me recall the dedicated diligence, never-ending sacrifices and selfless love of my father. By doing something out-of-the-global I want to make my father experience blessed to have blessed with a child like me. This father's day, Dad I want to mention that, nobody else could be in my lifestyles as important as you. Love you for what you are and what you've got been. 9. I realize that wishing you Father's day will now not necessarily pay for what you have achieved for me. But, nevertheless, I need to mention that as a minimum this day offers me a danger to revive our dating and make you comprehend your contribution in my lifestyles. You were a God to my dad. I want to thank you from the bottom of my coronary heart. Happy Father's Day!! 10. From the day I opened my eyes to the Universe for the primary time, you made me sense protected from that very day. Now that, I am grown up I need to reveal you the equal facet of me I need to show my love to you. I will stand by way of you, the way you've got protected me a majority of these years. Happy Father's day dad!! 11. Dad, I love you to the dedication that you have shown in bringing me up. You have helped me handle all those wrenching conditions in existence. Maybe, I couldn't have been the best daughter/son, but I will try and absorb all of the obligations of an accountable baby. Thanks, day!! You have made my life the manner I wanted it to be. Happy Father's Day!! 12. You usually prolonged a helping hand every time I desired. Now that I am grown up I want to extend mine for you. Nevertheless, nothing can ever pay off your love but I don't want to overlook this possibility to reveal my gratitude for anything you have got finished for me. Thank you, dad, for continually being there!! Happy Father's day!! Father's Day 2019 Poem to Celebrate Father's Day Poems can be treated as a metrical way of professing one's emotions. Thus dedicating a poem to your father in order to express your profound love can be a better option on this Father's day. Check out the collection of Father's day themed poems enlisted below and feel free to dedicate those to your beloved father as well to the father figures present in your life. And if you like the collection, make sure you refer this page to your friends as well so that they can do the same and as well dedicate the poems to their respective fathers as well. Here is a unique and beautiful collection of heart touching Father's Day Poems. Pick up one Father's Day Poem which is closest to your heart and read it aloud to your Dad. Another great idea would be to quote these sentimental Father Day Poem on the Father's Day Card you got for him. You may also express your love and gratitude to your grandfather, uncle or a person who is like your father by quoting these poems on their cards. The idea behind these cute and some funny Poem for Father's Day is to say Thanks to your Father for all his care, sacrifices and affection for you. Father's Day 2019 Messages – To Write In A Father's Day Card Its Father's Day folks! Here is a platform to express your innermost feelings for your Papa. Send Father's Day Messages to us and let the world know how much you love your dad and care about him. Share old memories and dreams about the future. Says sorry for all the troubles you gave him as a kid or just go ahead and say I Love You Dad. Space is all yours! Here below you get best Father's Day 2019 Messages to wish your dad or papa on the Father's Day. The messages for Father's Day are perfect conveys of hearty feelings you want to express your loving dad. So go through Father's Day messages below and forward the one you find best to greet your father with. We know there are a million different types of dads, from the funny dads to the sport-mad dads, from the sentimental dads to the brand-new daddies and they all need celebrating in their own way! Father's Day is the one day of the year especially dedicated to the man in your life who has always been there, made you laugh with his 'dad' jokes and give you the best (and possibly worst!) advice you could ask for. With our Father's Day Card Messages Inspiration, you're sure to find the perfect one to make your dad shed a tear or laugh out loud. Take a look at our amazing selection of card verses and get ready to put a smile on dad's face! Funny Father's Day 2019 Messages for Dad Funny Father's Day 2019 Messages for Dad "Thanks for having me, even if it was just so you'd have someone to take care of you when you're old!" "Dad, you're the Mufasa to my Simba, but don't worry… I won't let Scar throw you off a cliff!" "Dad, thanks for being my keyboard warrior!" "Dad, thanks for the good looks… I'll thank mum for my intelligence!" "I hope this Father's Day is as fun as your life was before kids!" "I'm so glad it was you who knocked mum up!" "Thanks dad for getting rid of all those spiders!" "Thanks dad for teaching me air guitar!" "Cheers dad, for sowing your wild oats with mum!" "I hope you're proud of me not sending the same card as last year!" "Happy Father's Day to one of my favourite parents" "To the best taxi driver and the most generous banker, Happy Father's Day!" "Great job dad, I turned out awesome!" "You never bought me a pony like you promised, but I still love you!" Especially Father's Day 2019 Messages for Dad "Dad, you're my hero! Thanks for being you!" "I love you to the moon and back" "Any man can be a father but it takes a special someone to be a dad" "Happy Father's Day papa bear!" "When it comes to dads, you're simply unbeatable!" "You made growing up so fun!" "Thank you for being there and loving me unconditionally" "You're one in a million, dad!" "To the most important gentleman I know, Happy Father's Day" "I can't imagine what life would have been liked growing up without you. Thank you for being there through thick and thin. I love you." "Happy Father's Day to my hero and role model. " Father's Day 2019 Messages From Son "I'm so proud to be your son." "One day I hope to be half the man you are." "Sons become strong men from the influence of their father. Happy Father's Day, dad!" "When I was growing up, I looked up to you. Now I'm grown you're still the best role model." Father's Day 2019 Messages From Daughter "Dear dad, one day I hope I find a prince, but you'll always be my king!" "Thank you, dad, for setting the standard for my future husband" "Happy Father's Day to the man who put the fear into all my dates and still treats me like a princess!" Father's Day 2019 Messages For Grandad/Gramps/Pop "The very best dads are promoted to grandad!" "You are the coolest pop!" "The only thing better than having you as a dad is my kids having you as a grandad." "You're the top of the Pops! Happy Father's Day!" "Dear grandad, thanks for making dad so fashionable and cool!" "Grandad, I know you have loved me since I was born, but I have loved you my whole life" "Grandad, you are a perfectly aged limited edition!" "Dear grandad, for one day only we'll excuse any senior moments!" Father's Day Messages For Grandad/Gramps/Pop "You're one of my favourite grandparents!" "Dear grandad, on Father's Day, sit back and relax and let [mum/dad] look after you!" "Anyone can be a grandfather, but it takes someone special to be a grandad" "Thank you for being the world's best grandad!" "We love your classic grandad jokes almost as much as we love you!" "Grandad, you don't have grey hair… you have wisdom highlights!" "You are a king amongst men! Thank you for being you, grandad!" Father's Day 2019 Messages for Father In Law "Thanks for not putting my [husband/wife] up for adoption!" "Thank you for raising my [husband/wife] to be an amazing person!" "I already had one amazing father, but I won the jackpot when I gained you as well!" "Thank you for raising the [man/woman] of my dreams" "Great job, your [son/daughter] turned out awesome!" "When I married your [son/daughter] not only did I gain a partner for life, I gained a second father for life too" Father's Day 2019 Messages for Stepdad/Foster Dad Father's Day 2019 Messages for Stepdad/Foster Dad "Being a father is so much more than biology, you've raised me, supported me and loved me from the start, I love you, Happy Father's Day" "Any man can be a father, it takes someone special to be a stepfather/foster father" "Just wanted to recognise you on Father's Day for being such a caring and positive influence in my life." "You're not just my stepdad/foster dad but my best friend." "Forget the word stepfather, you are just a father." Father's Day 2019 Messages for Uncle "Everyone needs a 'Funcle' (Fun + Uncle) … Because uncles are much more fun than parents…" "I'm so grateful we're family, Happy Father's Day uncle!" "You're like a second dad to me, Happy Father's Day!" "With love and thanks to an amazing man I'll always look up to, Happy Father's Day!" Father's Day Messages for Godfather "Happy Father's Day to my wonderful godfather! My parents couldn't have picked a better (or funnier) man for the job!" "Unlike a regular dad, a godfather is selected like a precious gift. You are a gift to me! Happy Father's Day, Godfather!" "Couldn't let the day go by without say Happy Father's Day, Godfather!" "Having you in my life has made all the difference in the world to me." Father's Day 2019 Speech Father's Day is an occasion when you can make your dad feel special and proud of you. It is a day where you can express all your emotions and affection towards your dad in different ways. You can present him gifts, you can cook his favorite recipe, conduct activities to make the day lively, sing songs for him, take him for an outing and many other activities. One such way to make him feel special and to make the day end for him in a better way is to write a speech for him. The idea of a speech might sound boring, but you can make it interesting in your own little ways. Your speech need not be a professional one with jargons and all serious stuff in it. You are writing a speech for your father after all. Make it lively; make it sound realistic by including personal life examples. You can also make it sound interesting by quoting few cute Father's Day quotes or by putting in some jokes related to the topic. Make sure that your sermon conveys your message and all your emotions to your father. Writing a speech for your dad on Father's Day is one of the best ways of expressing your affection in a rather mature way. Tips for preparing Father's Day Speech Father's Day Speech Before you start preparing for Father's day speech precisely evaluate the audience and their taste. Browse through a number of sites first and then start with writing the speeches. Look for different books on the topic and related poetries which may have a couple of speeches. Do not forget to use some father's Day quotes in the speech. Start it off with a brief introduction of yourself telling about the purpose of your speech. You may also include an anecdote or a joke to make it more interesting. End, it with a concluding paragraph, explaining the purpose of each and every point. It should have an emotional touch. Here are few Father's day speeches to help you on making your father loved and delighted for being Father: Hello Everyone, Thanks for being here today. "Anyone can be a father, but it takes someone special to be a dad, and that's why I call you dad, because you are so special to me". There is also a common saying that "A Father carries pictures where his money used to be." The love he possesses for his own is comparable to nothing. I remember some years back when I was still a little, the first time I saw my dad cry. My little brother was seriously ill and it was funny to hear a rather sturdy-looking man screaming, "Stay with me! I can't eat the chocolate bar all by myself." He 'melted' before my very eyes. Fathers are priceless. Yes, and as much as we celebrate Mothers, we ought to celebrate our Fathers too. It is understandable that most of us naturally snuggle up to our moms. We lived in them as fetuses, suckled on them as infants and became even more bonded to them as we grew up. Dads stand to protect, defend and provide for their families. Nevertheless, as a saying goes, "My father gave me the greatest gift anyone could give another person, he believed in me." Do you remember standing with him on the shore of the beach, his figure towering over you? Do you remember how he used to toss you in the air and caught you midway before you reached the ground? He left work to be there at your graduation. I could go on and on about the relevance and warmness of our fathers. Do you not think we should celebrate them? Father's Day Speech The idea of Father's Day celebration was inspired first, by the Mother's day tradition, which began in the 20th century. In 1908, a memorial service was held for a large number of men who died in a mining accident in Monongah, West Virginia. Most of them that died were fathers. This event could also be one of the reasons for father's day. The most prominent name in getting Father's Day recognized is a woman 'Sonora Dodd'. When she was little, her mother died. Widowers then often remarried immediately or left their kids in the care of someone else. Her father did otherwise. He raised his six kids all by himself. Years later, Sonora felt that her father deserved recognition for what he did. Anna Jarvis's success in pushing for the establishment of Mother's Day celebrations inspired her. Due to her consistency, the first Father's Day celebration held in June 1910. President Nixon officially recognized Father's Day as a holiday in 1972. Ever since then, the world has grown to appreciate the role of Fathers and their contributions in the lives of their children and society. Different families have a different range of traditions for the celebration of this memorable event. Some simply buy gifts or give cards while others throw large parties in celebrating all the father figures in the family especially in extended families. On this day, however, there are no restrictions to normal activities. Stores, public transport transits and other organizations go about their schedule for that day. Restaurants though, tend to be a little busier than usual as many people often take their fathers out for a treat. The rigidity that many fathers display is borne out pure love. As kids, we have to understand that more often than not, our fathers are wiser than we are. They understand the implications of our youthful exuberance and that it may lead to complicated situations that we as teenagers or young adults do not see. All they have ever tried to do is keep us off harm's way. Happy Father's Day 2019 Pics, Wallpapers, Pictures, Images, Photos Happy Father's Day 2019 Wallpapers, Pictures, Images, Photos, Pics, Greetings Wishes with Father's Day Quotes, SMS, Messages, Sayings, Slogans for Pinterest, Facebook, Twitter, Google+. Father's day prices, desires with wallpaper, images, pictures, sayings, greetings and plenty extra. Hello! Are you seeking out the fashionable father's day pix? Then you're at the right region, you'll locate the whole bundle of father's day snapshots, fees, messages, needs and greetings as a way to specific your emotions on your dad. Do not miss this opportunity to show our dad how much you care for them, On this father's day exhibit your love for your dad with the best of gifts and cards along with the finest quotes images and greetings. Here we happy Father's day have published all very classy and elegant images for you to send it to your dad on this occasion: Happy Father's Day 2019 Pics, Wallpapers, Pictures, Images, Photos Happy Father's Day 2019 Pics, Wallpapers, Pictures, Images, Photos Happy Fathers Day 2019 Wishes Quotes Son/Daughter Fathers Day 2019 Quotes Wishes Happy Fathers day 2019 Wishes Quotes Happy Fathers day 2019 Wishes Fathers day 2019 Photos Wallpapers Happy Fathers day 2019 Images Happy Fathers day 2019 Messages SMS Fathers day 2019 Messages SMS Fathers Day 2019 Pictures Images Fathers Day 2019 Quotes Wishes Happy Fathers Day 2019 Wallpapers Pictures How was the list of father's day Images? we hope you liked our collection of the father's day Images. If you liked our library of images then share it with your loved ones over Facebook, Twitter or whats app. Wish you all happy Father's Day 2019! Father's Day Cards:- Father's Day 2019 Father's Day 2019 is approaching, and if you are looking for the Best Card Ideas for Father's Day, then you are at the right place. Father's Day is the most special day for fathers is celebrated across the world. This year it is falling on 18 June. And as June is here, so we are here to help you with the celebration of the Best Dad in the World. Here we have come up with some fresh as well as fun ideas of cards which you can present to your father, which will surely make his day. The superhero in your life deserves the best because he cures all our blues and makes us laugh and to do that you need to present him the best. The ready-made won't be as high as the real handcrafted cards, as it will contain all your feelings and emotions. So here we have listed some of the Coolest Father's Day Cards 2019 Ideas from basic to fancy and everything you can imagine. So have a glance at the given below card options or Happy Father's Day Cards ideas. Father's day cards So here we listed some of the best Father's Day cards which you can gift to your father on the coming Father's Day 2019. We hope that it helps you till then Happy Father's Day. HAPPY FATHER'S DAY TO YOU ALL Father's Day is a day to honour all the fathers for everything they did for their children. This is an occasion to express gratitude towards your dad for all his love and support. Instead, he picks you up after you fall, and allows you to try all over again. Yes, there is no doubt about the fact that a dad is indeed a gift from God Himself. WE WISH YOU A VERY HAPPY FATHER'S DAY. Pages Father day 2019 Quotes WIshes International father's day 2019 Fathers Day 2019 Images Pictures Fathers Day 2019 Messages SMS Fathers Day 2019 Quotes Happy Fathers Day 2019 Wishes Categories Happy Father day 2019 Fathers Day 2019 Poems Fathers day 2019 Saying Fathers Day 2019 Greetings Fathers day 2019 Images Fathers day 2019 Messages SMS Fathers day 2019 Cards Fathers day 2019 Quotes Fathers day 2019 Wishes Fathers Day 2019 Gifts Fathers Day 2019 Meme Posts: Fathers Day 2019 Quotes Pictures Father Day 2019 Recipes Father Day 2019 Gifs Father Day 2019 Cards Father Day 2019 Gifts & Poems Fathers Day 2019 Messages From Daughter, Son, Wife To Dad & Husband Happy Father's Day 2019 Whatsapp Status Fathers Day 2019 SMS From Daughter & Son Fathers day 2019 Quotes Wishes in Hindi Father's Day 2019 Cards For Husband, Son & Grandpa Fathers Day 2019 Quotes With Pics Fathers Day 2019 Messages SMS Short Father Day 2019 Quotes Wishes What day is Father's Day this year 2019? Does Father's Day change every year? Is it happy fathers or father's day? How do you spell Happy Father's Day? Why is Father Day different in Australia? How did Father's Day start? Which countries celebrate Father's Day today? How many countries celebrate Father's Day around the world? Why Father's Day is important? Why do we celebrate Men's Day?
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DailyFreeBooks : Get the latest free ebooks for Kindle every day at Daily Free Books A daily roundup of all the newest free Kindle eBooks in easy to navigate format. You can also sign up for our newsletter if you wish and have a daily email alert with daily free books from genres of your choice.
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Work From Home - Using Amazon, Ebay, Walmart, Instagram, Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, & more | entrepreneurgirl.net Entrepreneur girl teaches you to work from home utilizing amazon, ebay, walmart, instagram, facebook, youtube, twitter, and so much more! so you have the time, money, and freedom to pursue a life you love. l entrepreneurgirl.net
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Denver Family | Genuine Freedom Through Emotional Healing emotional healing - genuine freedom Many people feel stuck and do not know how to move beyond their pain, suffering and embedded patterns of thinking and behavior. All they need to do is simply ask for help. If you are one of those people, there is no shame in seeking help. You do not have to face the pain and difficulties of life on your own. I can help you in the process of dealing with unidentified and unresolved personal and relational issues that impact your emotional health, keep you in repetitive cycles that lead to unhealthy relationships, and prevent you from living a life of genuine freedom. I have extensive training in trauma therapy, eating disorder recovery, and in couples counseling. I can help with: PTSD/Complex PTSD Blended family issues Parenting issues Menopause/Life transition issues Migraines/Chronic pain Eating disorders/Body image Depression Anxiety Codependency issues My passion is to come alongside you in that place of emotional pain, help you recognize your unhealthy coping and survival mechanisms, and to teach you healthy ways, founded in reality and truth, to deal with the people and situations in your life. My purpose is to create a safe space for healing and finding your authentic path.My role as counselor is to create a space of non-judgment and safety for you to process the pain and vulnerability that you're bringing to counseling. I can lead you to the place where you can experience genuine freedom both within yourself and in the significant relationships in your life. I am certified as an EMDR therapist and have not only experienced my own healing via EMDR therapy, but have been privileged to witness countless others find a depth of healing that does not always occur with regular talk therapy. I consider myself an expert in the treatment of trauma, eating disorders and couples counseling.The path to genuine freedomI believe that if you are willing to be open and willing to let me challenge you in some of your most intimate and personal thoughts and beliefs, you will be able to find not only a certain level of internal peace, but you will start walking down the path of discovering a genuine freedom that will last throughout your life.If you or someone you love is struggling with deep seated emotional pain, unhealthy coping mechanisms, an eating disorder,unresolved trauma from the past or recent past, or just feeling overwhelmed, helpless, or hopeless, please call me so we can start the healing process towards genuine and authentic freedom. There is no obligation to meeting for a free consultation to see if we would make a good team in your healing process.We are all human and by default that means we will all face challenges, struggles, hardships and heart break. Entering into counseling to help work through and move past our hurt and pain can seem daunting but nevertheless can also provide the kind of happiness and joy that we all seek to experience in our lifetime. For people of any faith, we often turn to our faith to find comfort and encouragement in times of pain. However, so many people, for a variety of reasons, can't and won't turn to their faith for help in the healing process. I have found it helpful to understand how our faith can either help or hinder our processes. When entering therapy, it's important to find a therapist that creates a safe environment. A client/therapist relationship needs to have trust, rapport and safety. This sets the stage where healing and recovery can take place. All relationships can be challenging and at Denver Family Counseling Services, the therapists provide an environment where clients can be real and challenged to look at themselves in ways they've never realized. We all carry around wounds from our past and this effects our current life and how we function at work, school, and in relationships. Couples counseling is a great way to accomplish anything from fine tuning an already solid relationship to repairing deep hurts and dysfunction that often leads to relationship break ups. Contact us today for more information about counseling in Denver, Westminster, Broomfield, Boulder and surrounding areas.
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TotheHills - short films about hustlers, dreamers, people like you and me. by Fritz Donnelly Clips of short films aired on mnn public acess television in manhattan. Meet strange characters, order the DVD. Basketball 6 min from To the Hills Here you can see warmin'' up we''ve got Jamal, Jackson, Lewis, Johson, Jones, and Marvin PLAY CLIP Wonder what''s really going on in an NBA game? Bass Guitar 3 min from To the Hills tune the guitar PLAY CLIP zen and the art of guitar playing -- the neighbors awoke during the filming of this melodic movie. Agent Delgado putting the word DISCIPLINE back in interior decorating and home garden design play clip of Agent Delgado - from To the Hills profiled in the Book Magazine (winter 2004) Favorite Car her name is Rio and she dances in the sand. . . Oh Rio, Rio darling, there the midnight ends PLAY CLIP the authentic automobile of a famous novelist Filmmaker Are you trying to rile me up? PLAY CLIP starring Barbara Lysaker (now a famous musician based in Minneapolis) How Drive the Car relax. . . it is your car PLAY CLIP played in festivals worldwide, one of the most popular films of TO THE HILLS 1. Next time you watch it, pretend the car is stolen. Movie Fan the place down there that used to sell the 99 cent fish and chips PLAY CLIPinspired by the feature film Blue Lobster Astronaut - Astronaut''s Diary Sounds of the space pod. Jaques Cousteau''s influence on the Astronaut. Shot partly in Auckland, New Zealand. Skater-Surfer Maybe Ray doesn''t give out his number because his mom always answers the phone. PLAY CLIP Move from Cali to NYC to ride the waves. Wigs N Hats Move to Chicago, buy a lambrogene, become the President of the United States: a wig you will never have to remove. PLAY CLIP featured on the cover of a magazine Writer I look like anyone else going to work. PLAY CLIP Writers are disciplined, focused people, they set alarms, they get up early, and they work like the rest of us. . . almost. Yoga-Dance yoga . . . dance . . . yoga . . . dance PLAY CLIP Caused the To the Hills DVD to be classified as exerciseyoga on Amazon.com. Favorite Car Her name is Rio and she dances in the sand. . . Oh Rio, Rio darling, there the midnight ends. PLAY CLIP The authentic automobile of a famous novelist. Movie Fan The place down there that used to sell the 99 cent fish and chips... you know the place, the Blue Lobster. PLAY CLIP inspired by the feature film Blue Lobster Staring Contest . . . PLAY CLIP from To the Hills 2 This film generated the most phone calls of any To the Hills episode when he ran for 30 min on MNN, Manhattan Neighborhood Network, public access TV. Wigs N Hats Move to Chicago, buy a lambrogene, become the President of the United States: a wig you will never have to remove. PLAY CLIP featured on the cover of a magazine. The Extraordinary Origin of Everyday Items: Paper everything red is always together, it comes from the same place Shot inside the new Seattle Public Library, in a Woodinville garden, and featuring a voting ballot officer. Dot Matrix paper is the grandfather of modern printer paper. But did you know that Dot Matrix is also behind clothing, kleenex, and other naturally occuring products? Wrestle_Bach : Adventurer-Explorer time for a biscuit evasive pursuasion music by Eyal Marcovici. Do you want to know what''s in the darkest desert? Are you ready to go under the ocean? Wrestle_Bach is your duct tape wielding guide. Everything I Know What do you know how to do that you didn''t learn from anybody else? Borrow money for the cab. We learn from our parents and other people, but some things we teach ourselves without any instruction. Perhaps you taught yourself how to hide in a public place? Live N Maintain You''re granite man you''re solid... You can do it, I''m serious, says POZitive. If you''re feeling down or unfocused, POZitive brings you right back to number one. Background vocals by Rolyn Hu of True Primes.Dr. K.Y.G. Can you wear the small underwear? small underwear walks into the office animationIn Financial Advice Flea talks about getting into Real Estate, being an astronaut, and going to the doctor. Dr K.Y.G. is Flea''s doctor. Wouldn''t you want K.Y.G. as your doctor too? Make an appointment: (917) 642 - 6018 ext 5 Actor Acting doesn''t have to do with you remember it has to do with something else that happened at the same time. ''Sad because you hurt me'' compared with ''sad because I hurt you.'' Aired for 30 minutes on public access in New York City and received a huge number of calls. Learn how to be Robert Dinero or Al Pacino. Small Microphones The outcast replaces the father. Highlighted in The Independent Film and Video Monthly at Ocularis screening in Brooklyn NY.The characters are all microphones. Financial Advice I bought the stock, then four days later the stock went down to 4. PLAY CLIP from Financial Advice I part of To the Hills 2. Audience Favorite: Hi/Lo Film Festival (San Francisco, CA), Rooftop Film Festival (Brooklyn, NY). Clone War III Sounds of falling in snow. PLAY CLIP The human being must reproduce. The Clone must de-produce. Awkward Social Situations Drink the organic milk from your roommate''s corner of the refridgerator. PLAY CLIP: prolonged eye contact. S eries includes: Casual coversation, Dinner party, Lost a friend over a moustache, First kiss, Call a lover by the wrong name. Milk Industry So why you telling me? So i could say what I said. PLAY CLIPMoot is available to DJ. Real Estate Pro Put a hot water heater down in the boiler. Pictures of apartment with layout. PLAY CLIP Shot on location in Brooklyn, New York. The building behind has since been turned into a furniture store, then two years later it went out of business and now is empty again. Subway Conductor Stand clear of the closing doors. PLAY CLIP An automated voice has been installed on many New York City public trains. The immigrants and native New Yorkers who pilot the trains have been masked by this strange voice. Could this be your voice? Watch the audition tape for the subway conductor. By Fritz Donnelly with help from
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Our Daily Crime | Conversations for lovers, artists, writers, revolutionaries and other noncompliant troublemakers May was a tough month. I had a heavy work schedule and a certification and training class over 2 subsequent weekends that entailed classroom work as well as long, cold hours in a YMCA pool. My schedule left me with little time to write and no time to relax and catch up to myself. Photo by Chris Kristiansen on Unsplash I successfully passed the class and am now recertified to teach Red Cross swimming lessons, and I earned a couple of very helpful paychecks, but I'm exhausted and dissatisfied because I haven't been writing much. Work is an excellent distraction from my life. It always has been. I like to work. I like having concrete and specific expectations in a work setting. I like making a contribution to others. I like the social aspect of work, and I love being part of a team. I also like the paychecks. I could increase my hours to full time and enjoy the benefits and increased income. I could continue adding to my education and certifications and take on teaching more classes and aquatic programs. I'd enjoy it and I'm confident I'd do well. I tell myself that's what a normal, responsible, adult person would do. I tell myself I should be grateful for work opportunities and take full advantage of them. I tell myself I need the money. But all the while there's a voice in my head saying, "But what about writing?" Photo by Angelina Litvin on Unsplash What about the blog, the books, that query letter I need to write and that submission process I promised myself I would tackle this year? What about that activity that guarantees no income, demands all my passion and creativity, requires long stretches of quiet solitude and combines my greatest joy with my most vivid hopes and fears? Oh. That. It's time to fish or cut bait, shit or get off the pot. It's time to reassess my time, energy and priorities and make conscious choices. It's time for recommitment. All my life I've worn efficiency and effectiveness like a suit of armor. People remark on my poise, my strength, my confidence and competence. All my life I've felt like a fraud and an imposter. Photo by Chris Barbalis on Unsplash I'm not motivated by the desire to compete or win applause. All I'm trying to do is stay safe. I hide my vulnerability behind my ability to be organized and willingness to take on responsibility. A job is something I can do well and the world calls me successful. A writer is something I am, and I must define my own success. A job is a description, a list of competencies met and skills demonstrated, a time card, a schedule, policies and procedures. Writing is intuitive, illogical, timeless, messy, infuriating, captivating and uncertain. It's risky and vulnerable. My job requires professionalism. Writing requires absolute authenticity, sloppy, smelly and sticky. I master a job. Writing masters me. I'd like to make an easy black-and-white decision here—live like a normal working person or find an old cabin in the woods and do nothing but write, but that's ridiculous. Life consists of many threads woven together: Family, friends, home, our own self-care, community and work. I can work and write too. I can't take advantage of every opportunity at work, have a perfectly organized private life and be a perfect friend, family member and partner, all the while crouching behind my projections of competence, control and strength, and step into my full power as a writer. Perfectionism will smother my life if I allow it to. I may need to settle for being good enough, or even (God help us) average at work, at home and in my relationships. Maybe I don't need to take advantage of every opportunity that comes my way, whether at work or in the course of daily life. Maybe staying safe is not such a life-or-death matter as I've always thought. In the midst of all this rumination, Memorial Day weekend arrived. Saturday was the day we cleared out my storage unit after it flooded over the winter. We recruited some generous friends with a truck and trailer and made a date. At breakfast I wrote a short list of what to take. Then, instead of loading up the car, checking the list several times and getting ready hours in advance, I sat down and wrote a query letter and subscribed to an online site for locating publishers and agents who are currently accepting submissions. Delighted and satisfied with my morning, my partner and I got in the car at the appointed time and headed to the storage facility. I forgot to take the key to the padlock on the unit door. I also forgot the broom and the tape measure. I hadn't taken time to check my list as we left. Shit. Shit. Shit. I left my partner there to wait for our friends and came back home. For the first five minutes of the 20-minute drive I berated myself. Wasting gas, mileage and time. Worse—wasting my friends' time! Rude, tardy, irresponsible, disorganized, incompetent … Wait, I said to myself, hang on. Isn't this the choice I made, to settle for being less perfect in favor of writing? I failed to be properly organized in order to empty the storage unit, but I wrote a query letter, a project that's been pending for seven months! I had to smile at myself. I slowed down and started enjoying the spring day. I stopped yelling at myself. I had been imperfect in front of God and everybody. My cover was blown and I felt uncomfortably exposed. I didn't like it. (My partner, as he reads this for the first time, informs me nobody else noticed or cared.) So be it. The writing requires my unconditional best. The rest of my life can have whatever is left. Normal, perfectionism and maybe even safety are overrated. We got the storage unit emptied out and swept. Then I came home and wrote this post. My daily crime. (See poem below) Photo by Biel Morro on Unsplash "Leave the dishes. Let the celery rot in the bottom drawer of the refrigerator and an earthen scum harden on the kitchen floor. Leave the black crumbs in the bottom of the toaster. Throw the cracked bowl out and don't patch the cup. Don't patch anything. Don't mend. Buy safety pins. Don't even sew on a button. Let the wind have its way, then the earth that invades as dust and then the dead foaming up in gray rolls underneath the couch. Talk to them. Tell them they are welcome. Don't keep all the pieces of the puzzles or the doll's tiny shoes in pairs, don't worry who uses whose toothbrush or if anything matches, at all. Except one word to another. Or a thought. Pursue the authentic-decide first what is authentic, then go after it with all your heart. Your heart, that place you don't even think of cleaning out. That closet stuffed with savage mementos. Don't sort the paper clips from screws from saved baby teeth or worry if we're all eating cereal for dinner again. Don't answer the telephone, ever, or weep over anything at all that breaks. Pink molds will grow within those sealed cartons in the refrigerator. Accept new forms of life and talk to the dead who drift in through the screened windows, who collect patiently on the tops of food jars and books. Recycle the mail, don't read it, don't read anything except what destroys the insulation between yourself and your experience or what pulls down or what strikes at or what shatters this ruse you call necessity." Louise Erdich.
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5D | Marketing Secrets We help visionary spiritual leaders who are driven to help people and to make a contribution. They are entrepreneurs who are guided by a higher power and also know they control their destiny. They aren’t afraid to go against the status quo and let the world know that they have been called to serve others with their unique skills and gifts. They also know the value of their gifts, and know they deserve to be compensated for sharing their gifts with the world. They are “the crazy ones” who know they can make a difference and they are able to change the world. We help them by providing cutting edge training systems created specifically for spiritual businesses that teach them basic to advanced marketing strategies that are easily implemented. Our systems helps them quickly grow their audience, so they can help more people while being their most authentic self. We want to change the stigma surrounding spiritual businesses that says, “There is no money in that line of work,” by showing our clients that they can be 100% in their integrity and spiritual alignment while being a real business. We will know we are successful when 5D Marketing Secrets is the #1 go-to resource for spiritual entrepreneurs, when we help more people through referrals than we do through active marketing, and we contribute in an enormous way to raising the frequency of the world!
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Appetite Appetite.co.in is the Best Indian Cooking website, Appetite.co.in is the Best jaipur Cooking websitewe provide a list of comprehensive cooking resource, jaipur recipies, Vegetarian Recipies and Healthy jaipur Recipies by Appetites: India is best selling cookery author,Indian cooking was never so innovative, fun and easy. An exhaustive list of authentic regional indian cuisine. Everything you wanted to know about jaipur cooking, Recipies, spices and curries. Recipies for festivals available. Appetite Cooking Classes:One of the Best jaipur cooking class, great deals for Jaipur, India, at Appetite,Jaipur Cooking Classes provides training in cooking of North Indian, Punjabi, Rajasthani by experienced chef Vineeta somani,appetite.co.in has thousands of Recipies from the best Indian chefs with ratings, healthy eating advice, restaurant reviews and cooking tips from food experts,Watch indian food, Easy to follow healthy indian recipe , curry Recipies, chicken Recipies, south indian Recipies, north indian Recipies, vegetarian Recipies,in jaipur,appetite.co.in, non-veg Recipies on appetite.co.in,jaipur Vegetarian Cooking made simple by Vineeta somani. an avid cook who enjoys cooking healthy Indian veg and vegetarian food. Her goal is to teach simple, practical Recipies that maintain the authenticity of Indian cooking. The aim of this website is to share the basics of Indian cooking in a fun and simple way. Indian cooking does not have to be complicated, and you can use these Recipies easily even if you have never cooked Indian food before. I also suggest creative variations you can experiment with. Half the fun of cooking is experimenting, so give it a try and make these dishes uniquely your own!
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Lemongrass Bangkok Cooking School – Bangkok Khao San Cooking School Lemongrass Bangkok Khao San Cooking Classes will teach and show you how to make simple and authentic Thai dishes in a friendly and professional environment.
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Empowerment and Confidence Coach and Motivational Speaker – Beth A. Moyer I'm an empowerment and confidence life coach and motivational speaker that will teach you how to empower yourself to become Bold. I will encourage you to show up and honor your Authentic self. And that will make you Magnetic to all forms of abundance.
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THE INTUITIVE Room WE MAKE EVERY BREATH COUNT... Join our friendly community of conscious thinkers! Stylish studio. Authentic yoga. Real people. Be seen, not for what you wear, but for who you are. We teach Yin & Ashtanga yoga. Yoga to fit all shapes and vintage. INTRO PASS OFFER: $11 for 11 days, unlimited yoga. Based in Cronulla within The Allness Centre. Reshaping wisdom for everyday living.
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Digital Media Marketing | Meme Team Marketing | United States We prepare your brand for the next generation of media marketing = memes. Take advantage of the true power of social media.