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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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Karmym – Karmym is a self taught artist. The purpose of his art is to expand his and your consciousness. He is consistently learning and growing while creating new artworks, through the inspirations from live and your feedback. In my freetime I travelled the world or danced through the nights until I became father. Exploring different cultures and different way of living was an important experience and an expansion of my interests. Travelling was a going back to my roots. Now I want to spent as much time as possible with my family and I'm travelling more inwards my soul and body. My paintings are visual affirmations that impregnate consciousness with sacred symbols, meanings and subconscious archetypes. 'I'm learning to consciously balance the colors and all the other aspects of live. i think when we find this balances, it leads to peace.' 'Painting is like travelling. you have your style how you like to travel, how you see things, how you enjoy the day. then you learn something new and your style of travelling changes.' Karmym is a self taught artist. The purpose of his art is to expand his and your consciousness. He is consistently learning and growing while creating new artworks, through the inspirations from live and your feedback. In my freetime I travelled the world or danced through the nights until I became father. Exploring different cultures and different way of living was an important experience and an expansion of my interests. Travelling was a going back to my roots. Now I want to spent as much time as possible with my family and I'm travelling more inwards my soul and body. My paintings are visual affirmations that impregnate consciousness with sacred symbols, meanings and subconscious archetypes. 'I'm learning to consciously balance the colors and all the other aspects of live. i think when we find this balances, it leads to peace.' 'Painting is like travelling. you have your style how you like to travel, how you see things, how you enjoy the day. then you learn something new and your style of travelling changes.'
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Shelves of Smithereens – "I spent my days collecting smithereens" – Roger McGough "I spent my days collecting smithereens" - Roger McGough
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Jay Mariotti Sportscaster | Sports Columnist & Commentator | 3109134823 Jay Mariotti is an American sports journalist and commentator who currently hosts the sports-related podcast Unmuted. He previously spent 17 years as a Chicago Sun-Times columnist and eight years as a regular panelist on the ESPN sports-talk program Around the Horn.
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Idaho Falls Piano Specialist | Piano Tek We are piano specialists that have spent over 20 years moving and servicing pianos in Idaho Falls and it's surrounding cities.
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Alta Ora Alta Ora turns abstract shapes and curves into wearable objects. Each piece is made by hand in New York City. The designs are influenced by a childhood spent gazing at Brasilia’s remarkable architecture, and an appreciation for form and balance.
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Gustavo Padovan - Entrepreneur, part of Collabora, Open Source advocate with a decade spent as developer and maintainer in the Linux Kernel community. Creator of the linuxdev-br conference in Brazil. Passionate about experimenting, problem solving, communications and how we can be better Humans, everyday. Mover and Nomad. Entrepreneur, part of Collabora, Open Source advocate with a decade spent as developer and maintainer in the Linux Kernel community. Creator of the linuxdev-br conference in Brazil. Passionate about experimenting, problem solving, communications and how we can be better Humans, everyday. Mover and Nomad.
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RULE THE BREAKS – where weekends are spent breaking the rules where weekends are spent breaking the rules
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exoffice - Din business lounge i gadeplan exoffice er til dig, som ofte er på farten og har brug for at være effektiv mellem to møder. Det kalder vi Time Well Spent!
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Moxba B.V. - Recycling spent catalyst MOXBA specializes in recycling spent catalyst, waste streams that contain metals into products.
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One Thing Leads to Another | "I would feel more optimistic about a bright future for man if he spent less time proving that he can outwit Nature and more time tasting her sweetness and respecting her seniority." — E.B. White (Letters of E. B. White) "I would feel more optimistic about a bright future for man if he spent less time proving that he can outwit Nature and more time tasting her sweetness and respecting her seniority." — E.B. White (Letters of E. B. White)
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I Already Tried It: Don''t Spend Your Money, I Already Spent Mine
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Jomson Controls & Automation (P)Ltd in Kochi ,Welcome to Jomson Controls & Automation ! The time spent at home with your loved ones is priceless. You can enjoy it even more by integrating music, movies, climate control, lighting, IP cameras, security, and the ability to control it all from wherever you are in the world. We at Jomson Controls make it happen! Jomson Controls is a Company that specializes in design and delivery of Electronics Lifestyle Systems that covers all aspects of domestic electrical installations. When you choose to utilize the services that Jomson Controls offer, we guarantee a professional, fast, and friendly service at all times in the execution of fully realized home entertainment, communication and automation systems.Every service provided in the Jomson Controls range has been finely tuned down to the very last detail, to maximize your living space, in a high quality, great value home. Jomson Controls is proud to offer our services to client''s all around Sharjah..Dealer & integrator for Contrl4- USA- products in Kerala, supplier & integrator of all kind of home automation products,CCTV Installations In Kerala,CCTV Installations In Ernkulam,SECURITY SYSTEM IN KERALA,CCTV INSTALLATIONS IN KOTTAYAM, LIGHTING AUTOMATION IN KOCHI, LIGHTING AUTOMATION IN ERNAKULAM, LIGHTING AUTOMATION IN KOZHIKODE, HOME THEATER IN ERNAKULAM, GATE AUTOMATION IN ERNAKULAM,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 TRIVANDRUM,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN TRIVANDRUM,SECURITY SYSTEM IN TRIVANDRUM,CCTV IN TRIVANDRUM,HOME THEATER IN TRIVANDRUM,GATE AUTOMATION IN TRIVANDRUM,,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 KOLLAM,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN KOLLAM,SECURITY SYSTEM IN KOLLAM,CCTV IN KOLLAM,HOME THEATER IN KOLLAM,GATE AUTOMATION IN KOLLAM,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 PATHANAMTHITTA,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN PATHANAMTHITTA,SECURITY SYSTEM IN PATHANAMTHITTA,CCTV IN PATHANAMTHITTA,HOME THEATER IN PATHANAMTHITTA,GATE AUTOMATION IN PATHANAMTHITTA,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 ALAPUZHA,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN ALAPUZHA,SECURITY SYSTEM IN ALAPUZHA,CCTV IN ALAPUZHA,HOME THEATER IN ALAPUZHA,GATE AUTOMATION IN ALAPUZHA,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 IDUKKI,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN IDUKKI,SECURITY SYSTEM IN IDUKKI,CCTV IN IDUKKI,HOME THEATER IN IDUKKI,GATE AUTOMATION IN IDUKKI,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 KOTTAYAM,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN KOTTAYAM,SECURITY SYSTEM IN KOTTAYAM,CCTV IN KOTTAYAM,HOME THEATER IN KOTTAYAM,GATE AUTOMATION IN KOTTAYAM,WE ARE THE AUTHORISED DEALER IN CONTROL4 ERNAKULAM,LIGHT AUTOMATION IN ERNAKULAM,SECURITY SYSTEM IN ERNAKULAM,CCTV IN ERNAKULAM,HOME THEATER IN ERNAKULAM,GATE AUTOMATION IN ERNAKULAM, , Jomson Controls & Automation (P)Ltd in Kochi ,Welcome to Jomson Controls & Automation ! The time spent at home with your lov.Get Latest Updates and offers, Contact, Address, Ratings, Location, Maps for Jomson Controls & Automation (P)Ltd;
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Home | JP Technologies Our mission is to transform the conduct of business in subscription-based operating industries of the Indian economy. With our extensive experience, we understand that most businesses are highly unorganized and experience heavy revenue leakages due to inefficient day-to-day and last mile operations. Managing recurring revenues is significantly challenging as compared to processing of one-time cash flows and so, considerable effort is spent in collections every month as well as accounting the same.
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One Piece Chapter 944 – MangaHere – Where To Read One Piece Manga Online If you’re a fan of anime and manga, then you definitely know One Piece. It’s a Japanese manga series by Eiichiro Oda, a world-renowned manga writer and illustrator. It was released nearly two decades ago back in July of 1997. Since then, the manga has been adapted into an anime series and OVA. There have also been numerous One Piece animated feature films and television specials. One Piece merchandise is also some of the best-selling items in all of anime. Main characters in One Piece manga One Piece follows the adventurous and funny story of Monkey D. Luffy. As a boy, Luffy has always wanted to be the Pirate King. His body obtained the properties of rubber after eating a Devil Fruit. Together with a diverse crew of wannabe pirates, Luffy sets out on the ocean in an attempt to find the world’s ultimate treasure, One Piece. When talking about the most successful manga and anime series of all time, One Piece will always enter the conversation. Just the mere fact of it running for almost decades goes to show how loved it is by millions of fans worldwide. What’s interesting is that there are still plenty of folks who are eager to get started on their One Piece adventure. It doesn’t matter if they have to read countless manga chapters or watch hundreds of anime episodes. The undeniable lure of One Piece continues to fascinate fans around the world. The series boasts of some jaw-dropping numbers. The manga consists of over 800 chapters while the anime series has more than 700 episodes. And there are no signs of slowing down. One Piece has even made it to the Guinness Book of World Records. The manga has 320 million copies in print worldwide as of June 2015. It’s never too late to join Luffy and his crew of amazing pirates. You can choose to jump straight to the anime series, but many hardcore fans recommend that starters begin with the manga. There are plenty of places where you can read One Piece manga online. Usually, it all boils down to personal preference. You can check out community forums and see a list of the most suggested manga websites. The official version from Viz Media is a good place to start. One Piece Manga transform to Anime – Marine Ford Saga One huge determining factor of what manga website to use is how fast it is in releasing new chapters. Most websites are able to upload a new chapter after a day or two from being released. But there are some out there which can release on the same day. Thousands of fans flock to these sites in order to get the first glimpse of the new chapter. After all, you want to be the first in action and avoid getting spoiled in community forums or on social media. It’s time to begin your own adventure and look for the best place to read One Piece manga online. It shouldn’t be too difficult to find several manga websites. Just be sure to try multiple sites to see their differences so you can come up with an informed decision. If you are a fan of One Piece, you know that new chapters of this pirate tale are coming out soon. Not every manga website can offer these chapters license-free. That means you may hit a snag when you go to read the newest chapter. Even if you use the same One Piece manga fan website as before to read chapters you can sometimes discover that you are unable to view the whole story. Make sure to check the website's terms and agreements. It is probably more boring to read terms and conditions than One Piece manga, but your time will be well spent. You might find that the website can no longer display licensed content for free. In this instance you may need to apply for a paid account. It helps to pay for an account so that you get to read the content you crave while the creator's rights are protected. Besides this, if you sign up for an account, you usually get a choice to read online or on a smart phone or tablet using the app that the website offers. Always find legitimate websites to read your favorite manga. You will get access to everything with no disappointments. In addition, you have options to read the chapters from a computer or from an app that you download. This lets you have the convenience of reading the story while on a train, in a car, on a plane or wherever you are when the mood to manga hits. If you want to try a chapter before you sign up for an account at a website that licenses the work, you could take a peek over at a site that is run by a fan. Fans like you are often happy to post chapters which they have translated. Other attractive Manga : + Detective Conan Manga + Girls of the Wilds Manga Where To Read One Piece Manga Online If you’re a fan of anime and manga, then you definitely know One Piece. It’s a Japanese manga series by Eiichiro Oda, a world-renowned manga writer and illustrator. It was released nearly two decades ago back in July of 1997. Since then, the manga has been adapted into an anime series and OVA. There have also been numerous One Piece animated feature films and television specials. One Piece merchandise is also some of the best-selling items in all of anime. Main characters in One Piece manga One Piece follows the adventurous and funny story of Monkey D. Luffy. As a boy, Luffy has always wanted to be the Pirate King. His body obtained the properties of rubber after eating a Devil Fruit. Together with a diverse crew of wannabe pirates, Luffy sets out on the ocean in an attempt to find the world’s ultimate treasure, One Piece. When talking about the most successful manga and anime series of all time, One Piece will always enter the conversation. Just the mere fact of it running for almost decades goes to show how loved it is by millions of fans worldwide. What’s interesting is that there are still plenty of folks who are eager to get started on their One Piece adventure. It doesn’t matter if they have to read countless manga chapters or watch hundreds of anime episodes. The undeniable lure of One Piece continues to fascinate fans around the world. The series boasts of some jaw-dropping numbers. The manga consists of over 800 chapters while the anime series has more than 700 episodes. And there are no signs of slowing down. One Piece has even made it to the Guinness Book of World Records. The manga has 320 million copies in print worldwide as of June 2015. It’s never too late to join Luffy and his crew of amazing pirates. You can choose to jump straight to the anime series, but many hardcore fans recommend that starters begin with the manga. There are plenty of places where you can read One Piece manga online. Usually, it all boils down to personal preference. You can check out community forums and see a list of the most suggested manga websites. The official version from Viz Media is a good place to start. One Piece Manga transform to Anime - Marine Ford Saga One huge determining factor of what manga website to use is how fast it is in releasing new chapters. Most websites are able to upload a new chapter after a day or two from being released. But there are some out there which can release on the same day. Thousands of fans flock to these sites in order to get the first glimpse of the new chapter. After all, you want to be the first in action and avoid getting spoiled in community forums or on social media. It’s time to begin your own adventure and look for the best place to read One Piece manga online. It shouldn’t be too difficult to find several manga websites. Just be sure to try multiple sites to see their differences so you can come up with an informed decision. If you are a fan of One Piece, you know that new chapters of this pirate tale are coming out soon. Not every manga website can offer these chapters license-free. That means you may hit a snag when you go to read the newest chapter. Even if you use the same One Piece manga fan website as before to read chapters you can sometimes discover that you are unable to view the whole story. Make sure to check the website's terms and agreements. It is probably more boring to read terms and conditions than One Piece manga, but your time will be well spent. You might find that the website can no longer display licensed content for free. In this instance you may need to apply for a paid account. It helps to pay for an account so that you get to read the content you crave while the creator's rights are protected. Besides this, if you sign up for an account, you usually get a choice to read online or on a smart phone or tablet using the app that the website offers. Always find legitimate websites to read your favorite manga. You will get access to everything with no disappointments. In addition, you have options to read the chapters from a computer or from an app that you download. This lets you have the convenience of reading the story while on a train, in a car, on a plane or wherever you are when the mood to manga hits. If you want to try a chapter before you sign up for an account at a website that licenses the work, you could take a peek over at a site that is run by a fan. Fans like you are often happy to post chapters which they have translated. Other attractive Manga : + Detective Conan Manga + Girls of the Wilds Manga
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Wallpapers Foundation - we did great job to create this website because we spent 2 years to collect that wallpaper archive. right now there are more than 2 million wallpapers on our website. every single file is ready to download. we did great job to create this website because we spent 2 years to collect that wallpaper archive. right now there are more than 2 million wallpapers on our website. every single file is ready to download.
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Ruhi's Trinkets | The first 10 years of a girls life is spent playing with Barbies & the rest of her years she spends trying to look like one. The first 10 years of a girls life is spent playing with Barbies & the rest of her years she spends trying to look like one.
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Belfast, Baffin, Borneo ... boats | Born in Ireland, live in the Arctic, spent time in Borneo, and boats everywhere I am a Northern Irish protestant atheist with a catholic name who became a Canadian about 53 years ago, and who has spent most of the last half century in the Arctic, with one foray into Borneo in the 1960s, and a tense retreat to Victoria in the late 1980s. I now live in Iqaluit, but spend the…
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i spent this year as a ghost Becks, 20, England/Scotland  ***  if anyone could let me know what I'm doing with my life I'd be grateful
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Home Page - Fluor Idaho Fluor Idaho, LLC, was selected in 2016 by the U.S. Department of Energy to support the Department?s cleanup mission at the Idaho Site under the Idaho Cleanup Project Core Contract. Fluor Idaho is a wholly owned subsidiary of Fluor Corporation, with team subcontractors CH2M, Waste Control Specialists, and Idaho-based small businesses North Wind and Portage. Combined, our team members have had a presence in Idaho for more than a century ? with 50 years as a part of the Idaho National Laboratory community.The Idaho Cleanup Project is funded through the Department?s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) and focuses equally on reducing risks to workers, the public, and the environment, and protecting the Snake River Aquifer, the sole drinking-water source for much of eastern Idaho. Fluor Idaho focuses on addressing the key elements of the Idaho Cleanup Project ? dispositioning transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, and high-level radioactive waste in accordance with national and state regulatory agreements.Fluor Idaho supports and partners with DOE, regulators and oversight agencies, our employees, our subcontractors and our community to provide safe, reliable, and low-risk project performance.
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mike bell / it's just running – “Because in the end, you won’t remember the time you spent working in the office or mowing your lawn. Climb that goddamn mountain.” -Kerouac “Because in the end, you won’t remember the time you spent working in the office or mowing your lawn. Climb that goddamn mountain.” -Kerouac
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A lifetime spent chasing the Sun. Jacki, child of Summer, worshipper of the written word. Travel, the ocean, social justice, feminism, good vibes. x
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Bits & Bytes – Reflections on time spent writing software, managing teams, and living well Reflections on time spent writing software, managing teams, and living well
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Skyler Hughes | Product Designer currently living in Portland, Oregon. Previously in Perth, Australia. I’ve spent the last five years building and releasing digital products. Product Designer currently living in Portland, Oregon. Previously in Perth, Australia. I’ve spent the last five years building and releasing digital products.
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Boy, Interrupted – This is the documentation of the two years of my life I had spent in treatment for mental illness. These are the real accounts of several psychiatric hospital stays at one specific hospital and my future sessions of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Please read the About page before proceeding. This is the documentation of the two years of my life I had spent in treatment for mental illness. These are the real accounts of several psychiatric hospital stays at one specific hospital and my future sessions of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Please read the About page before proceeding.
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Sarah's Gone Batty – a year spent chasing bats and the people who love (and hate) them a year spent chasing bats and the people who love (and hate) them
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Dinasou.com:Malaysia''s 1st Online Supermart-Grocery,Brand Street, More Malaysia''s 1st online supermart@ Dinasou.com on Buy Online Grocery Shopping,Cooking Sauces,Coffee, Snacks,frozen food,Rice & Grains,Biscuits & Cake ,Best Facial Masks,Tongkat Ali,Women''s leather wallet,Honey,Watch,Dinasou Grocery Shopping Made Easy! Buy Anywhere With One Click. Dinasou.com’s 100% Cashback simply means that Dinasou.com will pay back its members the amount they have spent shopping on the website 100%.
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Fylde Coast Musings vs Cyprus Life - in pictures | Originally from a small mill town in Heywood, Lancashire (United Kingdom) we moved overseas at the beginning of March 2004 and spent the next glorious 12 years in Limassol, Cyprus. Sadly, in 2016 we had to return permanently to UK due to family ill health. We now live on the Fylde coast where the river Wyre meets the Irish sea just across from Fleetwood. More places to discover and capture on camera! Originally from a small mill town in Heywood, Lancashire (United Kingdom) we moved overseas at the beginning of March 2004 and spent the next glorious 12 years in Limassol, Cyprus. Sadly, in 2016 we had to return permanently to UK due to family ill health. We now live on the Fylde coast where the river Wyre meets the Irish sea just across from Fleetwood. More places to discover and capture on camera!
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Go Fellow Me - if i said my website is the best way to find and download drivers that is it. you can't find another website with such a big number of files ready to download. i spent 3 years to collect that driver files and upload them to my website. so you must just enjoy my website and download drivers. if i said my website is the best way to find and download drivers that is it. you can't find another website with such a big number of files ready to download. i spent 3 years to collect that driver files and upload them to my website. so you must just enjoy my website and download drivers.
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Unthinkable Drivers - you can't even think that you can find another blog like mine. i spent 4 years to collect all that driver files. now you can download them anytime. but you cannot find them easily on the web. come to my website to download drivers free. you can't even think that you can find another blog like mine. i spent 4 years to collect all that driver files. now you can download them anytime. but you cannot find them easily on the web. come to my website to download drivers free.
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This Is Us & S3 E12 >> Songbird Road: Part Two - I love this show. It''s funny, bright, irreverent, and like nothing else on the tube these days. Charlie Sheen was an excellent save in SPIN CITY, but he''s perfectly cast as the lazy, womanizing single guy who writes ad jingles for a living, and whose space is invaded by his nerdy brother, Jonathan Cryer, and his ten-year-old son, Angus T. Jones. While Sheen does warm up to his nephew, he''s doesn''t turn all saccharine and start acting like an uncle should. Instead, he''s a wonderfully corrupting influence and the two of them often collude against the father. I''ve only seen one posting about Melanie Lynskey''s brilliant turn as the female stalker who is always looking through Charlie''s deck door. It''s about as funny a regular gag as Carlton the doorman on the old Rhoda show and Candace Bergin''s endless line of incompetent secretaries. She''s adorable and makes the character both hilarious and creepy. Well done. Holland Taylor is perfect as the insufferable mother both sons love to resent. Her self-involvement is hilarious. The name of the splendid comic actress playing Sheen''s housekeeper is Conchata Ferrell, a veteran of TV sitcoms (Hotl Baltimore). It''s wonderful to see her back in action. Favorite episode was the return of an ex-flame of Charlie''s. Only she is now a he, having had a sex-change operation. When it''s discovered that "he" has spent the night with Charlie''s mom, I could barely contain myself. I was hysterical with laughter. Then Conchata Ferrell''s bit as the housekeeper who begs Charlie, offering him free housekeeping for a month, if she can be there to witness his telling his mother that the he was formerly a she! Priceless. Wonderful cast. Wonderful, crisp writing and well-observed situations. This one has all the hallmarks of a sitcom classic and I hope it runs for years. I was never much of a Charlie Sheen admirer, but he''s evolved into a first-rate comic actor and he leads this first-rate ensemble with low-key charm and expert delivery. I love this show. It's funny, bright, irreverent, and like nothing else on the tube these days. Charlie Sheen was an excellent save in SPIN CITY, but he's perfectly cast as the lazy, womanizing single guy who writes ad jingles for a living, and whose space is invaded by his nerdy brother, Jonathan Cryer, and his ten-year-old son, Angus T. Jones. While Sheen does warm up to his nephew, he's doesn't turn all saccharine and start acting like an uncle should. Instead, he's a wonderfully corrupting influence and the two of them often collude against the father. I've only seen one posting about Melanie Lynskey's brilliant turn as the female stalker who is always looking through Charlie's deck door. It's about as funny a regular gag as Carlton the doorman on the old Rhoda show and Candace Bergin's endless line of incompetent secretaries. She's adorable and makes the character both hilarious and creepy. Well done. Holland Taylor is perfect as the insufferable mother both sons love to resent. Her self-involvement is hilarious. The name of the splendid comic actress playing Sheen's housekeeper is Conchata Ferrell, a veteran of TV sitcoms (Hotl Baltimore). It's wonderful to see her back in action. Favorite episode was the return of an ex-flame of Charlie's. Only she is now a he, having had a sex-change operation. When it's discovered that ";he"; has spent the night with Charlie's mom, I could barely contain myself. I was hysterical with laughter. Then Conchata Ferrell's bit as the housekeeper who begs Charlie, offering him free housekeeping for a month, if she can be there to witness his telling his mother that the he was formerly a she! Priceless. Wonderful cast. Wonderful, crisp writing and well-observed situations. This one has all the hallmarks of a sitcom classic and I hope it runs for years. I was never much of a Charlie Sheen admirer, but he's evolved into a first-rate comic actor and he leads this first-rate ensemble with low-key charm and expert delivery.
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gururaghavji-astrologer.over-blog.com - Astrologer Raghav Raj Ji is an expert and famous Indian Astrologer in Australia. All his life he was under the guidance and godly power of his father and forefathers who have also spent their lives faithful to the art of astrology to take in as many knowledge as they could in this field so that they can service mankind and reduce people of the diseases, difficulty, and problems of life. Astrologer Raghav Raj Ji is an expert and famous Indian Astrologer in Australia. All his life he was under the guidance and godly power of his father and forefathers who have also spent their lives faithful to the art of astrology to take in as many knowledge as they could in this field so that they can service mankind and reduce people of the diseases, difficulty, and problems of life.
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25 Trees Co | One Tree Planted for Each $1 Spent One tree planted for each $1 spent. Home of the signature $25 Tree shirt: 25 Aleppo Pine Trees are planted for each shirt sold.
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That's how we 4 roll | We've spent 25 years traveling the USA by RV. We will blog about every aspect traveling and how to make it happen for you. We've spent 25 years traveling the USA by RV. We will blog about every aspect traveling and how to make it happen for you.
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Wizar Doivelox - dear visitor. here you will find and download your driver file in 2 minutes. because we spent 3 years to make this website the best. there are thousands different files and people come to this website everyday to download those files. and they all of course do download. dear visitor. here you will find and download your driver file in 2 minutes. because we spent 3 years to make this website the best. there are thousands different files and people come to this website everyday to download those files. and they all of course do download.
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Top java interview questions. - 45 year old Real Property Representative Luigi from Victoriaville, usually spends time with hobbies which includes lawn darts, nowy targ and dumpster diving. Gains motivation through travel and just spent 3 months at Redwood National and State Parks. 45 year old Real Property Representative Luigi from Victoriaville, usually spends time with hobbies which includes lawn darts, nowy targ and dumpster diving. Gains motivation through travel and just spent 3 months at Redwood National and State Parks.
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Bexz's Long Overland Globe-trot | Here's what I'm up to on my overland trip to Uzbekistan, followed by time spent in India and Sri Lanka Here's what I'm up to on my overland trip to Uzbekistan, followed by time spent in India and Sri Lanka