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    Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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    Back To Normal Dr. Marcus H. Seigle has been a practicing chiropractor in Georgia since 1987. He is a graduate Cum Laude from both Temple University in 1977, and from Life Chiropractic College in 1986. In 29 years of clinical practice, he has performed over 250,000 chiropractic adjustments. He spent the years 1991 and 1992 in Mexico, where he lived and performed over 11,000 visits of volunteer care with disadvantaged people. He lived and practiced in the Albany, Georgia area from 1994 until now, founding and operating a clinic on Philema Road. He is a family chiropractor, seeing people of all ages and with a variety of health conditions. Back To Normal is the name of my new clinic, conveniently located at 167 Virginia Avenue South, in Tifton, Georgia. It is in Tifton corners, the shopping plaza where Tractor Supply and Big Lots are located. We will be open for business on Monday, August 15. We will offer chiropractic and physiotherapy, as well as therapeutic massage Monday through Friday. Dr. Seigle is also a certified medical examiner, and is qualified to perform DOT physicals for truck drivers. You can schedule an appointment by calling us at (229) 894-4338. Dr. Seigle is well versed in a number of different chiropractic techniques. He has worked in different settings, and with many types of cases. Adjustments of the spinal vertebrae when they are displaced from their normal positions is usually done on each visit. The doctor is very gentle, and the movements are very smooth and precise. Most people enjoy it and feel immediate relief and relaxation. Cases of low back pain, with or without pain radiating into the legs, respond very well to the technique of flexion-distraction, the doctor''s specialty. Dr. Seigle is an expert on extremity adjustments as well as spinal adjustments, and has helped tens of thousands of people with ankle, knee, elbow, wrist and shoulder problems. Most joints do return to normal, painless function with proper care. Dr. Seigle is certified to perform physiotherapeutic modalities. This would include Moist heat, cryotherapy, ultrasound, or electrical stimulation. These modalities compliment chiropractic care, and are valuable in many cases. Dr. Seigle also performs Auriculotherapy, a form of electronic therapy based on acupuncture, done on the ear acupuncture points. It is very effective immediately, relaxing muscle tension and calming the nervous system. It also compliments adjustments. Therapeutic Massage is extremely beneficial for muscular problems associated with pinched nerves. As the chiropractic adjustments relieve the pressure from the nerves and enable them to heal, the massage brings better blood and lymph circulation, detoxifying and relaxing the muscles so they, too can return to normal.
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    | Discover How To Burn Up To 1,000 Calories So You Can Shrink Your Belly Fat and Rev Your Metabolism Without Having to Count Calories or Diet EVER Again! Finally! A Workout That Burns Up To 1,000 Calories and Triples Your Fat Burning So That You Can Quickly Melt Away Even The Most Stubborn Fat Off Your Body Without Having to Diet Or Count Calories Ever Again... Plus, You'll Discover How Your Clients Can Out-Train a Poor Diet, Putting Your Referrals on "Auto-Pilot" Plus You'll discover the WORST Mistake 97% of People Make In Pursuit Of A Lean And Sculpted Body…Are You Making It, Too? By Kate Vidulich, BSc, ACSM, Master CTT Dear Frustrated Friend, Do you know how many calories you MIGHT burn during 30 minutes of jogging? 238. That's it. And that's just the average. Chances are, you're probably burning less if you've been jogging for a few weeks or more. Heck, half a snickers bar has more calories than that! For all the sweat, time and effort – it seems average, don't you think? And that's exactly why you're getting average results. Did you know that if you do "fat-burning exercises" everyday, like jogging, you could possibly SLOW DOWN your fat loss and do more damage to your metabolism? And I have more bad news for you. While you burn 230-300 calories during your cardio workout, once you stop – so does your fat burning. It literally comes to a screeching halt. But there's something you can do about it today. The 20 second secret formula below reveals the solution to permanently switch fat burning "ON" and never let it drop again ... and it will only take you 1 metabolism boosting workout to skyrocket your afterburn to target stubborn belly fat every time you exercise – WITHOUT starvation dieting or marathon training sessions. There's a little known secret that can keep your fat burning metabolism on overdrive even after you've stopped working out. I'll share this secret with you in just a moment. Once you discover these "underground" facts, that nobody EVER talks about, you'll know how to supercharge your workouts to accelerate calorie burning, increase fat-burning hormones, and KEEP your metabolism revving high day after day. My name is Kate Vidulich, Exercise Physiologist, Master Certified Turbulence Trainer, and in my 10+ years of experience in the fitness industry, I've been researching fat loss training and testing out what actually delivers rapid results — not just on myself, but with some of San Francisco and New York City's wealthiest and powerful men and women, who just happen to be my clients. These people are busy, too, just like you. These clients of mine can afford to hire any fitness trainer they want, but they choose me because I produce real results after spending years relentlessly testing the latest training methods to figure out the fastest way possible… I discovered an unusual trick to supercharge your workouts, which in turn triples your fat loss and stokes your metabolism and I'm going to show you EXACLTY how. Imagine doing workouts that burn up to 1000 calories, that leave you feeling energized and looking absolutely incredible each and every day, and consistently stripping away up to FIVE pounds of PURE fat week, after week...after week... … all without EVER stepping on a treadmill. Now how does that sound to you? Exactly. You see, the truth is that you can burn a whopping 1000 calories in a single workout. That's 4x the calorie burning compared to jogging or classes. But I do have to warn you. This is NOT a gimmick and it's certainly not impossible. Before we discuss how you can, we need to address why YOU'RE NOT losing weight in the first place. So with these two "underground" fat loss secrets I'm about to share, you'll learn exactly what you should and should NOT being doing to accelerate fat loss faster than you can even imagine. Lie #1: You Can't Out Train a Bad Diet Now as you might know, most fitness professionals preach that you can't out-exercise a bad diet. Well, it just takes a special kind of rapid results plan, like the one you will find below. I was personally involved in a ground breaking study from the University of New South Wales in Australia. My research team, led by my Professor Steve Boutcher, discovered that there was a specific version of short, burst exercise that not only allowed you to burn belly fat… And believe it or not, this form of exercise even allowed you to OUT-TRAIN a bad diet. In the study, 45 overweight Australian women were randomly separated into one of two groups: Group A performed 20-minute interval training workouts three time per week using a special bike that allowed them to do an 8-second sprint followed by 12 seconds of recovery. This was repeated continually for the 20 minute workout. Group B performed 40 minutes of slow, steady-state cardio three times per week. Note: that's TWICE as long as the interval training group. (Reference: Trapp, E.G., Chisholm, D.J., Freund, J., Boutcher, S.H. (2008). The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. International Journal of Obesity. 32(4):684–691.) It's also important to note that NO changes were made to their diet. Quite frankly, the results are remarkable. Despite continuing with their bad diet, the interval training group lost a significant amount of fat from their bellies, thighs, and even their butts. However, the steady cardio group didn't lose fat at all. In fact, one subject even gained 2.2 pounds after 15 weeks of cardio. But still, one subject, named Louise, managed to lose over 15 pounds with her short, burst interval training even without changing her terrible eating habits. Believe it or not, she was quoted as saying this about her nutrition during the study, "My diet was pretty bad back then, with lots of sweets, lots of junk food. I kept eating the same things, donuts and sugar, it was awful." So Louise was able to out-train a bad diet with her workouts. And so can YOU. With 1000 Calorie Accelerators, you can still burn belly fat even if you can't stick to any kind of diet! Lie #2: Tabata workouts ALONE will accelerate fat loss I hate when people say they did a "Tabata" workout – without a clue what they're really doing. It's another case of someone getting hold of the scientific research on interval training and spinning it the wrong way. And I don't believe "Tabata" is the miracle workout solution it's cracked up to be. Have you read the actual research study? I guess not. Let me enlighten you now. The REAL truth about Tabata workouts The Tabata group did a 10-minute steady state warm up followed by 7-8 continuous cycles of 20 seconds at 170% VO2 max, then 10 seconds of rest on a special bike you only find in research labs. Do you have any idea how hard it is to sprint at 170% VO2 max for 2 seconds, let alone 20 seconds? It's HARDER than anything you could ever imagine. Think total exhaustion. You feel dizzy, nauseous and want to go home. It's not like a hill sprint in spinning class. Go for 20 whole seconds. 8 rounds. Imagine how fun that is (insert sarcasm). You. Might. Die. That is the intensity for a TRUE Tabata interval. Every single interval is truly an ultra-maximal effort. It feels more like an hour of exercise and it's NOT FUN. The original Tabata protocol was created for performance base and tested aerobic and anaerobic output of the athletes. Nowhere in the Tabata study did they mention anything about its effectiveness for fat loss. They didn't even study it. So sure, maybe it does work for accelerating fat loss. Or not. It's unknown. 1. Tabata I, Nishimura K, Kouzaki M, et al.(1996). Effects of moderate-intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28 (10): 1327–30. This is not to say doing 4 minute intervals with 20 seconds work, 10 seconds rest are completely worthless or wrong. The Canadian study conducted at the Queen's University in 2012 proves otherwise. They showed doing 20-10 intervals of bodyweight exercises does work for increasing cardiovascular fitness and muscular endurance, but it's not the same as true Tabata. Reference: McRae G, Payne A, et al. (2012). Extremely low volume, whole-body aerobic-resistance training improves aerobic fitness and muscular endurance in females. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 37(6):1124-31. You're probably wondering how many calories you burn doing Tabata-style workouts? The research shows you burn close to 15 calories/minute. Cool, right? But as you can see, 4 minutes of exercise is not enough for rapid fat loss. Now you can see why trying to lose belly fat from short workouts is really a misconception, and you could gain fat if you're not careful. The #1 Thing Stopping You From Maximal Fat Loss Virtually everything to do with your weight loss is controlled by one master hormone. This hormone that controls 100% of your body's ability to burn fat is leptin. You may not know how leptin works so let me explain. - High levels of leptin speed up your metabolism, diminish your appetite and signal your body to burn fat. - Low levels of leptin slow down your metabolism, increase your appetite and signal your body to store fat. Now get ready for some surprising facts regarding leptin and your weight loss. Research shows that you face a unique problem when trying to lose weight because of your body's resistance or insensitivity to leptin's signal to burn fat. It's basically like having your body's fat-burning switch set to "OFF" all the time. Plus, when you diet you face a rapid drop in your leptin levels, which slows down your metabolism substantially and leads to frustrating weight loss plateaus and massive rebound weight gain. Again, not cool. Have you ever suffered from the terrible rebound weight gain after you stop a low calorie diet? Well, that's because your leptin dropped significantly, making your metabolism even slower than before you started the diet, resulting in fat piling back on even when you're eating "like a bird". Yet what if I told you there is a solution to permanently switch fat burning "ON" and never let it drop again? Can you imagine how much faster and easier you could lose weight when your master fat-burning hormone is working for you instead of against you? Can you picture how much firmer and flatter your stomach becomes and how much sexier you'll look and feel? You do not need another FAD detox or supplement. In fact, extreme dieting while training hard will leave you feeling sluggish and tired, and unable to reach your athletic potential. So What Exactly are "1000 Calorie Accelerators"? In a nutshell, the 1000 Calorie Accelerator program was specifically designed to progress you along the calorie continuum as fast and safely as possible so that you'll be doing full-blown 1000 calorie-burning workouts that melt fat both during and after the workout, leading to massive fat loss. Burning 1000 calories is no easy feat. Yeah, it's a longer workout. But there is NO dieting involved and these workouts are awesome for big eating holidays (like Easter, Christmas, and Thanksgiving day). Imagine being able to enjoy the holidays and not have to worry about feeling guilty for overindulging in your favorite foods…. … or your clothes getting suddenly smaller … or your shirt feeling tighter We strategically manipulate two training variables to tackle progressive overload from a unique angle. 1. Rest: the length of rest periods between exercises and rounds 2. Sets/Rounds: the number of times a circuit of exercises is completed The end result is the fastest possible SAFE progression and accelerated fat loss results with each and every workout. Here's a quick example of how progression is implemented in to the monthly programming of 1000 Calorie Accelerators: Week 1: 2-3 rounds, rest 60-120 seconds between circuits Week 2: 3 rounds, rest 45-90 seconds between circuits Week 3: 3 rounds, rest 30-75 seconds between circuits You get the picture. The first week is always the baseline. Then every workout each week thereafter gets even more challenging, so that you burn more calories by skyrocketing your metabolism. The REAL Hero: 1000 Calorie AFTER BURN One of the coolest things about the 1000 Calorie Accelerators is that once you've finished your workout, the real calorie burning has literally just begun. And in case you didn't know, it's the number of calories you burn after the workout that helps you burn the most fat. Let me explain… Imagine you do a 60 minute steady state cardio workout and burn a total of 480 calories during that session. That's awesome, right? If you do this daily, you're on track to lose almost a pound a week. But you know, this workout did little for your metabolic rate. Your post workout calorie burn quickly drops down to average rates when you finish. Now, imagine your friend does a 30 minute session of different exercise – a more intense workout that boosts your resting metabolic rate. Sure, your friend may only burn 340 calories in that session, since it's only 30 minutes. But it's more intense, so they burn more calories per minute. Here's where the magic lies The post workout afterburn will kick in, and this intense workout causes you to burn 10 more calories per hour more than you normally would – for 24 hours after the workout is over. While 10 calories per hour above baseline may not seem all that exciting – let's do the math. Calorie burn during the workout = 340 Calorie burn after the workout = 10 calories/hour x 24 hours = 240 Calorie burn total = 580 So now you have 580 calories vs 480 calories – in half the training time. Powerful, right? And a study recently published in the Metabolism journal proves my point: - Subjects performed one of two exercise training protocols: A: Endurance training B: High intensity interval training (HIIT) - The endurance training protocol utilized over twice as much energy to perform the session (120.4MJ versus 57.9MJ) compared to the HIIT group - However when corrected for the energy cost of training, the sum of the skinfold reduction after the training program indicated that the high intensity program was nine-fold greater than the endurance training group. What does that mean? In that study, subjects doing interval training lost 9X more total body fat compared to the endurance training group. So listen, the results are clear... If you want fat loss and maximal calorie burn, working out using high intensity interval training is WAY more effective than long-cardio workouts. So how do you KNOW these workouts actually burn 1000 calories each? Great question. The answer is simple – we tested each workout on an experimental group of more than 15 people. Each person was strapped to Polar Heart Rate monitors with advanced calorie settings, and we measured the read-out at 1000+ calories for each workout. But how can you claim "1000 calories burned per workout" when people of different sizes burn calories at different rates? The workouts were tested on the "average" sized individual. My clients were a mix of men and women, who weighed between 125lbs and 200+lbs. If you weigh more, you will actually burn MORE calories, while people who weigh less will burn slightly less. When you include the calories burned post workout in the "afterburn" period, the 1000 calorie workouts actually burn WAY more than 1000 calories even for people with a lower body weight. What if I'm a relative beginner, or can't do high impact exercises? Can I still use this program? Yes! I wanted to make the program suitable for all levels of fitness so you can supercharge your workouts no matter what stage you're at now. The program has three levels of difficulty: Beginner: 300 calorie Accelerator workouts Intermediate: 500 calorie Accelerator workouts Elite: 1000 calorie Accelerator workouts To figure out where you should start, there is a cutting edge assessment workout included in the package. But the BEST part? You will NOT have to starve your way through this program. In fact, there's NO dieting necessary. You don't have to change your diet and you can indulge in your cravings without worry. It's strategically set up that way to accelerate your results. But this system is not for everybody, especially those looking for the latest magic pill, or "easy workout" solution. Are You Looking for a Quick Fix? Frankly, this is NOT for you. This may sound politically incorrect, but it's what most people are looking for. Sorry. But if you're willing to work REALLY hard in your workouts for 28 days, then I promise you'll get sexy results. Just like you, these people said "NO" to starvation diets and boring cardio: Paul lost 25lbs in 12 weeks! Before weight: 199lbs After weight: 174lbs "I started seeing results and started getting excited. Never had I felt the way I was feeling after being in boot camp for a while. I actually looked forward to exercising! Instead of spending 45 minutes on the elliptical and even more time on weights bored out of my mind, I'm doing burpees, squats, push ups, plank exercises and more in a circuit that really gets my heart rate up, metabolism working and strengthening my muscles at the same time, all in a short workout! It's the perfect style of training for a busy New Yorker. It has completely changed my life. I look better, feel healthier, have way more energy, booming confidence and so much more motivation and courage than before. I've accomplished something I didn't think was possible and now the sky is the limit!" -Paul Betz, 32, New York 47 year old woman lost 19lbs and gained confidence! Before weight: 185lbs After weight: 166lbs In January 2014 I realized that I was not feeling well. I had gained weight, I was tired, I was eating lots of carbs. I was walking a lot, but staying at the same weight. I heard about bootcamp and I went to the first class on 1/13/14 with Kate. It was fun and what I really liked was that the workouts were different. And, the time flew. Week 3 the weight started to drop and then for each week after that more and more weight. My body fat was going down. I felt better, I was sleeping better, clothes that hung in my closet were starting to fit again. People were saying I looked better. I started to feel more confident. When I started I had no idea what a "burpee" was. Now I can do lots of them and the real ones! I have doubled the amount of push ups I can do. I can now hold a plank for more than a minute. I do real squats. It's true that when you see results you want to keep doing more. Years of treadmills and miles of walking and I never saw the results I see now. I want to pack my gym bag at night. I go to work early so that I can leave on time and make it to class. I'm motivated now. I don't ever want to look back. I am going to start going to 4 classes a week, this week. I'm not sure why it took so long to find something that works, but this has. I'm so excited to keep going. The weight loss is great, but more importantly my health is so much better. My doctor said if I lose 10 more pounds she will take me off my blood pressure medication. I'm hooked! - Kim Tebbs, 47, New York "I'm Loving The Results I've Seen Using Kate's Methods!" "I've been a follower of Kate and her Accelerators programs for about 8 months now, having done both Fat Loss Accelerators and her 21 day Abs Accelerators back to back. I've now moved on to the 1000 Calorie Accelerators and I'm loving them. Why? Because they REALLY challenge me (but don't worry because there are so many levels that you can do them no matter where you are in your fitness journey, from beginner to elite).I'm also loving the results I've seen using Kate's methods. I did the 21 day Abs Accelerators just after Christmas and lost 6.4 lbs in the first week alone and achieved more muscle tone than I've ever had (the picture above right is Day 1 and left is Day 21). The fat that melted away was part of the dreaded "last 10 pounds" that never seemed to want to move from my body before that. At 51 years old, I can honestly say Kate's programs have helped me move closer toward my fitness goals and the body of my dreams...at a time in my life when everyone told me it was not possible! Regardless of your age, if you're looking for great workouts that really put you through the paces and for stubborn fat to fall from your body, you're in the right place. I, for one, am very thankful to have found Kate and I know you'll love her programs too. She doesn't just promise sexy results, she delivers!" - Suzie Salmon, Vancouver BC, Canada "Now I Can See My Abs!" "Before I started training with Accelerators, I was out of shape and had gained weight from eating too much. My workouts were random and inconsistent. I wasn't motivated to do anything.Kate's workouts helped me get back in shape really quickly, and it's been fun. And now I can see my abs. I feel my confident and strong." - Jimmy, 27, Sydney, Australia "You'll Burn 1000 Calories and She's Not Fooling!" "I love a new program from Kate, and I'm always excited to see what torture she's come up with this time! I'm always going to support a fellow Aussie and especially when that fellow Aussie has such a nice line in fat smashing workouts! I looked at all the levels because I train a lot of over 50's women and the beginner workouts will be fabulous for them! I checked out the intermediate level because my kids (grown up) love to train too – and then went straight to the elite level for me (competitive is my middle name). There's a lovely little finisher in that lot aptly called the Accelerator Finale – Oh. My. God! When Kate says you'll burn 1000 calories per workout she's not fooling – I was well and truly smashed! Excited to try more workouts from this program. When I've recovered! Love, love, love them! - Lisa Bullock, Melbourne, Australia "Kate Has Changed My Life in the Best Possible Way" "When I first came to Long Island Fit Body Boot Camp, I was 172 pounds and miserable. It was the heaviest I'd ever been and I was very nervous about joining a boot camp as I assumed I'd never be able to keep up. Before working out with Kate, I never really exercised. I'd go through usual cycles of joining a gym, going five times and then never going again. Kate made working out fun for me, which I thought was an unachievable feat. I lost over 30 pounds, and also gained a confidence I'd never had before. I honestly mean it when I say Kate has changed my life in the best way possible." - Rachel Horner, Los Angeles "Here's the Difference Between A Good Workout and A Great Workout" I've done Kate's workouts before and they're always challenging. And this was no pushover! I finished the workout red faced, sweaty and definitely done for the day! The Metabolic intervals were really hard work but good fun – I personally hate running but the sprints at the end of my workout made the difference between a good workout and a great workout. My friend can't even speak properly yet for huffing and puffing lol, and she's a Black Belt in Karate! Have to go sit down now! Thanks Kate! - Gifar Hassan, Melbourne, Australia "I'm in better shape now than I ever was in my 20's!" "Kate's transformation has been an inspiration to me. Two months before a big birthday, I called on Kate to help me get back in shape. As a busy school teacher, I am constantly running after children and I was struggling to keep up. When I started working out, I weighed over 73kg. With the help of Kate's online coaching programs, I lost over 14kg and kept it off. I feel like I'm in better shape now than I ever was in my twenties. To be honest, I don't really enjoy working out. I spent so many years doing the same cardio at the gym and I was over it. Kate created a program for me to do in my flat with dumbbells and body weight exercises. I hardly did any cardio and surprisingly lost more fat than ever before. The workouts Kate designed were challenging and tough, but really easy to follow. I found myself looking forward to working out and it didn't take up all my free time. Kate is really dedicated to helping you achieve your goals. Thanks Kate, I feel amazing without ever being deprived of a life." - P. Andronicos, School Teacher, London, UK I Can Fit in My Skinny Jeans Again! "I have been training with Kate for 4 years. We have refined my regime so tightly that there is absolutely no time wasted. I don't have the time or energy for workouts that don't produce results. We begin or end each workout with a metabolic set of full-body accelerators. These sets have become key in changing the shape of my body (and shredding fat). For strength training, we do 4 sets of 8 reps of targeted muscle groups. It's consistency over time that keeps the results steady. I am thrilled as I can fit into my skinny jeans all the time instead of just on certain days." - Eleanor, New York, NY "You Can Start With Workouts at Your Fitness Level" "I just wanted to thank you so much for this program! It is a real butt kicker and I love it. The format is fantastic, easy to follow and man, I can't wait to see the results! I also like the way it is set out with the beginner, intermediate and advanced programs which gives everyone a chance to do the workouts at their own fitness level. The exercise library is also something that beginners will find very helpful as sometimes exercises sound very complicated but they aren't. The pictures show exactly what to do. So keep up the great work and again thanks for producing this, it is well worth it!" - Judy Hill, Calgary, Canada How can you get sexy results without starvation diets? This 1000 Calorie Accelerators Package includes a 28 day Accelerators rapid results plan, with beginner, intermediate and elite step-by-step workout guide to blast your weight loss, plus challenging body sculpting workouts to keep your metabolism cranking. This is not some lame cardio and diet program but rather a proven done for you system that I have used with my private coaching clients to lose up to 11lbs in only 21 days all while saving an additional $ in the process! Here's Exactly What You Get With The 1000 Calorie Accelerators System Component 1: 1000 Calorie Accelerator Fast Start Guide ($59.95 Value) In the 1000 Calorie Accelerator Fast Start Guide you will discover: ▪ The cutting edge workout assessment to determine the right Accelerator workout level for you (including beginner, intermediate or elite) ▪ How to use the powerful combination of high intensity training, metabolic resistance training and hybrid metabolic complexes to boost your calorie burn for hours after you workout ▪ Comprehensive guidelines for any fitness level to help you accelerate your results and maximize your fat burning hormones. Component 2: 28 day 1000 Calorie Accelerators Workout Plan ($69.95 Value) In the 28 day 1000 Calorie Accelerators Workout Plan you will discover: ▪ The latest, customized high intensity workouts strategically designed to burn 300, 500 or 1000 calories each and every workout for 28 days. ▪ A day-by-day workout plan for beginners, intermediate and elite levels, that shows you exactly what you need to do to destroy your plateau and get fast results. ▪ High quality exercise descriptions and comprehensive workout logs so you can track your progress! ▪ And much more… Component 3: The 1000 Calorie Accelerators Exercise Index ($29.95 Value) In 1000 Calorie Accelerators Exercise Index you will discover: • High quality photos and descriptions of every single exercise in the program, with step-by-step instructions to execute the moves with perfect form. • Over 80 pages of unique and never-before released fat burning exercises that you can do at home or in the gym • The TOP challenging and time saving exercises to burn belly fat with only minimal equipment. Remember, this is an ANTI DIET workout program. PLUS, TODAY, You'll Get As A FREE Bonus - The 1000 Calorie Accelerator Challenges Detailing EXACTLY What You Need To Do To Out Train Your Bad Diet AND TORCH OFF STUBBORN BODY FAT! SPECIAL FREE BONUS The BIG Bonus:1000 Calorie Accelerator Challenges ($49.99 Value) In the 1000 Calorie Accelerator Challenges you will discover: • 10 NEW extreme dumbbell, barbell and bodyweight 1000 Calorie Accelerators that are perfect for big eating holidays (like Easter, Thanksgiving and Christmas) • You can do the "EPIC Accelerator" workouts to crank your fat loss and skyrocket your metabolism for hours. • These workouts are ONLY for the tough and daring, who are serious about getting fast results. You will challenge your body and your mind in a brand new way. Definitely NOT for beginners. YOU'RE GETTING ALL OF THIS THAT'S OVER $209.00 IN VALUE!! The Best part Is That This Entire System Is Completely Downloadable, So Once You Invest In This System, You Will Get INSTANT ACCESS RIGHT NOW – No Waiting. As you can see, the total value of the 1000 Calorie Accelerators System is a whopping $209.84!! All of these programs are guaranteed to help you burn belly fat and get more body sculpting results in less time than ever before…and all without stepping on a single treadmill. But once again, because I know the difference this program can make on your life I want to offer you the entire 1000 Calorie Accelerators System not for $209.84, but at huge discount off the retail price. Exclusive Offer $41 ONLY $15 Yes! Add the 1000 Calorie Accelerators System to my order for just $15 [ujicountdown id="Timer A" expire="2018/01/19 03:00" hide="true" url="" subscr="" recurring="" rectype="second" repeats=""] You can instantly download all of these belly fat burning workouts in just minutes and start using these NEW fat burning techniques today! If you're stunned because you realize this tiny investment for everything is significantly less than a single session with a personal trainer… even in a small town, less than a monthly gym membership, and much less than ANY dangerous diet pill you'll find, hold on a second because I'm not done… Because I believe in what I teach and know that you will experience head turning results, just like all of the good people that I've helped in the past, I will not just promise life changing results - I will absolutely guarantee them… Try 1000 Calorie Accelerators System With A No-Risk,
100% Money Back Guarantee! Remember, you're getting access to everything in the 1000 Calorie Accelerators system, including the main program, the fast start guide, the exercise library, plus the FREE bonus when you click the add to cart button below. You now have all the answers you need to rapidly melt away stubborn fat and get the body you desire, and deserve. Join me, and the thousands of men and women just like you who are finally ready to take control of their body and transform their lives forever. Click the "Buy Now" button below to get started. Exclusive Offer $41 ONLY $15 Yes! Add the 1000 Calorie Accelerators System to my order for just $15 [ujicountdown id="Timer A" expire="2018/01/19 03:00" hide="true" url="" subscr="" recurring="" rectype="second" repeats=""] Sincerely, Kate Vidulich, BSc, ACSM, Master CTT Exercise Physiologist Author of 1000 Calorie Accelerators Author of Fat Loss Accelerators.com P.S. There is NO RISK at all for you to try the 1,000 Calorie Accelerators System. If you aren't thrilled with the amount of belly fat you've lost and how hard you can work your abs without boring crunches with the 1000 Calorie Accelerators System in 60 days, let us know and we'll refund your order. Your satisfaction is 100% guaranteed. P.P.S. You CAN FINALLY eat what you want – if you're willing to put in the work. That's what you get with this 1,000 Calorie Accelerator System. Exclusive Offer $41 ONLY $15 Yes! Add the 1000 Calorie Accelerators System to my order for just $15 [ujicountdown id="Timer A" expire="2018/01/19 03:00" hide="true" url="" subscr="" recurring="" rectype="second" repeats=""] FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS Q: I want to start losing fat now. Will I have to wait for you to ship me all this information before I can get started? A: No! You can download the entire program immediately after your purchase in just minutes - and start using these NEW fat burning techniques today! No shipping fees, no waiting for results! Q: So how do you KNOW these workouts actually burn 1000 calories each? A: Great question. The answer is simple – we tested each workout on an experimental group of more than 15 people. Each person was strapped to Polar Heart Rate monitors with advanced calorie settings, and we measured the read-out at 1000+ calories for each workout. Q: But how can you claim "1000 calories burned per workout" when people of different sizes burn calories at different rates? A: The workouts were tested on the "average" sized individual. My clients were a mix of men and women, who weighed between 125lbs and 200+lbs. If you weigh more, you will actually burn MORE calories, while people who weigh less will burn slightly less. When you include the calories burned post workout in the "afterburn" period, the 1000 calorie workouts actually burn WAY more than 1000 calories even for people with a lower body weight. Q: What if I'm a relative beginner, or can't do high impact exercises? Can I still use this program? A: Yes! I wanted to make the program suitable for all levels of fitness so you can supercharge your workouts no matter what stage you're at now. The program has three levels of difficulty: Beginner: 300 calorie Accelerator workouts Intermediate: 500 calorie Accelerator workouts Elite: 1000 calorie Accelerator workouts To figure out where you should start, there is a cutting edge assessment workout included in the package. Q: Will I starve with this program? A: NO! You will NOT have to starve your way through this program. In fact, there's NO dieting necessary. You don't have to change your diet and you can indulge in your cravings without worry. It's strategically set up that way to accelerate your results. Q: Am I just going to lose a lot of weight then put it back on again? A: No. The cool thing about 1,000 Calorie Accelerators is that it boosts and protects your metabolism, to make sure the weight you lose stays off. In fact, the 1,000 Calorie Accelerators system increases your metabolism as you lose fat rapidly. Q: I'm not in my 20's or 30's. Will this program still work for someone considerably older? A: Yes. We've already had plenty of people in their 50's and 60's experience massive success while using the program. You can start at the beginner level and still make excellent progress. The program is designed to have you losing fat fast while increasing your metabolism – no matter what age you are. Q: What equipment do I need for these workouts? A: The workouts are designed with dumbbells and bodyweight primarily, so you will need access to those. While a gym membership helps, you CAN do these workouts at home. Basic home gym equipment will cover it and no fancy expensive gear is necessary. Q: What if I don't have "a lot" of weight to lose? A: Whether you're already in "good" shape or you're just starting out, this program was designed to get you to your next goal as fast and safely as possible. It doesn't matter if you have 10lbs or 40lbs to lose – the 1,000 Calorie Accelerators will get you exactly where you want to be...faster. Q: Are 1,000 Calorie Accelerators only for men, or can women do them, too? A: Listen, this program is for folks who enjoy training hard, and are looking to chisel a lean, athletic body. Men AND women can benefit equally. In fact, women tend to be my hardest working clients – especially the brides. I've never seen anyone training harder than a women getting ready for her big day! Q: What if the workouts are too hard? A: Start conservatively. Take a longer rest between sets or reduce the number of rounds initially. Exercises can always be substituted. Q: How soon can I expect to see results? A: Depending on where you are with your current training, you should notice results in the first two weeks. By the end of the first month, you should make noticeable changes. Q: What if it doesn't work for me? A: Then it's 100% FREE. If you follow the 1,000 Calorie Challenge 28 day program exactly as outlined in the materials, and for any reason are NOT entirely satisfied with the results you achieve from your efforts, just contact us and we'll refund your money. It's that simple. We stand behind our program to get you extremely FAST fat loss and rapid results, and if doesn't yield those results for you when followed, you get your money back. No hassles, no hoops to jump through, just a prompt, courteous refund. If you have any questions, please email me at [email protected] Exclusive Offer $41 ONLY $15 Yes! Add the 1000 Calorie Accelerators System to my order for just $15 [ujicountdown id="Timer A" expire="2018/01/19 03:00" hide="true" url="" subscr="" recurring="" rectype="second" repeats=""] NOTE: The 1000 Calorie Accelerators System is a downloadable e-book. No physical products will be shipped. After you order, you will get INSTANT ACCESS to download the e-book and all the bonus reports onto your computer. The e-book format is adobe acrobat PDF, which can be saved to your computer.ClickBank is the retailer of this product. CLICKBANK® is a registered trademark of Click Sales, Inc., a Delaware corporation located at 917 S. Lusk Street, Suite 200, Boise Idaho, 83706, USA and used by permission. ClickBank's role as retailer does not constitute an endorsement, approval or review of this product or any claim, statement or opinion used in promotion of this product.