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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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piccolo cannoli bar Catering Parties, Weddings & Events! All Our Cannoli Are Piped Fresh In Store While You Wait​! Ciao and welcome to Piccolo Cannoli Bar. We're a family business and our purpose is simple to share our love of Italian coffee and cannoli so our customers can experience a taste of Italy and living la dolce vita Italian style! We're committed to bringing you the very best Italian coffee, cannoli, arancini, gelati, speciality products and Italian gourmet gifts with a focus on fresh quality ingredients, convenience and fast friendly service every time! We can customise colours to suit your special event. Our traditional range of flavours are: vanilla custard, chocolate custard, hazelnut custard, classic ricotta with pistachio, espresso walnut and caramel almond. Being a registered architect Adrian Zenere established Archizen Architects in 1998 designing the care built environment and boutique residential developments. Adrian’s parents were born in Trentino-Alto Adige and Vicenza, Veneto both northern regions of Italy and immigrated to Australia over 65 years ago - so with Adrian’s rich Italian heritage it was only natural that he would want to incorporate an authentic Italian espresso and cannoli bar in his architectural design studio and share not only his love of architecture & design but also his appreciation of great Italian caffe' and some of his favourite Italian food he grew up with.  Amber spent over 10 years working in restaurants and as hotel management for international hotels Hyatt, Hilton and Sheraton both here in Sydney as well as in Auckland, London and New York. Prior to joining Archizen Architects in 2005 Amber spent 10 years working for Qantas Airways as cabin crew and an inflight services trainer. Drawing on her 20 years of airline & hospitality experience and 15 years of business experience plus being immersed in the Italian culture for over 2 decades where she has come to love all things Italian she often says that you don't have to be Italian to appreciate the coffee, food, architecture & design. Like Adrian it just made sense to her to open an Italian espresso and cannoli bar in Archizen Architect’s design studio.........and Piccolo Cannoli Bar, Sydney's First Cannoleria was born in February 2019! Being a family business with both their sons Zack and Blake and Nonno Gregorio and Nonna Angelina, all lending a helping hand Adrian and Amber did not want to create just any cannoleria for their customers...they wanted an authentic Italian cannoli bar where the owners care about their customers, where the local community are welcomed and treated like family, where everyone knows your name and they’re always glad you came.  They wanted to create the same experience found in the small caffé bars scattered throughout Venice, Milan and northern Italy from the ornate pressed metal ceilings to the marble counters but within a new contemporary architectural environment. The same kind of espresso and cannoli bars Adrian’s parents would frequent when they were younger, the kind that were steeped in history & Italian tradition. 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everydaywithmary | Enjoy the journey, enjoy every day! Welcome to Everyday with Mary! I've lived with anxiety for as long as I could remember. For years, I didn't even really realize that's what it was. For a long time, I just knew I was introverted, sensitive and shy, maybe a little weird. But never labeled myself as having anxiety. So I never really told people how I felt, not even my mom because honestly it didn't occur to me. I had a brother with social anxiety and depression, and he and my dad were both on meds for depression so I just thought well if I need to be treated someone would have told me. And even when I later realized I still never told my doctor because I didn't want to be put on medication. I actually self medicated with benadryl through college to be able to sleep. I always had a hard time falling asleep because I couldn't quiet my thoughts and I hated that feeling. So even though sometimes I was a zombie anyways, I preferred it to that feeling, the doom, I would get of just thinking about not being able to sleep. So basically, I'm one of those people who stresses about stress before there's anything to stress about. Take mornings, for example. I never oversleep but the thought of it stresses me out and has been part of the reason I hate mornings. I have worked night shift for years as a nurse because the idea of mornings stress me out. Now having said that there are other reasons why I like night shift and I do work the other shifts at times. But this started even back in school. I had pretty much the same problem. I had no real issues at school but dreaded the mornings. So in my 20s, I started to realize I had anxiety and was prone to worry and overthinking and over-analyzing and I came into contact with more people who I realized felt this way too and I could talk about it more. But I still didn't tell my mom or my doctor. I didn't want to look crazy and I still didn't want medication. Even though I don't think there is anything wrong with that. Its everyone's choice. One thing I was worried about was being on medication and eventually getting pregnant and having to worry about going off the med then maybe back on, so of course I way over thought that scenario. So even though I was talking about things a little more I really wasn't coping or managing. All I really had experience with was my family members being on meds and that really wasnt helpful. It really wasnt until the last couple years I learned to cope effectively. One method I learned and to be honest I dont remember how I learned it was to "take control of the moment". So many mornings I would wake up and just feel dread. And so often there was no real reason which was extra frustrating because there was nothing to "fix". I used to get it a lot when I was still in school adn I would literally have to tell myself "its ok youre not in trouble". So when I learned this method , if I woke up like this or it snuck up during the day I would say "hey stop right there". And take a minute to take a couple deep breaths and get under control. If nothing was wrong I would calmly tell myself that everything was ok. If there was a problem I would often just tell myself to put it to the side if it was something I couldn't do anything about at the moment. As simple or silly as that method might sound it actually had really worked well for me. I rarely get that feeling of dread anymore. I found that a key benefit of that method for me was it often kept me from escalating. As long as I could keep my worry from spiraling I could stay rational and solution focused and usually figure out how to deal with whatever was going on. Also in the last couple years I've realized I am an empath and highly sensitive. If you've not heard of those before an empath is someone who basically absorbs whats going on around them especially vibes, energy, and emotion. And highly sensitive is kind of hard to explain beyond what it sounds like so for my personal experience I always took things way too personal , couldn't really handle criticism and cried super easy. These are not bad qualities but can be difficult to live with when you haven't learned how manage them qualities in a healthy way. Its kind of like the saying the first step is admitting you have a problem. Which again having these qualities isn't the problem but finding out I had them was a huge step in the direction of being happier, more peaceful and living my best life. I hope we can get to know each other a little more and we'll talk more about how to cope with anxiety, overthinking, worrying such as how it effects your daily life with work and family. I've also become a big believer in mediation over the last year, thougth before that I thought it was super corny. But I think Gabby Bernstein says it best and this isnt her exact quote but basically she says if you dont have time or interest in meditating or other inner work youre basically making time to feel like shit! So remember to enjoy the journey and enjoy every day. I'll hope you'll take time today to enjoy whats around you such as the scenery, a good meal and anything else that lights you up! MORE ABOUT ME I'm a nurse, business owner,and proud aunt. I love nursing, music, movies, reading, baseball, basketball,the beach and TV. I have been in nursing and healthcare for 15 years. I can't believe it's been that long! I am from Maryland and went to college in Baltimore. I have spent most of my nursing in cardiac care like open heart surgery and heart failure. I have worked in hospitals, long-term care and for the Red Cross. I am now also Reiki practitioner as well. CONTACT ME I'm looking forward to hearing from you. Please feel free to get in touch via email or leave a comment, I'll get back to you as soon as possible. Everyday With Mary SayHello@EverydayWithMary.Com
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Grow ECommerce, Inc. Helping Factory Owners, Manufacturers & Wholesale Companies create strategic, long term partnerships with the largest retailers in the world. Guaranteed to increase sales
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Grow ECommerce, Inc. Helping Factory Owners, Manufacturers & Wholesale Companies create strategic, long term partnerships with the largest retailers in the world. Guaranteed to increase sales
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Spirit Reins Ranch | Horseback riding in Parrsboro Nova Scotia Spirit Reins Ranch is a small farm located near the picturesque coastal town of Parrsboro, Nova Scotia. We offer personalized service for both the first time rider and more experienced riders. Take advantage of our scenic trail rides where the view is breathtaking in every direction! We also have trail riding packages including tidal floor fossil tours, picnic rides and Bay of Fundy beach walks. Summer Horse camps are available for children, and the Ranch hosts a variety of shows and competitions throughout the year. Sign up for western lessons, lease one of our horses or board your own horse, you can also book our facilities for your riding pleasure. You and your whole family will enjoy taking part in our leisurely trail riding experience. Amazing horseback riding tours and adventures are just minutes away. Trail riding at it best, here in Parrsboro, Nova Scotia! Spirit Reins Ranch is located just outside the charming town of Parrsboro which has many amenities available. While you're here you may want to check out the downtown shopping district, local restaurants, museums, hiking trails, live theatre, golf club and of course the highest tides in the world at the local beaches! The Ranch is approximately: an hour and a half from Moncton, New Brunswick. forty five minutes from Amherst, Nova Scotia an hour and a half from Truro, Nova Scotia two hours from Halifax, Nova Scotia Due to the nature of our business we cannot accept drop-ins. Call now for reservations: 1 902 254 3138 or 1 902 254 4268 About Us Spirit Reins Ranch is situated on what was originally a family farm. The Gilbert family acquired the farm in New Prospect, Parrsboro around 1964, and it became a cattle and pig farm for the next 20 years. Today Bill, Karen Gilbert and family continue the legacy with their horse ranch. Bill Gilbert grew up on his family farm riding horses and wrangling cows, his first horse King was a paint trick pony. Bill and King had a great partnership from the start! He even took King in the town parade when he was only 7 years old. Bill has the farm way of life in his blood and still works and develops the land that was his childhood home. Bill renewed his love of horses in adulthood and rides his quarter horse Jasper. He has done clinics on cattle penning, western riding and develops his riding skills through lessons and training. Bill is currently the head guide for our trails and he has been called a real cowboy character who is sure to bend your ear with a few tails or a local yarn or two. Karen Yorke-Gilbert's first experience around horses was at a young age riding the work horses at her aunt's farm in the Annapolis Valley. In her youth Karen spent many hours attending races at the Truro Raceway where her uncle raced standardbreds. It wasn't until she had a family of her own that she became fully involved with and renewed her childhood love of horses. Karen has remained committed to a vision that horses are a learning and growing tool for the spirit of humanity. She firmly believes that horses are teachers and healers for people, and are therapy for the soul. Over the past 15 years Karen has devoted her time to the development of her own horse ranch in her hometown of Parrsboro. The year 2000 marked the beginning's of the ranch as it is today. A humble 4 stall barn housed two very special horses, a gentle thoroughbred named Chief (belonging to her daughter) and Karen's quarter horse Ginger. Today Spirit Reins Ranch has grown to a family of 8+ horses, a large barn with 13 stalls, heated tack room and a large outdoor riding arena. In order to provide the best quality services and optimal care for the horses Karen has devoted herself to equine education, spending years under the tutelage of top instructors in Western Reining and equitation. She has completed her Level 4 in the Western Rider Equine Canada program. Karen has certificates in Equine Canada Coaching Theory as well as First Aid training, and has recently completed the Equine Canada Trail Guide and Tourism Program. Karen holds an Honours degree in Psychology from Mount Allison University, Sackville New Brunswick. Karen is a current member of the Nova Scotia Equestrian Federation, Equine Canada. She is the Director at Large of the Canadian Horse Association (Atlantic District) and the Canadian Horse National Breeders Association. She enjoys riding and showing her Canadian mare Willow. She has participated in many shows and competitions in western classes, trail class, reining and cattle sorting and penning.
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Small Business Resource and Tips Small business blog for small business owners, includes daily business tips, relating to online business marketing and management.
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Triton Business Consulting | Grant Consulting for Non Profits and Tax Advice and Preparation for the Independent Contractors, Self-employed and Small Businesses. Triton Business Consulting was founded in 2013, to provide high-quality professional grant writing consulting for non-profits and tax advice for small business owners, Freelancers, Independent Contractors, and Creatives of all types who have been traditionally underserved by the traditional big box tax companies. Cameron and Phil Hernandez who are both UC San Diego Alums christened their business and rescue dog after the UC San Diego mascot the Triton. Triton is currently based in Los Alamitos, California. Cameron Hernandez is a tax professional who specializes in helping professional women, independent contractors, freelancers, self-employed, and small business owners prepare and understand their taxes. She is a member of the California Society of Tax Consultants Long Beach Chapter, a member of the Junior Leauge of Long Beach, she is an alumna and former advisor for Delta Gamma, and serves as the Financial Secretary on the board of the Lowell Bayside Academy PTA in Long Beach. Cameron graduated from the University of California, San Diego with a degree in political science and earned her law degree (JD) at Whittier College. Cameron brings a depth of knowledge and practical experience to her clients. In addition to traditional training and continuing education classes, while in law school, she clerked at the IRS Office of Counsel. She is an IRS Registered Tax Preparer, and CTEC Registered Tax Preparer for the past 15 years. Cameron is also a mother of three active children, an avid photographer, scrapbooker and foodie. Phil Hernandez is a graduate of UC San Diego and Whittier Law School. After two years serving as an Adjunct Professor of Business Law at the college level, he has spent his professional career working with Fortune 1000 corporations drafting and negotiating confidentiality agreements, software licenses, independent contractor agreements, and general terms agreements. His currently serves as the primary contract negotiator between his company, a supplier of avionics equipment and the airlines located in North America and Brazil. For the last four years, Phil has also supported local small business startups and educational non-profits by providing affordable contracting solutions and grant writing consulting. He also supports non-profit organizations in their fund-raising efforts through grant writing. Phil is a writer in his free time who enjoys playing golf, writing novels, and walking with his family on the boardwalk of Belmont Shore.
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Career Tests - Free Personality Tests - Career Advice Career counseling and career testing. Use our career tools in a ''do it yourself mode'' or ''1 on 1'' with a coach. As featured in What Color Is Your Parachute, the Wall Street Journal-and Fast Company Magazine.
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JustWarThings`*~ A blog about the horrors of war, juxtaposed with the most important things a 15 year old girl cares about. My name is Casey, I spent 6 years in the US Army, and did 15 months in Baghdad. Twitter...
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Career Tests - Free Personality Tests - Career Advice Career counseling and career testing. Use our career tools in a ''do it yourself mode'' or ''1 on 1'' with a coach. As featured in What Color Is Your Parachute, the Wall Street Journal-and Fast Company Magazine.
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Erin Dougherty Williams Erin Dougherty Williams is an award winning, nationally exhibiting fine artist with 15 years experience in commercial photography and post. Drawn to the medium of photography from a young age, Erin Dougherty Williams spent her earliest years exploring Florida’s Gulf coast with a. United States
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Jon Brick FIlm, videographer, JON BRICK FILMS Over the last 15+ years, Jon has been a pioneer in conceptualizing and producing award winning, high profile digital media. His variety of professional skills include directing, producing, editing, camera, project management, production management and client management. Jon has worked with several world class creative agencies and Fortune 500 companies creating innovative digital media. He has a flawless track record working with Yahoo!, Travelocity, Real Time with Bill Maher, Sony, CNN, The Charlie Rose Show, Fox, Nissan, The White House, The Democratic Party, Casio, AT&T, Cisco, HP, Dell, Politico, Getty Film, Australian Tourist Board, 60 minutes, Bloomberg, Palm, Macy''s, Leapfrog, Bloomingdales, Leapfrog and Livestrong. Currently, Jon is the Executive Producer, Director and Founder of Jack Elvis Productions, LLC and Outside|Lines Travel. Outside|lines creates compelling travel-video content that enables the viewer to pull back the curtain on emerging cultures in US cities and other destinations around the world. The show, an insider''s guide, connects people to places they would not find on their own -- places only knowledgable locals would frequent. Prior to Outside|Lines, Jon spent 4 years as a director, producer and editor at Yahoo!. He played a hands-on, key role in establishing Yahoo! as a forerunner in original online video productions. This was Yahoo’s first step into original TV style series (webisodes) productions. He directed and produced 5 original shows while at Yahoo! focusing on topics such as travel, lifestyle, subcultures, music, news, and politics. He''s worked with TV hosts Bill Maher, Charlie Rose and Richard Bangs. Jon''s last project at Yahoo! was creating a video profile of the President of the United States in the White House. It was the first time in history a sitting president conducted an interview solely for the internet. This project was a tremendous success and received international attention and millions of video streams. In 1999, Jon was a video producer for the world’s first e-commerce website with broadcast quality film footage which was bought by Getty Film. He has also produced, directed and edited three documentaries and several short films.
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KASEM BANGKOK TAXI TOUR Hello, Welcome to * KASEM BANGKOK TAXI TOUR * My name''s Kasem Chaiyakhan, I have experience. Driving more than 15 years And experience Traveling and taking foreign tourists for more than 10 years. I have two types of car; 1. Toyota Fortuner SUV.car, suitable for small families with 1-5 people''s with luggage, and the other one is Mini van, suitable for large families or large groups of 5 people up to 10 people. With luggage, *service:* *Airport transfer* * Pick up and drop off Bangkok hotel to airport, Don Muang Airport and Suvarnabhumi Airport, including airport pick up. And from the hotel in the Bangkok city to the provinces such as Pattaya, Hua Hin, Kanchanaburi, Rayong, Koh Chang, Khao Yai. And any destinations in Thailand, *Tour services* Take a tour of famous places. Both in Bangkok and in the provinces, whether for hours (minimum 4 hours) or full day And includes overnight trips to from Bangkok to Every province in Thailand, * For tour arrangements; * You can send us a list of tour locations. We will help you organize your tours. It''s not a step, or if you do not know where to go. Can contact and consult. Include the price inquiry before the phone number or email below, hope you will contact us and choose us to care for you and your loved ones. While you have spent time here, With kinds of Regards * MR. CHAIYAKHAN * * + 66 90 553 4636 (WHATSAPP) * * + 66 89 476 3369 (DIRECT) * * -IG.KASEM BIGTAXI * * -LINE ID: KASEM-F2 * * -FB.KASEM BKK BIGTAXI * * -TRIPADVISOR:KASEM BANGKOK TAXI TOUR * * -EMAIL; KASEMBIGTAXI@HOTMAIL.COM* * WWW.KASEMBANGKOKTAXITOUR.COM *
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Back To Normal Dr. Marcus H. Seigle has been a practicing chiropractor in Georgia since 1987. He is a graduate Cum Laude from both Temple University in 1977, and from Life Chiropractic College in 1986. In 29 years of clinical practice, he has performed over 250,000 chiropractic adjustments. He spent the years 1991 and 1992 in Mexico, where he lived and performed over 11,000 visits of volunteer care with disadvantaged people. He lived and practiced in the Albany, Georgia area from 1994 until now, founding and operating a clinic on Philema Road. He is a family chiropractor, seeing people of all ages and with a variety of health conditions. Back To Normal is the name of my new clinic, conveniently located at 167 Virginia Avenue South, in Tifton, Georgia. It is in Tifton corners, the shopping plaza where Tractor Supply and Big Lots are located. We will be open for business on Monday, August 15. We will offer chiropractic and physiotherapy, as well as therapeutic massage Monday through Friday. Dr. Seigle is also a certified medical examiner, and is qualified to perform DOT physicals for truck drivers. You can schedule an appointment by calling us at (229) 894-4338. Dr. Seigle is well versed in a number of different chiropractic techniques. He has worked in different settings, and with many types of cases. Adjustments of the spinal vertebrae when they are displaced from their normal positions is usually done on each visit. The doctor is very gentle, and the movements are very smooth and precise. Most people enjoy it and feel immediate relief and relaxation. Cases of low back pain, with or without pain radiating into the legs, respond very well to the technique of flexion-distraction, the doctor''s specialty. Dr. Seigle is an expert on extremity adjustments as well as spinal adjustments, and has helped tens of thousands of people with ankle, knee, elbow, wrist and shoulder problems. Most joints do return to normal, painless function with proper care. Dr. Seigle is certified to perform physiotherapeutic modalities. This would include Moist heat, cryotherapy, ultrasound, or electrical stimulation. These modalities compliment chiropractic care, and are valuable in many cases. Dr. Seigle also performs Auriculotherapy, a form of electronic therapy based on acupuncture, done on the ear acupuncture points. It is very effective immediately, relaxing muscle tension and calming the nervous system. It also compliments adjustments. Therapeutic Massage is extremely beneficial for muscular problems associated with pinched nerves. As the chiropractic adjustments relieve the pressure from the nerves and enable them to heal, the massage brings better blood and lymph circulation, detoxifying and relaxing the muscles so they, too can return to normal.
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Home | Brandy Butchek The beauty industry is ever changing and expanding. Brandy has spent the past 15 years of her career growing in every avenue of hairdressing. From the begining of her career Brandy has assisted and learned from masters in the field. Brandy has created her specialized approach to helping people feel great using all that she has gathered from years of educating, salon experience and traveling aronund the world.
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Well Body Studio | Massage Therapy in New Orleans At Well Body Studio, Tam McBride brings over 15 years of Massage Therapy practice home to New Orleans. Trained at The Swedish Institute in New York City, Tam received her associate's degree in Massage Therapy in 1999. She spent the next 12 years honing her craft in some of New York and Chicago's finest spas.…
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Queens Divorce and Family Law Attorney - Divorce/Family Lawyer in Queens - Bruce Feinstein, Esq. | Law Offices of Bruce Feinstein, Esq. Queens Divorce Attorney Experienced, caring representation in Queens, New York Family law cases can be stressful, personal, and emotional. When faced with family-related legal issues such as divorce and child custody, clients need an experienced, assertive, dedicated law firm that will offer them affordable and effective representation. The Law Offices of Bruce Feinstein, Esq. have been offering these services for over 15 years, and their combination of experience and passion has made them a powerhouse for family law in Queens. The firm specializes in family law cases, and their wide range of expertise covers: Uncontested and Contested Divorce Child Custody, Parental Rights, and Guardianship Alimony Visitation Division of Assets Legal Separation Annulments Prenuptial Agreements Orders of Protection Domestic Violence and Child Abuse Paternity Cases Same Sex Divorce and LGBT Issues The Law Offices of Bruce Feinstein, Esq. always have their clients' interests and needs in mind. They will work tirelessly to stay on top of a case and communicate its progress, and they will keep legal costs low while maximizing their strategy and experience to get the best possible outcome. Mr. Feinstein and his team have spent years representing clients in the New York City Family Courts, so they know how to best serve their clients' needs. During this difficult time, it is incredibly important to have the best Queens divorce attorney offering legal protection and insight. Bruce Feinstein, Esq. knows that every case is unique, so he and his team are prepared to evaluate the situation and take the best possible approach. They will fight to keep your quality of life and answer any questions throughout the process, whether they be about finances, possible outcomes, or your children. Any mistakes can jeopardize the future of you and your family, so Mr. Feinstein will work to protect your assets and ensure the best possible outcome. Having legal and financial protection is so important when it comes to family law and divorce – make sure you have the very best divorce attorney in Queens. Call today to set up a free consultation and learn more about what we can offer you.
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amkimages My name is Austyn Saylor 'Formerly Austyn Krecicki'. I am from Naples, Florida and have been in love with photography since i was 15 years old. So in love that I enlisted into the United States Marine Corps in 2016 as a Combat Photographer and Graphics Specalist. I currently reside in Jacksonville, North Carolina but have spent the last 2 years of my life in Okinawa, Japan. I love new photoshoot oportunites so feel free to ask!
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Home | Brandy Butchek The beauty industry is ever changing and expanding. Brandy has spent the past 15 years of her career growing in every avenue of hairdressing. From the begining of her career Brandy has assisted and learned from masters in the field. Brandy has created her specialized approach to helping people feel great using all that she has gathered from years of educating, salon experience and traveling aronund the world.
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Erin Dougherty Williams Erin Dougherty Williams is an award winning, nationally exhibiting fine artist with 15 years experience in commercial photography and post. Drawn to the medium of photography from a young age, Erin Dougherty Williams spent her earliest years exploring Florida’s Gulf coast with a. United States
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Zipline Builder | Skyline Ziplines | British Columbia Skyline Ziplines is the world leader in the Eco-Adventure industry for the design, engineering, construction, and operation of ziplines, suspension bridges, challenge courses and towers. Our team of experts has spent over 15 years building iconic sites all over the world.
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North Coast Wetsuits, NCW Cornwall, Wetsuits Cornwall, UK Wetsuit Based near to Polzeath in North Cornwall, North Coast Wetsuits specialise in wetsuits, water sports & surf kit. We design & import all our own stock lines.
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Home Mihama Teriyaki Grill 1253 Siskiyou Blvd. Ashland, OR 97520 11 a.m. to 8 p.m. Monday – Friday 541-488-3530. Among all the gimmicks in the culinary world, there’s no substitute for serving good, honest food. Ashland’s Mihama’s Teriyaki Grill has spent the past 15 years doing just that. On Siskiyou Boulevard across from SOU, the restaurant attracts students and professionals alike. The food is always cooked to order and reasonably priced; the latter qualification can be a rarity in Ashland. As the name implies, teriyaki is Mihama’s specialty. Chicken, tofu and vegetable dishes are in the $5 range while salmon runs closer to $10. But portions aren’t stingy. Many full plates could serve two people. I ordered the red snapper plate with brown rice and steamed vegetables for $8.50. Co-workers opted for chicken teriyaki ($6.85) and tofu teriyaki ($6.40). At $1.40, a large tea — big enough for two to four people — is a bargain. The snapper was better than expected, moist and without a trace of fishy aroma. A normally food-fussy co-worker extolled the vegetable medley — so much better than any other restaurant’s. His grilled teriyaki chicken exhibited an authentic and tasty char. The tofu, marinated in soy, sherry, mirin and curry, then flame-grilled, was delicious. Japanese curry, chicken katsu, spicy flame-grilled selections, tempura vegetables, udon soup, salads, shrimp, oysters and beef, chicken, fish or tofu burgers round out the menu. Plates come with a choice of white or brown rice and steamed veggies or salad. (Medford Mail Tribune excerpt, 4/7/06)
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Thai Riffic - Newtown Back in 1862, an inner west suburb Newtown was established. Newtown has seen changes in and around its location through a rich and long history of generations of people from all walks of life, having been a hub for entertainment since the late 19th century. Newtown’s central King Street houses hundreds of café, pubs, clubs, fashion stores, cinema, bookstores, and art galleries; but what gives Newtown the name of Eat Street rises from stretches of restaurants from the North to the South of King Street. Foods from around the globe are within easy, comfortable strolls. And here, Thai restaurants are at every corner to catch your eyes. For more than a decade, or 15 years to be precise, Thai Rific Newtown has been a friend in the neighbourhood of Newtown. Over these times we have spent creating and holding a strong bond with our diners through presentation, taste, texture, price and services. We are keen to leave our c u s t o m e r s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s o f u n i q u e combinations of our fusion Thai as well as Thai street food, for every visit they make at Thai Rific Newtown. Our guests enjoy the finest ingredients, sourced from highest quality produce. Every day we welcome diners, old and new, some for a quick lunch break; some for a chill, relaxing dinner, to indulge in the taste of modern Thai cuisine, and free themselves in the ambience of Thai Rific, Newtown.
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Couples on the Brink - Providing Hope, Clarity and Vision for Relationships in Distress... Relationships are our passion. As professionals in the field of couples counseling, we’ve spent the last 15 years fine-tuning our methods of helping couples in moderate to severe emotional distress.
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Gold Coast Jewellers, Custom Diamond Engagement, Wedding Rings + more Contemporary jewellery design – Custom designed pieces for discerning tastes. Inspired by the great eras of design Nick has spent over 15 years in the jewellery industry and has worked with some of the worlds most regarded and creative jewellery masters in the world.
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Greg Writer, The Entrepreneur Mentor | Speaker, Coach, Marketing Expert & Investor Often referred to as “The Entrepreneur’s Best Friend”, Greg has spent the past 15 years coaching thousands of entrepreneurs like yourself to raise capital, market their businesses, and ring the cash register.
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jessecorbeil.ca I’ve got a thing for words, and an even bigger thing for whole sentences. I’ve spent the last 15 years creating content, editing or translating for a long list of clients. From social-media to straight-up journalism, I’ve done it all — and though I grew up on print, I’m as at-ease generating banner ads or…
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Cellfeee - Smartphones, Tablets, Electronic Accessories & More! – Cellfeeee Cellfeee is a premier consumer electronics retailer with over 15 years of experience. We pride ourselves on providing exceptional quality, competitive pricing, and exemplary customer service; when you purchase from Cellfeee you can rest assured your money is well spent. We offer free shipping and 30 day warranties!
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Caleb Goins Artist - Hand Crafted Sculpture Commercial Signage Caleb has spent over 15 years conceptualizing and developing this unique style of “Pierced Metal”. The finished art form, a highly detailed, sleek and dimensional hand crafted sculpture.
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The Schultz Center for Teaching & Leadership | Jacksonville, FL From blackboards to board rooms, The Schultz Center for Teaching & Leadership has spent more than 15 years supporting educators in Jacksonville, Florida.
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LT1 Wiring Harness.Com Summertime is now officially over and the New Year is approaching us. Soon it will be spring again, will you and your project be ready this next year? Fuel Injection Connection dot com has been building GM EFI fuel injection systems for 15 years. There are so many engines and types to choose from, TPI, TBI, LT1, LS1 just to mention a few. Fuel Injection Connection has the harness that you need. All of our wiring harnesses are first rate with ALL NEW GXL grade wire. Why and what is GXL? GXL is a designation for the thickness and type of jacket used to insulate the wire and provide heat protection to the wire. TXL is considered an extra thin jacketed wire with a heat rating of -49*F to 257*F. GXL has the same heat rating but a thicker jacket, almost 20% thicker. GXL also designates that it is a chemically cross linked polyethylene jacket that can withstand the heat and chemicals of an engine compartment. Some manufacturers use “GPT” also called primary wire in their wiring, which only has a rating of 176*F and is not designed to withstand the chemicals or the heat found in an engine bay. GXL costs a little more but the better quality is why we use it. All of our harnesses use a larger than stock wire as well. If GM used 18 gauge wire for a particular system, we use 16, if they used 20 gauge on another, we use 18 and so on, the smaller the number gauge = the larger size wire. Bigger is better when it comes to current flow and voltage loss through a conductor. Delphi is the only product line that we use for our connectors so that all of the connectors are correct fit and meet OEM standards. We only use the crimping methods that are recommended by Delphi. All of our splice locations, for example “1 wire turning into 4” are woven and/or mechanically crimped together and then the splice is soldered, then there is a piece of shrink tubing that is placed over the splice that has a glue sealing agent inside so that when heat is applied to the tube it shrinks the tube and melts the glue that seals the connection and provides wire support at that splice. That splice will NOT come apart. If you are asking questions from other manufacturers of these, ask about what has been listed above and you will see and understand the quality differences in our harness verses the others. Most use a smaller wire and call it “light weight”, and then they use TXL and talk up the “heat rating”. Some use electrical tape to cover the splices. We are NOT here to put down other manufacturers because there are a lot of good quality harnesses being sold out there, but WE ARE HERE to provide you with the BEST fuel injection wiring harness that you can buy for the money. If you are not completely satisfied with the purchase that you make, please return it within 7 days and we will gladly refund your money less shipping. If you have any problems that happen to be a workmanship issue we will take care of you for as long as you own the harness. Another process that we offer is to cover the harness in either 300*F corrugated split tube or 1200*F fiberglass sheath. The split corrugated tube is not the shiny plastic stuff that auto parts stores sell but rather the higher temp covering found on GM cars and trucks and only adds $35. If you want to go full tilt we offer a 1200*F fiberglass woven sheath (not plastic) that the wiring is fed through, each seam is dual bond shrink booted. This offers the most protection and looks the best as well and only adds $80. This covering is a must for rock climbers and sand rails as well as that picture perfect show car. All of our harnesses have been designed by engineers that have spent countless hours of research designing the routing and placement of all of the harnesses sensors and controls so that when you go to put it on your engine, it will fit right and you will be amazed at how easy they are to install. We get calls constantly and people ask why the price is so low? There must be a catch, people have been ripped off in the past by others and are wary. People decide not to make a purchase because it is too low. WOW, maybe we need to raise the price. In time as with everything else the price will have to go up but for right now we are not the largest seller of wiring harnesses and sometimes it’s hard to keep up with the orders but along with that we do not have the overhead that the bigger guys do and that is a benefit to you. We offer a top rate quality harness at a great price. We also offer quantity discounts for purchases of 10 or more. People have asked how our harness stacks up to the big players and I have to honest, the biggest companies sell a cagillion harnesses a year, they have each of the wires microscopically labeled as to the circuit they belong to and they make a good wiring harness but for a 30% higher price. Some will not offer any type of covering service and did we mention they cost more? Try this, purchase one of ours, and purchase one of the others and compare the two and then return the one that you don’t want. Feel free to call and ask questions about you specific application or see our store or web at 303-641-6400 FueLinjectionConnection dot com, Thank you in advance for purchasing our wiring harnesses
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Plan It! Events - Los Angeles, California Plan It! Events founder, Nicole Johnson, is a Los Angeles native who has spent the last 15 years planning events for all types of occasions.
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Hub Management Group Hub Management Group was formed by a group of former executives who have already spent over 15 years in the distressed advisory services business. Although our team has worked on companies up to $1b in revenues, we primarily focus on retail and manufacturing companies with revenues of $500m and smaller.
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Fairfield Repair | Allison Power Systems | Sandy, Oregon An Fairfield Repair service based in Sandy, Oregon, Allison Power Systems has spent the last 15 years repairing hydraulic pumps and gearboxes in both Oregon and Washington. They are committed to quality customer service and w
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Becky Allen – Musings on education policy My name is Becky Allen. I have spent the past 15 years researching and writing about schools. I am co-founder and Chief Analyst at Teacher Tapp, the daily survey and CPD tool. From 2014-2017, I founded and led the highly successful independent research organisation, Education Datalab. I was Professor of Education at UCL Institute of…
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Lauren Carter – writing + editing + music + life Hello! I'm Lauren Carter, a Boston-based wordsmith with a passion for storytelling and more than 15 years of experience creating polished, powerful written communication. I believe that stories are the most powerful tools we have to connect with each other and reveal truth, and I’ve spent my career telling the stories of individuals, artists and…
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Paul Wright - Artist I have spent the last 15 years developing a painterly language through which I seek to capture a vitality beyond the establishment of a mere ‘likeness’ to the subject.
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Brian Kayler - Real Estate Consulting | Real Estate Technology Tools Training Brian Kayler is a Real Estate Consultant based in Boise Idaho focusing on current trends in real estate technology. Having spent over 15 years in real estate management, sales, technology and training he is uniquely qualified to assist offices in the implementation of new tools to increase production. In-depth knowledge of both real estate and…
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Cellfeee - Smartphones, Tablets, Electronic Accessories & More! – Cellfeeee Cellfeee is a premier consumer electronics retailer with over 15 years of experience. We pride ourselves on providing exceptional quality, competitive pricing, and exemplary customer service; when you purchase from Cellfeee you can rest assured your money is well spent. We offer free shipping and 30 day warranties!
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Home | Schrier Auto Body We''ve spent the last 15 years serving our community in Cumberland, IA and the surrounding areas with an unrivaled level of service and auto care. We work with all insurance companies to make your experience with our shop as cost-effective and affordable as possible. You can rely on our experts. Contact Us for a free estimate!
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Oscar Tours Huatuclo - Home | Explore Beautiful Huatuclo Mexico Oscar Velásquez has spent the last 15 years showing people the beauty of Huatuclo, Mexico. Now, let him show it to you as well.
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Pallavi Aiyar Welcome to the world of award-winning journalist, Pallavi Aiyar's work. Pallavi has spent over 15 years reporting from across China, Europe, Indonesia and ..
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Megan Prentice Design Megan Prentice is a Perth-based designer who has spent the past 15 years curating an exciting design portfolio including residential and commercial projects.
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American Mold Products: Mold Removal and Prevention! American Mold Products (AMP) has spent more than 15 years developing and testing a line of eco-friendly products for mold removal and prevention!
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Trick ropers and Gun Spinner Will Roberts for hire Trick ropers and Gun Spinner Will Roberts for hire. Wild West Performer Will Roberts is considered a Modern Day Will Rogers. He has spent the last 15 years traveling the world with his brand of humor and spinning his rope. Recently finished a 4 year run with Cirque du Soleil. Book Will Roberts now!
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DR. MATT HUBBARD Dr. Matt Hubbard, is a passionate, on purpose “HOPE DEALER” that is licensed as a Doctor of Chiropractic. After 15 years of clinical practice and the day to day teaching and application of wellness principles, dr Hubbard has realized people need more than just knowledge. As the owner operator of one of the most successful and state of the art wellness practices on the West Coast, his time is spent in the trenches with families that are simply looking for a better way to better health. He is an exceptional clinician, passionate teacher and great student of behavioral science....
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Patrícia Correia Domingues Patrícia Domingues was born in 1986 in Lisbon, Portugal. At the age of 15 she started her studies in the jewellery field and during her training as a goldsmith, Patricia slowly realised the contrast between the heritage of the old craft and the new materials, or the combination of contemporary techniques and ancient materials creates a tension in the work and leads her to find different images and new meanings. In 2007 she travelled to Spain to study artistic jewellery at the Massana School in Barcelona. There she spent two years studying and a further one year as an exchange student at the Estonian Academy of Arts in Tallinn.
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Cellfeee - Smartphones, Tablets, Electronic Accessories & More! – Cellfeeee Cellfeee is a premier consumer electronics retailer with over 15 years of experience. We pride ourselves on providing exceptional quality, competitive pricing, and exemplary customer service; when you purchase from Cellfeee you can rest assured your money is well spent. We offer free shipping and 30 day warranties!
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The Schultz Center for Teaching & Leadership | Jacksonville, FL From blackboards to board rooms, The Schultz Center for Teaching & Leadership has spent more than 15 years supporting educators in Jacksonville, Florida.
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Cellfeee - Smartphones, Tablets, Electronic Accessories & More! – Cellfeeee Cellfeee is a premier consumer electronics retailer with over 15 years of experience. We pride ourselves on providing exceptional quality, competitive pricing, and exemplary customer service; when you purchase from Cellfeee you can rest assured your money is well spent. We offer free shipping and 30 day warranties!
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HeidiHartwig Heidi spent the first 15 years of her career working as a celebrity, music and fashion photographer shooting - Sean Penn, Krysten Ritter, Emmy Rossum, Mel Brooks, Seth Meyers, Amy Pohler, Mini Arden and more. Returning to film in ‘06, Heidi has since been working as a director internationally, building an impressive and distinct oeuvre of music, art and fashion videos. She has helmed global brand content for clients such as Suzuki, Nikon and Panasonic, and she directed her first feature film, Wonder Valley, in the fall of 2014.
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Becky Allen – Musings on education policy My name is Becky Allen. I have spent the past 15 years researching and writing about schools. I am co-founder and Chief Analyst at Teacher Tapp, the daily survey and CPD tool. From 2014-2017, I founded and led the highly successful independent research organisation, Education Datalab. I was Professor of Education at UCL Institute of…
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Thai Riffic - Newtown Back in 1862, an inner west suburb Newtown was established. Newtown has seen changes in and around its location through a rich and long history of generations of people from all walks of life, having been a hub for entertainment since the late 19th century. Newtown’s central King Street houses hundreds of café, pubs, clubs, fashion stores, cinema, bookstores, and art galleries; but what gives Newtown the name of Eat Street rises from stretches of restaurants from the North to the South of King Street. Foods from around the globe are within easy, comfortable strolls. And here, Thai restaurants are at every corner to catch your eyes. For more than a decade, or 15 years to be precise, Thai Rific Newtown has been a friend in the neighbourhood of Newtown. Over these times we have spent creating and holding a strong bond with our diners through presentation, taste, texture, price and services. We are keen to leave our c u s t o m e r s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e s o f u n i q u e combinations of our fusion Thai as well as Thai street food, for every visit they make at Thai Rific Newtown. Our guests enjoy the finest ingredients, sourced from highest quality produce. Every day we welcome diners, old and new, some for a quick lunch break; some for a chill, relaxing dinner, to indulge in the taste of modern Thai cuisine, and free themselves in the ambience of Thai Rific, Newtown.
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Greg Writer, The Entrepreneur Mentor | Speaker, Coach, Marketing Expert & Investor Often referred to as “The Entrepreneur’s Best Friend”, Greg has spent the past 15 years coaching thousands of entrepreneurs like yourself to raise capital, market their businesses, and ring the cash register.
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American Mold Products: Mold Removal and Prevention! American Mold Products (AMP) has spent more than 15 years developing and testing a line of eco-friendly products for mold removal and prevention!
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Zipline Builder | Skyline Ziplines | British Columbia Skyline Ziplines is the world leader in the Eco-Adventure industry for the design, engineering, construction, and operation of ziplines, suspension bridges, challenge courses and towers. Our team of experts has spent over 15 years building iconic sites all over the world.
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Oscar Tours Huatuclo - Home | Explore Beautiful Huatuclo Mexico Oscar Velásquez has spent the last 15 years showing people the beauty of Huatuclo, Mexico. Now, let him show it to you as well.
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Trick ropers and Gun Spinner Will Roberts for hire Trick ropers and Gun Spinner Will Roberts for hire. Wild West Performer Will Roberts is considered a Modern Day Will Rogers. He has spent the last 15 years traveling the world with his brand of humor and spinning his rope. Recently finished a 4 year run with Cirque du Soleil. Book Will Roberts now!