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TheHolidaySpot: Holidays and Festivals Celebrations, Greeting Cards, Activities, Crafts, Recipes Wallpapers, and more. Celebrate the festivals at TheHolidaySpot, your place to celebrate holidays like christmas, Thanksgiving, valentine''s day, Kwanza, Hanukkah and many more.
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Imamother - Connecting Frum Women Imamother.com is a place where Frum Jewish women and mothers can come to connect, socialize, share advice about raising kids and interacting with our husbands, and talk about issues that are important to us.
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EliYah.com Ministries This is a place for those who are serious about worshiping our Father in Spirit and Truth. May Yahweh be magnified and may He bless all who seek Him.
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Judaica | Judaica Gifts | Jewish Books | Artscroll Books | Jewish Music - Judaica Place Large Judaica Selection | Lowest Prices | In Stock | Ships Today | New Products Daily | Books | Seforim | Gifts | Music | Jewish Jewelry | Artscroll Books
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Temple Beth Sholom - Connecting. Enriching. Inspiring. Temple Beth Sholom is a traditional egalitarian Conservative synagogue located in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Since 1940, we have been committed to serving our congregants and community by making TBS a place where everyone can pray, gather, learn and grow with others.
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Bangalore Mysore Ooty Package, Mysore Ooty Tour Package, Shimla Manali Honeymoon Packages, Shimla Kullu Manali Tour Package, Kashmir Tour Package for Couple Who doesn’t love vacations? We all do. With so many places to visit, it becomes really difficult to choose one or two destinations. Well, nothing to worry because it is when we at Maya Holidays, come to rescue our beloved customers and take all their worry of planning a perfect holiday outing. At Maya Holidays, we offer a great range of family group tour packages in India, providing the best travel agent assistance in Pune. Once you come to us for any kind of consultation, our team takes care of the entire process right from helping you to choose the destination, providing you with best packages, arranging for a stay, pick-up etc. to your arrival back to your home. We literally do it all for you. It is our dedicated and flawless work which has made us- the best Holiday Tours and Travels Company in Pune.At Maya Holidays we not only plan out or provide family tour packages, we also deal in providing alluring honeymoon packages as well. A lot of couples got hitched during this time of the year, and they must want to have a quite outing to spend some quality time with their partner. Well, Maya Holidays is at your service here as well. Just give us a call, tell us your requirements with your budget. Rest of the headache of planning a romantic holiday for you is ours. Just hire us once and you will understand why people rate us as the best company of Honeymoon tours and Travels in Pune. Our management team is best at organizing things needed for a good holiday tour. They make sure everything is covered under the client’s budget and that they have a gala time on the trip. It is this quality of our management team which makes us the best tour operator in Pune. So, try our service once, during the coming holidays and we are sure you won’t be disappointed.
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Независимый израильский сайт / Independant Israeli site / אתר ישראלי עצמאי all about Israel. The history of the Jews of Belarus, Ukraine, the Baltic, Georgia, Europe, USA, Australia and South America. Jewish heritage. Jews in sport.
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Less Than After - Christian Rock Band South Texas Christian Rock band Less Than After exists to see people come to know Jesus. Our heart is lead people to a place where they honestly and sincerely praise the Creator of heaven and earth.
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Custom Design Metal Arts Studio - Bill Roberts, Ornamental Metalsmith. Ocala, Marion County, FLORIDA Specializing in hand forged and cast works of Decorative and Architectural Metal Art. My artistic horizons include not only fine jewelry in gold and sterling but also ''''house jewelry'''': gates, railing, fencing, home & patio furniture, doors, lighting, sculpture and more of mixed metals. Including steels (stainless - mild & damascus), brass, bronze, copper and aluminum. Specializing in one of a kind, and limited edition designs and enjoy working with original designs, as well as collaborating with clients, architects and visual designers on commissions. Bill Roberts, Owner and Operator of Custom Design Metal Arts, with over 25 years, full time, experience in decorative metalwork offers: One on One Classes and Workshops in the Metal Arts & Jewelry. CDMA Metalsmithing and Jewelry Arts School offers one day, three day and weekly classes, intensive workshops and demonstrations as well as private tutoring for the beginner, intermediate, and professional artist. Offers programs in many different types of processes including everything from jewelry fabrication, lost wax casting, wax design, forged jewelry in the jewelry field. As well as forged, fabricated, and/or cast architectural metal work. Just about anything in the metal arts field. Sculpture, lighting, furniture, gates, railings, etc. And Bill also teachs hot glass work, lamp work, beads and small vessels. Based in Ocala, near Orlando, Florida. Open year round. Bill Roberts is available to teach workshops and classes at others Schools in the United States and abroad. ''''The only thing that I enjoy as much as using these processes....is teaching them to others.'''' Bill Roberts.
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Temple Emanu-El | Nevada's oldest Jewish congregation This week's Parsha: Vayetse – the 7th weekly Torah portion in the annual Jewish cycle of Torah reading. This week's parsha is about Jacob and begins with the words, "vayetze ya yakov," meaning Jacob departed. Jacob left Bersheba and set out for Charan. This is a very rich and complex parsha which has been discussed, dissected and debated by rabbinical experts for eons. Starting with: why really, did Jacob leave – and was it true that GOD would bring him back as was promised? If so, why and when? The Rabbis debate why Jacob left. We read that Jacob had "stolen" the birthright of his older twin Esau, so was this a banishment? Some commentators say his mother sent him away and used the excuse that she didn't want him to marry a Caananite woman. But, was she sending him away to save him from some punishment? By contrast, commentator Rabbi Warhaftig says that Jacob left his home to honor the wishes of his father, and out of fear of his brother Esau, who might kill him for the "stealing" of said birthright. So, perhaps Jacob had to leave Bersheba in order to honor the wishes of both his parents. According to the first great Talmudic commentator Rashi: "When a righteous man leaves a place, it makes a mark." We can debate the virtues of Jacob at the time he left, but his departure certainly made a mark on his parents, as it does with most parents when their children leave home. So, was it simply time for him to "leave the nest" and learn fly on his own? Let me read you this portion: "Jacob left Bersheba and set out for Charan. He came upon a certain place and stopped for the night, for the sun had set. And the LORD was standing beside him and He said, 'I am the Lord, the God of your father Abraham and the God of Isaac; the ground on which you are lying I will assign to you and to your offspring. Your descendants shall be as the dust of the earth; you shall spread out to the west and to the east, to the north and to the south. All the families of the earth shall bless themselves by you and your descendants. Remember, I am with you: I will protect you wherever you go and will bring you back to this land. I will not leave you until I have done what I have promised you.'" So, Jacob left first as a fugitive, but then GOD spoke with him, gave him this blessing, and then every place was equally good for him. That is fortuitous, because I think Jacob had work to do. On himself. I believe Jacob had to leave his family in order to mature into a more virtuous person, indeed a "mensch" before he could return home and fulfill the destiny that GOD described for him. Psychologists tell us that the role of our parents is to give us both roots and wings. Jacob was rooted in his home, but when his parents pushed him out of the nest, he was then forced to grow the wings that would develop into his maturing. He had to grow, learn, suffer, and take risks on this journey. His character needed to be tested and refined, his personality molded and transformed, in order to return as a mature person. And boy was Jacob tested! Do some of us need to leave in order to return? Do these life journeys of exploration and even rebellion, lead to discovery and a "return to roots? " Are they one-way trips – or, can they include a round trip ticket, as GOD promised Jacob? So Jacob needed to mature. What is maturity and how does it happen? According to the Torah and Rabbi Dr. Tzvi Hersh Weinreb., an ordained rabbi and psychotherapist, maturity can be associated with the wisdom gained from experience over time, with the development of an approach to life which is practical, informed, and wise. Parshat Vayetze gives us the opportunity to read about the maturation of our patriarch Jacob through two big dreams. Jacob's first dream envisions a ladder firmly rooted into the earth but extending heavenwards. This dream is a majestic glimpse of infinite possibilities, a grand imaginative symbol of the relations between man and God. But then, Jacob gets busy with mundane affairs, "scorched by heat all day, and freezing at night." Jacob is busy with business, with profit, with material matters, dealing with deceit and disappointment at many turns. Later Jacob dreams again, but this dream is much more practical. He see goats mating "with the flock which were streaked, speckled, and mottled." This dream gives Jacob ideas on how to enhance the business of goat breeding and it ultimately works very well. In this second dream, the angels tells Jacob it is now time to "leave this land and return to his native land." It is time for him to become mature in one sense. It is time for him to reclaim his first dream and to do all he can to make that dream real. He learns that he must not surrender to just mundane dreams, abandoning old ideals. He learns he can return to dream of his youth. He also learns that not only can he go home again, he must go home again! A return to roots, I ask? This is the eternal lesson for the Jewish people. According to Rabbi Weinreb, the dreams of the diaspora are apt to be mundane and shortsighted but the dreams of the Land of Israel are noble dreams, exalted dreams, and dreams which ultimately connect us to heaven. The Land of Israel is the land of our dreams and it is also our home and roots. Jacob's dream comes true. God told him he would return and that that place would be Israel. In 1948 the land of Israel declares itself a state and a home, a safe haven for all Jews seeking refuge. What is particularly interesting to me is that that was 70 years ago. Seventy, which has the number seven in it, is an important number to Jews, with both noble and mystical implications. According to the Tanakh, "the days of our years are three score years and ten (70), or if reason of strength, four score years (80)… and it is speedily gone, and we fly away." At 70, Benjamin Franklin was helping to draft the U.S. Constitution. Winston Churchill was 70 years old in 1945 when he led the United Kingdom to victory in World War II. Israel's Golda Meir became prime minister of Israel at age 70. So, at 70 years for a person, there should be some maturity, plus the opportunity to stop the daily rigors of work, start to focus on other opportunities and reclaim some of the dreams of our youth. It does not mean the departure of life, if we are lucky, but of the beginning of a new chapter in life. A re-rooting. As with Israel, I was also born in 1948 and turn 70 this week. Jacob's journey has reminded me a bit of mine. I didn't physically leave home until after college, but I left earlier in other ways. In my youth, I didn't like being Jewish. For me, it was all about what we could not do, eat, look like, enjoy. My mother was reared Orthodox in NYC and told us horrible stories of how difficult it was being Jewish there. As a child, her older sister, my tante Millie was hit on the back of her head with a hammer by a kid who called her a "dirty Jew." I watched for the rest of her years how my aunt lived with blindness and a whole host of other maladies brought on by this attack. Who, I asked myself, would want to be Jewish? We here in Reno Nevada (and before that in northern California) did not have much of a Jewish community. So I, as the eldest child in the family, felt singled out in school and in the neighborhood. We didn't get to celebrate Christmas (even though one XMAS eve my sister and I put out stockings anyway, hoping for Santa. It didn't happen.) It was embarrassing to be hauled out of school the first two days of Rosh Hashana and on Yom Kippur. We had to observe and fast. I do remember my mother making us stay in the car with her one Yom Kippur afternoon, however, as she listened to the World Series to see how her beloved Yankees were doing. We were sworn to secrecy. Not sure if it was about doing this on Yom Kippur or that she was rooting for the Yankees. Vayetze – I departed. There are different ways to depart – geographically, as Jacob did, and as the Amish kids do, for example. They leave at age 18 for a year to explore the world of the Others. Some return and some do not. It's an anguishing year for their frightened parents. Yet other youth depart by rebelling from their family's beliefs, values, and customs. That's more of how I departed. At the age of about 17, when I started college, I rejected my Jewish birthright, and left my parents' world to explore the world outside Judaism. I can only imagine my parents' fear and confusion, and I vividly remember huge, loud ugly family arguments. Who would choose to be Jewish, I would repeatedly ask myself. I was learning to grow wings and fly in other directions, I guess. Life went on. Until recently, I worked very hard as a single mother, self-employed, trying to help my friends and community, taking care of my parents when that time came, and working through many mundane things. Important things. Busy things. But giving little time for self- or life-reflection or thoughts about religion or Judaism. Like with Jacob, my work was "scorched by day and freezing by night." Well, not literally, but figuratively. And then things changed. I aged to the point where I could stop working at that level and could start to reap a bit of what I had sown, a maturation of a sort. What a blessing! Many people don't get to live this long or get to this point of freedom and comfort. It is now a time for gratitude and for reflection. And maybe something else. Perhaps it is a time to return home. A time to look back at the dreams of my youth and get them fulfilled. A time to achieve both levels of maturity, according to Rabbi Weinreb. A time to reclaim my birthright and return to certain things. We learn in Torah about the cycles of life, and when we leave some thing or some place, and then return, we are not the same as when we left. This cycle is more like a spiral which winds around an axis, like ivy growing up a tree. Its radius may be constant or not. Maybe our birthright acts like this axis, around which we can grow and change, leave and return. Kind of like a twisting, ascending ladder? On this journey around our axis, do we sometimes have to move backward in order to move forward? Going backwards might give us time to expand our knowledge and experiences, like Jacob did, and allow us to return more mature, experienced, and eager to get back to our core. Jacob knew he would be returning home. I did not. So what does this parsha mean for so many Jews who have left their roots and given up their birthrights? Like for me, maybe it is never too late to get back to their core. Israel certainly is a symbol of such return – to a homeland and a way of life. But for us Jews not in Israel, right here in the U.S., it means we need to find other ways to reconnect to our Jewish cores and reclaim our birthrights. It is not easy being Jews here and with the growing anti-Semitism locally and worldwide, it might even be dangerous. But there is great beauty in reclaiming. It means there has been thought and study and certain decision-making not required of us when we were children. I think there is a place for Jews like me, maybe like you, who are trying to reclaim their birthright and forge a Jewish life which honors and respects our traditions and purpose. We were "given" the 10 Commandments but with that (and many other commandments) we were given many responsibilities. We Jews deal with a number of mitzvahs. A mitzvah is both a commandment and a good deed. I love that dual meaning. I am suggesting that we as Jews work harder to be role models of civility and citizenship in this contentious world. We should honor our mitzvahs by being more mindful of what we think, do, speak and eat. We should be more grateful for all the beauty in our world and give thanks for all our gifts. We should be as generous as we can, in whatever ways we can, whether it be with money, time, or simply listening. According to the Dalai Lama, happiness comes from compassion, and when we are compassionate we turn from takers to givers. I also believe we should speak up against that which is evil, ugly, unfair, and cruel. We need to do mitzvahs by taking great care of our children, our friends and family, our communities and our environment. What a grand mark we would be making then! And lastly, we as Jews should be more accepting of other Jews and the variety of ways they choose to be Jews. When I was in Israel many years ago, I saw that Jews of all kinds live together, because they have a purpose that overrides their differences: survival. There are orthodox and ultra-orthodox Jews and there are also holocaust-surviving Jews who are actually atheists. Yes they argue and disagree, but they still know who they are and what their core is. Like in Israel, we Jews here need to accept the differences among ourselves. Rabbi Fasman tells us that when it comes down to it, Jews around the world and across time are just one big family. One big dysfunctional family. We need to both endure and embrace those big family dinners with the crazy sister and the drunken uncle. I have become very proud of my heritage – and very grateful I don't actually have to convert! Simply because of my birthright, I was born Jewish, and aren't I lucky. Yes, I get to be Jewish. I get to struggle with God, which is the definition of the word Israel, and something which I do regularly. I get to doubt the existence of God, wonder about what, if anything is His role and meaning. I get to yell at him when bad things happen to good people, but mostly I get to thank him regularly for all that is beautiful and magical in my life. My gratitude is huge. I have many people to thank for putting up with me on my journey, some for many years, and some for a shorter time. My teachers and friends have been loving and patient and have successfully hidden their rolled eyes with some of my Hebrew struggles. Like Jacob, maybe I had to depart my roots, "fly the coop," and build some wings in order to mature enough to come home. Maybe that is the responsibility for all of us Jews. So, to mommy and daddy, I hope I have made you proud. May you rest in peace, knowing you did what you could to give me roots and wings – and please know: "Ahni babayit." "Ich bin zu hoize." I just might be home.
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Fox&Fish The Little Jewish Print Shop. A Place to get art for children's rooms and decor with a Jewish vibe. Also carrying Jewish and Yiddish clothing and onesies.
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Jewish Wedding Blog -Jewish Wedding Blog Jewish Wedding Blog is a place for us to share different couples’ stories and to inspire creative and beautiful weddings. All with a Jewish twist.
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Phil Jason Reviews Books | the place to find his reviews and other writings Welcome to Book Review Central! The main focus of this site is to call attention to noteworthy books by Florida authors, particularly those working in SW Florida. From time to time, I post writer profiles, information about book events, writers' conferences, workshops, and related happenings in the area.    Another major interest is reviews of books on Jewish…
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Our Mediterranean Paradox An antidote to the commonly held myths of Israel as dangerous place to live as well as exploring what I understand it means to be a secular but committed Jew
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This Book Has Balls by Michael Rapaport In 1979, nine-year-old Michael Rapaport decided he was going to do whatever it took to be a pro baller. He practiced and practiced, but by the time he was fifteen, he realized there was no place for a slow, white Jewish kid in the NBA. So he found another way to channel his sports obsession: talking trash.   In This Book Has Balls, Rapaport shares his loud, sometimes in the foul lane, but *always right* rants about everything on his mind including: why LeBron will never be like Mike, how Tiger can get his groove back (and it has nothing to do with his swing), what Mike Tyson can teach us about inner peace, and why Mad Shaming needs to stop.   He also takes plenty of time outs to talk about his sports heroes, his childhood infatuation with Mary Lou Retton, his favorite Real Housewives, the All-Time Greatest Stickmen, and the skinny jeanification of sports. You might not agree with everything in here, but you can’t deny that Rapaport has plenty to say.
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GetJewishTexts | Ready-to-print Jewish/Hebrew texts GetJewishTexts is your place for free, ready-to-print sheets of tefilos, prayers, brachos and other Jewish / Hebrew texts
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Homepage - Baruch Nachshon Jewish Art from Hebron, Israel Wellcome to Baruch Nachshon Oficial WebSite - Jewish Art from the Holy city of Hebron Israel Art and Spirit in the same place, video and more..
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Jewish Education Center Of Cleveland The Jewish Education Center of Cleveland directs the continuity work of the Jewish Community Federation of Cleveland and administers the multi-million dollar Fund for the Jewish Future, the endowment that continues to support continuity projects.
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Ariel Ministries | Ariel Ministries exists in order to evangelize Jewish people and to disciple Jewish and Gentile believers through intensive Bible teaching from a Jewish perspective.
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Lavi Furniture - Synagogue Furniture Lavi, the inspired source for synagogue interiors, is the place where we Envision, Design and Build your Synagogue.We`ve come a long way since our start in the early 1960’s.Today we`re the undisputed leader in supplying synagogue furniture and furnishings for synagogues and Jewish centers.
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Hebrew School Online | Online Jewish Learning, Bar Mitzvah Lessons The Jewish Online School offers Bar Mitzvah Lessons Online and Jewish Learning Online. Also, It’s a great place to send your child for Hebrew school online.
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Washington Memorial Park Cemetery, Mt. Sinai, NY For over half a century, Washington Memorial Park has been serving the needs of families from Long Island and the entire New York Metropolitan Area. All of us here have been dedicated to making your most difficult times, less difficult.
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Portland Monthly Portland Monthly chronicles, challenges, and celebrates one of America’s most innovative cities, inspiring readers to explore and shape the vibrant metropolis we call home.
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TheHolidaySpot: Holidays and Festivals Celebrations, Greeting Cards, Activities, Crafts, Recipes Wallpapers, and more. Celebrate the festivals at TheHolidaySpot, your place to celebrate holidays like christmas, Thanksgiving, valentine''s day, Kwanza, Hanukkah and many more.
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Imamother - Connecting Frum Women Imamother.com is a place where Frum Jewish women and mothers can come to connect, socialize, share advice about raising kids and interacting with our husbands, and talk about issues that are important to us.
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Judaica | Judaica Gifts | Jewish Books | Artscroll Books | Jewish Music - Judaica Place Large Judaica Selection | Lowest Prices | In Stock | Ships Today | New Products Daily | Books | Seforim | Gifts | Music | Jewish Jewelry | Artscroll Books
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Osher Marin Jewish Community Center The Osher Marin Jewish Community Center is a place where people can enhance their lives through various activities that reflect the unique values of Jewish history and culture. We invite the entire community to take advantage of our award-winning pools and state-of-the-art fitness center, family-friendly environment, stimulating educational and cultural programs, award-winning early child education center, summer day camps, and so much more.
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EliYah.com Ministries This is a place for those who are serious about worshiping our Father in Spirit and Truth. May Yahweh be magnified and may He bless all who seek Him.
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AJC New England | AJC AJC New England connects our community with AJC’s global advocacy work to enhance the well-being of the Jewish people and Israel. Our access to diplomats, elected officials, and interfaith leaders at the local level advances AJC’s broader priorities: combating anti-Semitism, promoting Israel’s place in the world, and countering the spread of radicalism and extremism.
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Beth Goyim Messianic Congregation. Messianic NJ NY, Messianic Radio, Messianic TV, Free Messianic Internet, Messianic Video, Service Jew and Gentile as one in Messiah Yeshua Beth Goyim Messianic Congregation A Messianic Jewish Congregation where Jew and Gentile meet as one people. Messianic Shabbat Services. Messianic Bible study. Located in New Jersey near New York. Messianic Jewish audio and videos available, If you are looking for a solid teaching ministry, then you have found a home. If you just looking for fluff and stuff this is not your place. Messianic Torah Time Bible Study Tuesday 7-9:30PM. Prayer Night Thursday 7-9PM,Shabbat “Saturday” Service 11AM EDT. Messianic thought, Messianic life, following the Messiah Yeshua and the Messianic Jewish Disciples. Christian Jews. Christian+Jew, Messianic radio wtrcradio.com
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Assisted Living in Beverly Hills and Los Angeles, Retirement Communities in Los Angeles, Assisted Living in LA, Senior Living Los Angeles, Jewish Assisted Living - Beverly Hills Carmel Elegant senior assisted and independent living in Beverly Hills. Enjoy elegant assisted living in one of the finest retirement communities in Los Angeles.
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index This site is not about evangelizing non-Christians and is about spreading the Truth about the Holy Bible. We strive to bring fresh insight and commentary on the study of God's Word.
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DISCIPLES OF YESHUWA'', -the online information centre for disciples of Yeshuwa'', Jesus, Christ, Antichrist, false apostle paul, eternal life, forgiveness of sins, life, gospel
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Fairview Monument | Elmhurst, PA | Monuments, Jewish Memorials, Etchings, Urns, Mausoleums Fairview Monument has memorials, gravestones, headstones, flat markers, flush markers, bronze markers, or upright stones to identify the resting place of a
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Jewish Artist Center / Wood, Glass and Metal Studio in Israel A place to build, inspire and grow. Carpentry, carving, glass blowing, and metal. Artist opportunities, courses, workshops, art gallery, and tours.
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Unique Invitations and Scroll Invitations by Majestic Invites in New York, USA. Unique invitations, wedding invitations, scroll invitations, designer, engagements, birthdays, bar-mitzvahs, bat-mitzvahs and other special occasions
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Messianic Jewish Dating | Find Messianic Singles, Messianic Jewish Online Dating Wanna locate Messianic Jewish singles? Only interested in Messianic dating? Then you are at the right place. We can help locate Messianic singles that meet your match!, Messianic Jewish Dating
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Jewish Fiction .net :: Current Issue Jewish Fiction .net came into being with the recognition of the exciting potential of online technology, and the decision to harness this potential to create a virtual home for Jewish fiction from around the world. We publish Jewish stories, Jewish novels, Jewish novellas, Jewish fiction, Jewish literature, from many different countries around the world, globally and internationally. We publish Israeli fiction, Hebrew fiction, Yiddish fiction, Ladino fiction, and fiction that is Spanish Jewish, Latin American Jewish, Argentinian Jewish, Russian Jewish, French Jewish, Serbian Jewish, Croatian Jewish, English Jewish, Romanian Jewish, Turkish Jewish, Canadian Jewish, British Jewish, Australian Jewish, and American Jewish. Every story and every novel or novella has its special place in our journal. Readers love our journal and we help contribute to increasing reading and readership internationally. We have published Jewish stories, novels, and novellas originally written in Spanish, Russian, French, Serbian, Croatian, Romanian, Turkish, Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and English. We are honoured to have published such wonderful writers as A.B. Yehoshua, Yehoshua, Elie Wiesel, Wiesel, Aharon Appelfeld, Appelfeld, S.Y. Agnon, Agnon, Orly Castel-Bloom, Castel-Bloom, Nava Semel, Semel, Steve Stern, Nessa Rapoport, Abraham Karpinovich, Lara Vapnyar, Amir Gutfreund, Ruth Almog, Thane Rosenbaum, Alicia Steimberg, Norman Manea, Ann Birstein, Gabriel Josipovici, Avirama Golan, Mario Levi, Marcelo Birmajer, Judith Rotem, Shahar Bram, Gordana Kuic, Natan Zach, Clive Sinclair, Savyon Liebrecht, Grigory Kanovich, Yoram Kaniuk, Kaniuk, Chava Rosenfarb, Rosenfarb, Nora Gold, Avshalom Kaveh, Varda Fiszbein, Eleanor Stanford, Assaf Gavron, Gerald Shapiro, Yehudit Hendel, Karin Heskia, Esther Orner, Eleanor Stanford. As the editor of Jewish Fiction .net, I see this journal as a means to bring together in one place first-rate Jewish fiction from many different countries, thus allowing us all to experience simultaneously the rich diversity that exists within Jewish culture and the core elements that unite us. As a Zionist, I am also committed to trying to build a bridge, and a dialogue, between Jewish writers in Israel and the Diaspora. Finally, I hope that Jewish Fiction .net will serve as a vehicle for fostering new writing and new writers of talent. We at Jewish Fiction .net are very excited about the potential of this journal to accomplish these goals, as well as to help link Jewish writers with each other and with their readers. As a web-based literary journal, we look forward to many years of publishing excellent fiction (either written in, or translated into, English) by both established and emerging writers dealing with Jewish themes, concerns, and aspirations. And we are delighted to be able to connect so directly and immediately with our readers.
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Judaica Mall - Featuring 3000 Jewish Gifts And Unique Judaica Judaica Mall is the place for finding these special Jewish gifts you have been searching for. Our Judaica shop feature over 3000 unique products, Mezuzah, Hanukkah gifts, Candlesticks and more.
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Welcome! The Western New York Jewish guide, meeting place, forum & calendar.
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nav-icon--fitness The JCC Denver is a place for Fitness, Family, and Arts. Our mission is to build community, built in Jewish values, where everyone is welcome.
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San Francisco Jewish Film Festival | Jewish Film Institute The San Francisco Jewish Film Festival (SFJFF) is the first and largest festival of its kind and the leader in the presentation and curation of new film and media exploring the complexities of global Jewish life. The 38th SF Jewish Film Festival takes place July 19 – August 5, 2018.
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Hebrew High School of New England | We are a community, a place of caring and respect for God and humanity, a place of responsibility, educational excellence and love of learning. Hebrew High School of New England is far more than an educational institution. We are a community of young men and women from across the Jewish denominational spectrum, working together to develop knowledge, values, and leadership skills.
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Welcome to the St. Paul JCC The St. Paul JCC is a place where individuals, families, and communities come together for Jewish culture, child care, fitness, recreation and socializing.
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Temple Israel | Mineapolis, MN Temple Israel is a welcoming and accessible place for worship, for lifelong learning, for celebration and for gathering. Temple Israel is a leader in our community and promotes strong bonds between our Jewish and non-Jewish communities at-large.
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Kosher Recipes and Jewish Table Settings | Jewish Hostess Kosher Recipes and Table Decor Ideas All At Your Fingertips! Kosher Recipes and Table Settings for all occasions. Jewish Holiday Tradition with a Dash of Panache
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2018 Tour de Fun | St. Louis MO 8/26/18 | St. Louis Kids Event | Childrens' Carnival at JCC The Tour de Fun is a one day carnival for kids that takes place each summer at the St. Louis Jewish Community Center.
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A Chabad school is NOT a safe place for Jewish children Learn the truth about Chabad, a religious cult and a criminal organization that is destroying the Jewish People from within.
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Phyllis Chesler Phyllis Chesler is an Emerita Professor of Psychology at City University of New York. She is a best-selling author, a legendary feminist leader, a retired psychotherapist and expert courtroom witness. She has lectured and organized political, legal, religious, and human rights campaigns in the United States, Canada, Europe, Israel, and the Far East. Her work has been translated into many European languages and into Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Hebrew. Dr. Chesler is a co-founder of the Association for Women in Psychology (1969), The National Women's Health Network (1974), and The International Committee for Women of the Wall (1989). She is a Shillman-Ginsburg Fellow at The Middle East Forum, and a fellow at the Institute for the Study of Global Anti-Semitism and Policy (ISGAP).
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Sholem Jewish Community is based out of Los Angeles A meeting place for Jewish and multicultural families in Los Angeles. Sholem fosters a humanistic approach to Jewish learning and culture.
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FJCC | Flemington Jewish Community Center The Flemington Jewish Community Center, a conservative synagogue in Flemington, New Jersey, welcomes all to attend religious services and participate in our social programs. We enjoy being a place where members form long-lasting friendships, learn from each other, and celebrate the joy of being Jewish.
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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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Right From the Hip | Observations & Opinions | Politics, Law & Current Events In which our Vagabond Seeks a City in Motion. It is early Saturday evening, the doors are open, the coffee house beckons. I enter into a crowd – young and old, in pairs, groups and singles, are standing in line, checking their phones, reviewing the menu board, sitting astride chairs, leaning on counters, stirring their mugs, contemplating their next move, and conversing with animation and verve. After securing a mug of herbal orange blossom tea and plain pound cake (something different and contemplative), no booths are available. I occupy a seat at a long, central bench and table with the other patrons. Immediately next to me sits a young couple, face to face, wearing various shades of blue denim (she also sports a floppy, soft-brim robin egg blue hat), who have stopped talking to enjoy one of the house's calorie-generous desserts. Their desserts are laden with strawberries, fresh, fragrant, jumbo-sized, strawberries, tumbling generously, abundantly, off the dessert cakes which shyly peek out underneath. These are six-dollar desserts, suitable for serious courtship. The whipped cream had disappeared already. Their strawberries are not shy - they flaunt their bright deep red strawberry color, their inviting texture, they flirt their white edges. These strawberries profligately cast about their unmistakable ripe fragrance. Indeed, the fragrance demands attention. For an unmeasured moment, these strawberries own the bench and my perceptions – my other senses have quietly stepped down and wait for the strawberry fragrance to master the stage, to take its bows, to aromatically speak for strawberries everywhere. Each strawberry is joined with all strawberries - connected in a web of genetic code, agricultural pedigree, sense perception and idea. The smell, the fragrance and appearance of these strawberries, and for a distinct slice of time, the connected picture, the taste, the idea of many strawberries, all strawberries, as an adjective as well as a noun, occupy my thoughts. If there had been no name for strawberries ever given, I would have conjured a name for them, then and there. Strawberries are versatile. We can give Latin names to their various genus, Fragaria. We may note that each apparent achene, or seed, on the outside is actually one of the ovaries of the flower, with a seed inside it, perhaps explaining why the couple beside me ordered them for dessert. Philosophers might debate whether or not there exists a non-physical essence of strawberry, an ideal Platonic form of strawberry, or be skeptical that we could ever be sure that what we perceive as strawberry was reliable. Mischievous children have picked them to throw at each other. We can observe them on wild vines, clip, transplant and cultivate them in our gardens, study what combination of sun and water gives them the greatest growth and sweetest flavor, pick them gingerly to set at our breakfast table, eat them singly or in groups in little morning fruit bowls. We have financed agri-businesses to grow them in vast number, might someday sell strawberry futures on a commodities exchange, have hired agricultural workers to pick them in mass quantity. Graduate students in economics might measure the economic impact of establishing a minimum wage for strawberry pickers, while employers make certain their immigration papers are in order. We can contest the right of strawberry pickers to go on strike, and use courtrooms to enjoin secondary strikes by other fruit pickers. Independent truck drivers can transport them in refrigerated, insured freight carriers at free-on-board rates. District managers of supermarket chains can offer them for retail sale in little green baskets at trendy supergrocers which have memorable advertising logos and trained-to-be-friendly checkout people, and serve them in coffee houses at upscale prices. In laboratories we can measure their molecular carbon chains, forensically identify them with gas and mass chromatography, and fit them into biochemical schema of study. We can mash them into lipstick or cream for purposes of skin and beauty enhancement, advertised by slender, photogenic models. We can handwash our dirty dishes in our neglected kitchen sinks, or shampoo our thinning hair with liquid soaps flavored with them. No small series of achievements, for an aggregate accessory fruit. But we have strawberries as descriptors also, as concepts and additions to the language in which we think and speak and describe, in which we write poetry and love sonnets. They act as triggers or stimulants, to remind us of things, things we may want to remember. I bend my head over my tea and soak a piece of my cake into my orange-blossom tea. But these strawberries are not yet done their work. The fragrances of my coffee-house neighbors' strawberries trigger vivid memories. A series of pictures is summoned up, interior miniatures composing a sequenced event in my life, a road trip of an altogether different sort. Gently unfaded, affectionately insistent, parading in silence one at a time yet making a whole, a set of gliding images from the past paints over my vision. ____________________ My wife, Erma, and I were dating, and engaged. I was just 32. At the time, she was just 23 years of age, not quite 5'2" unless she stood on her tiptoes (she was generous in describing her height on various health and application forms), slender, lithe, with quick, athletic reflexes, light brown hair never allowed to grow long, a bright upturned face full of energy, green-grey eyes that were never quite the same shade from day to day, and a stand-your-ground manner suitable for the youngest child who had five older brothers. Erma had been a Christian since her experiences as a teenager in church youth group, and had been well taught by a beloved senior pastor, Reverend Pusey. She could field a ground ball or steal third base, tell every player on the Philadelphia Flyers in 1977 (she still had a Bobby Clark doll) or quote scripture by memory, intelligently and to the point under discussion. She was a secretary at DuPont, a job she had held since the day after she graduated from high school. There was emotional trauma in her childhood, including a miserable relationship with her father (the misery shared by her brothers and sister), and a tragic gun accident which took the life of one of her brothers, after her father irresponsibly brought home a rifle and gave it to his children without supervision or safety instruction. The collapse of the family unit brought economic difficulties. Erma bubbled over with hope and energy – she was ready to wrestle wildcats, hid her fears, counted her pennies, and laughed loudly and easily. Erma pooled shock, grief, loss and anger in reservoirs of her soul. She introduced herself to a pair of young men attending a Christian singles conference in Sandy Cove, Maryland, one of whom was me, because she recognized the church my friend Dave had announced at the beginning of the conference, and that was enough of a conversational opening for her. We took a trip to North Carolina, to visit her brother Noel, the only one of her family to graduate from college. Noel was a marketing manager for a large agricultural chemicals company, and he was moved about the country every few years. For several years he had lived near Research Triangle Park outside Raleigh. Our trip was a happy one; we packed up Erma's silver Honda Civic, years old but running like a Swiss watch, and toodled down the highway one Monday in the early summer. Life was opening up. My disorderly life, spread across two coasts, was moving in a good direction. Erma, deeply emotionally cautious, was hoping that the world held good things as well. After staying the first night with friends in Virginia, we arrived after a day of easy driving at Noel's, still single. As always, he was a gracious host, owner of a sensible but well-maintained home. His practice of buying and selling homes as he was transferred around the company proved to be economically rewarding. I don't know whether he liked his job in its own right, but years later when he was offered a retirement package at the age of 50, he took it, and to my knowledge, has never worked 9-5 job since. Noel was working 9-5 when we arrived though, so during the day we were left to our own devices around Raleigh, Chapel Hill, Durham and the surrounding areas. Open to guidebook suggestions, we went to the North Carolina Botanical Gardens in Chapel HiIl. We walked the displays of native plants, violet-purple iris, milkweed, wood anemone, maidenhair ferns, wild indigo, water-plaintains, bluestars. The Gardens have a display of carnivorous plants, pitcher plants, Venus fly traps, along with their orchids and lilies. I found a very tiny spider among the carnivorous plant displays, picked him up with a leaf, and deposited him into a Venus fly-trap, which promptly, as advertised, closed its tender petals. The wispy trigger hairs of the plant quite quickly formed a bars-of-a-jail cell effect as the plant's leaves closed reflexively – I could see the tiny spider, looking out, as forlorn and puzzled as any prisoner would be. At the time, I had nothing to say to him, and regretted somewhat causing his fate. With the advantages of hindsight and advancing years, today, I might encourage him with words of sympathy – "you and me both, brother," a final salute, issued nunc pro tunc. Erma and I went to see a movie in the evening. Mr. Hulot's Holiday. Monsier Hulot, the French actor Jacques Tati, "decides to vacation at a beautiful seaside, resort. Rest and relaxation don't last long, given the gangly gent's penchant for ridiculous antics." Released in 1954, you have to be in the right mood to see this slapstick farce. Erma and I were nearly alone in the theater, it was a Tuesday evening. We were in the mood – I laughed hard. Erma laughed uproariously, full volume. I never heard anyone laugh so hard – her cackles filled the theater – no nook or cranny escaped the piercing volume of her laughter. Many times. How can you not fall in love with a girl like that? If anyone else was in the theater at all (maybe one other couple), they certainly knew they weren't alone. The next day, we visited Duke University in Durham. The lawns and grounds were green, immaculate, carefully maintained; the buildings, the Chapel, all were elite-college campus beautiful. I daresay visiting parents longed to expend vast sums of money to send their children there. After walking around for several hours, near the end of the day, we found a small restaurant/coffee-shop. Because of the day and hour we were again nearly alone. The shop featured a strawberry desert, loaded with whipped cream. They were the freshest, sweetest, most flagrantly-and-fragrantly-delicious strawberries imaginable. It was a lifetime trophy desert. The taste, the aroma of the strawberries filled our noses, our palates, our tongues – our sweet, ripe taste buds went off like bells. Erma was just swooning with joy. It seemed as if we just sat and ate for hours (which could not possibly be true), as if the strawberry dessert stopped local time to go on forever. These strawberries had royal, domestic, South American and continental antecedents. According to Wikipedia, the garden strawberry was first grown or bred in Brittany, France in the 1750s by crossing Fragaria Virginia from eastern North America with Fragaria Chiloenses, brought from Chile. The French began harvesting wild strawberries in the 14th century. Strawberries were added to cream in the Court of King Henry VIII. What can I add to that? World production of strawberries is in excess of nine million tons, and not a strawberry too many. After we had spent a few days at Noel's, we drove east to go to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. The Outer Banks are a resort area, but wilder, less cultivated than the homogenized resort areas one sometimes visits. We rented two separate hotel rooms to stay in the area around Kitty Hawk. I had sexual relationships prior to becoming a Christian. Erma had many dating relationships, but had learned her sexual ethics as a teenager at a conservative, evangelical church and drew a line she believed in. We did not sleep together on that trip. It helped to make our dating relationship simple, clean, pure, uncomplicated. (Our physical relationship began on our honeymoon - when Erma exited the bathroom and entered our bedroom the evening of our 11 a.m. wedding in Bear, Delaware. We had driven to a bed and breakfast in Milford, New Jersey, Linda and Rob Castagna's Chestnut Hill on the Delaware River. Looking at the teddy-bear decorated bed and room in the honeymoon suite and at me, Erma asked, "do you think we should pray?" I answered, "I already have.") But that wedding ceremony day was still in our distance, like a beckoning city on a hill. The next day on our excursion to North Carolina, we traipsed about on the Kitty Hawk beach. It was not yet warm enough for swimming; the beaches were nearly empty. I discovered that small fish, mullets or small kingfish, filled some of the deeper surf pools and beach ponds left by retreating waves. There is a picture of me taken by Erma, bending over at the waist, looking down, with my pants rolled up as I stood in the middle of one of these surf pools, wearing a plaid shirt with the sleeves rolled up, trying to catch little silver fish with my bared, cupped hands. Trying to catch small fish by hand was a predictably unsuccessful effort, but loads of fun to try. I looked perfectly ridiculous, and we were perfectly happy. On our trip back in the silver Honda Civic from North Carolina, driving north to Wilmington and Phoenixville, we sang hymns on the road. Neither Erma or I have any musical talent at all - neither of us can carry a melody. But there was no music critic in the car, no one to be distressed. We sang "Fairest Lord Jesus," in toneless acapella - it fit our mood and excursion well. _______________________ I was interrupted in my coffee-house reveries by a young man, of Asian background, whose face I recognized, but whose name I didn't know. He had been listening to me a previous week, when I was proclaiming out loud verses from the Book of Revelation, the lake of fire verses, the judgment verses, on a previous morning when the coffee house was much emptier than it was that Saturday evening. His interruption lead into quite an extended discussion, carried out over three locations in the coffee house. "Hello," he said. I responded with my own 'hello.' "I saw you here the other week. You were reading out loud. I was standing over there" – he indicated where he had been standing when I had my brief confrontation with the coffee house manager, Jen, over reading Bible verses out loud. I nodded 'yes' and offered my hand and introduced myself. "My name is Qi," he introduced himself with a small but perceptible bob of the head. His English was good, with a slight British accent. Qi looked to be in his early twenties, fifty years younger than I. His hair was black parted on one side, his chin and cheeks clean-shaven, his eyes brown, his lashes somewhat long, his build slim, probably 5' 10" in height and weighing 140 or 150 pounds, wearing blue jeans and a neat maroon pullover jersey. His facial expression was respectful, intelligent and friendly. "I wanted to ask you. Why were you reading out loud? And why did you choose those verses?" I had to think to recreate my thoughts and mood the previous week. "I can't answer that easily. God moves inside me without giving me explanations. Why those verses? I felt like I wanted to get somewhere - we ought to get somewhere. I saw those verses on the path." "I heard what you said to the manager. The owner doesn't mind?" His expression suggested that people reading out loud in a coffee house crossed a line in the culture he came from. "No," I told him, "the owner doesn't mind." We paused our conversation for a moment, so Qi could find a way around the bench and people to squeeze in opposite me. He was sitting right next to the strawberry-eating couple, also seated across each other on the bench, as I was. "Do you work, or are you a student?" I asked. Qi explained his background to me, responding to my questions. He was 23 years old, a graduate student seeking a Master's degree in statistics from the graduate department of a nearby university. He was an exchange student, a resident of China, whose family came from near Beijing. Much of his life was not spent in China however. His father was an investment banker, and they spent a number of years in different countries and cities, including London, where he learned as a teenager to speak English well, and learned his slight but discernible British accent. He was one of three children, and had two sisters, one older, who was married and living near Shanghai, and one considerably younger sister, who was living at home near Beijing, where his parents had returned. I asked him about China's one-child policy and he explained that his father had sufficient resources to obtain relief from the rule. Since the first child in the family was a daughter, apparently this exception was not difficult to obtain with respect to Qi. Having official sanction for having a third child was more difficult, but by then his father had political and economic connections. By this time the strawberry dessert-eating couple had left. Their seats were taken by others so it wasn't always easy to conduct our conversation. The coffee house was noisy, there was music in the background and people were sliding behind us at times to reach seats further down the long benches on which Qi and I were seated. When I paused my deposition-like questions, I asked if he attended any local church. He did, he explained, and had been for about a year. "What did you think when I read those verses out loud?" I asked. "How did you react?" "I like hearing the Book of Revelation read aloud. It doesn't often get read out loud. When you hear a sermon, somebody tells you what to think about it. There's always a doctrine or a system. Everything has to be explained." He thought for a few moments. "There's more in the words, than there is in the explanations." He said, and I quietly nodded in agreement. "Well, if you just listen to the words, read by somebody else, you wouldn't have a system," I offered. "You might have a language, though. A set of mutual symbols. Even if we didn't agree on what they meant." He listened to what I said and we talked about language, and symbols. His criticisms of symbolic language were well-thought out; a person whose native tongue is Chinese understands well the strengths and weaknesses of symbols to communicate. I suggested that symbols and graphic pictures cut through many language systems. The phrase "a woman clothed with the sun," eludes precise rational understanding, but it's an accessible image everywhere. We had the mutual and considerable pleasure of two people speaking thoughtfully to each other. "You don't agree with any systems about it?" I asked, meaning the Book of Revelation. "I don't know. My church teaches a system." "Which one is that? Dispensationalism? Premillennialism?" "Yes." "The Rapture, any minute. The Jews left to face the anti-Christ." "Yes. Yes." "You're not defending it very hard," I suggested. His facial expression indicated that I had discerned his feelings accurately. "Is that what you believe?" Qi asked me. "No. I'm a Postmillennialist. I believe in the Great Commission. Christ gave us an order. Go into the far reaches of the world. Convert the nations. So we will succeed. It's the prayer he taught us. 'Thy Kingdom come. Thy will be done.'" "How does reading about the burning lake of fire out loud, help that?" Qi queried. "I'm not sure. Does the Spirit have to explain everything to me? I respond as I'm called. But I think everybody wants good news. Ask them, and they'll tell you the world is a mess. But then they want good news - warm and reassuring. God's judgment in a burning lake of fire is a very unpopular topic. But it wakes people up. It made you ask me questions." "Do you think bad news is more likely to win converts?" Qi was looking at me with a certain amount of respectful skepticism. "I think telling people the truth helps people see the truth." "But you, too. You didn't recite the burning lake of fire verses with a big smile on your face." "Perhaps so. Me too," I admitted. "Maybe there's enough bad news already," Qi suggested. "Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof. That's true too. You're right. But why are all those burning lake of fire verses there? Fierce warnings, aren't they?" I asked rhetorically. "Maybe it's the bad news that already exists. Maybe the world loves judging. Maybe the world needs judging. There's a lot of judging inside of us already." As he said this, I thought I detected some personal history in Qi – perhaps his father was a judgmental person. "I think it's a warning - a guide and a look to the future. But I'll be careful about trying to interpret it, with you around. I'll let the words be the words. Burning lake of fire and all." I raised my hands slightly to indicate surrender – the acknowledgment of my limitations. "Don't some people believe the whole book was just meant for the 1st century Christians? They think it all relates to the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem by the Roman armies. That's it – nothing else." Qi's knowledge suggested some study; his tone suggested questions, perhaps questions deeper than interpreting the Book of Revelation. "Are you a preterist?" I asked him. I wasn't sure whether his question was a narrow, specialized question over eschatology, or rather a deeper question that any young person might have, about whether the whole structure of religion is connected to anything real at all. "I'm not sure what that means," he admitted. "About what you said. Preterists believe most of the Book of Revelation has already been fulfilled. It was a warning for the 1st century, for the early church. A tract for the times. Now it's done – it has no future significance," I explained. "If that's what you're asking." "No, I haven't thought about it much, but don't think I think that. How about you?" Qi asked. There were questions in this young man, but I didn't know quite what they were. "I think it's prophecy. The Word of God to us. It's no more fulfilled and done than the Sermon on the Mount is fulfilled and done. Does that answer your question?" I returned. "I guess we'll never know, this side of Final Judgment," he offered. "Maybe we just wait for the Rapture?" "It makes a difference now. It changes how we act, because of what we expect. If all you're doing is sitting around here, waiting for the Rapture, that's one kind of answer. But I'll buy you a cup of coffee, and we can wait together." As I was about to get up to buy coffee, a young woman, talking to her friend following behind her, was trying to make her way behind the bench to a seat. She was holding a sandwich on a plate and a glass. Someone moved on the crowded bench, not knowing anyone was behind him, and bumped directly into her. Her sandwich spilled and tumbled across the back of an unshaven but pleasant-looking blonde young man and onto the floor. There, visible for the world, near Qi's feet, were the ingredients for her sandwich, two slices of multi-grain bread, two chunks of avocado, two generous slices of tomato, and a large stack of bean sprouts, scattered across the floor along with a slice of dill pickle. She moved back apologetically, waving the now-empty sandwich plate in her hand, obviously embarrassed. The young man stood up, rather mildly and saw who had spilled sandwich fixings on him. He didn't seem angry - he was apologetic and rather embarrassed himself. No one quite knew what to do. For a few moments the two of them milled about each other in rather disorganized fashion. The coffee house manager was nearby. She saw what had happened and signaled for a staff person to assist. Qi and I both stood up to move out of the way and sidestepped our way to leave the benches and table. As we were moving, I made brief eye contact with the manager and we mutually and quickly nodded. I didn't want her to think I had been a problem again, but she saw I was an innocent bystander, not an repeat instigator of disturbances. While the clean-up was being accomplished, Qi, seeing our mutual nod, asked if I knew the coffee house manager. "Yes, her name is Jen Geddes. She's a Christian. She's nice – a calm person." We watched the cleanup. I thought I would share a bit more, thinking still about what Qi's questions might be. "Years ago, she was in the newspaper, picture and all. She had a bit of a temper. I think she came from a very fundamental background. She was in a church, and for whatever reason, something was going with a visiting pastor she definitely didn't agree with. She expressed her theological disagreement by shouting out loud, picking up a stool, and heaving it at this visiting pastor. She actually hit him with it and there were disturbances in the church. The police had to be called. As a sentence I think she got what is called ARD, a non-trial diversion. It usually means she had to do some community service and get some counseling. I was practicing as a lawyer at the time, so I paid attention. Some years later, she got the job here. I recognized her when she started. Very calm - very welcoming to everybody these days. I never talked with her about it. I always wanted to ask her what it was about. Part of it was reported in the newspaper – apparently, whatever it was the visiting pastor was saying, her response was along the lines of "are you really going to say that, in my ear?" The cleanup was over, but Qi and I found a different place to sit and resumed our conversation. He wanted to know more about the type of law I had practiced, which was a general community practice. We started talking about the law and about the U.S. Constitution and some well-known constitutional principles, which were not, as Qi described, the rule or norm in China. He described a culture and circumstance in China which might be characterized as intense and ubiquitous favoritism. "We have those problems here - in a big way," I acknowledged. "You have laws about it, though. In China, there is no law to appeal to, to correct such things. The party is the law, and the party officials who operate without needing any approval." "We do have laws," I acknowledged. I narrated for Qi a United States Supreme Court case, which is a staple of the Constitutional Law curriculum in law school. "In San Francisco, around 1880, most of the laundry workers were Chinese. Laundries used heat in wooden buildings. There was a statute that said you couldn't operate a laundry without a permit. The statute itself wasn't crazy - there was a genuine fire risk with boiling water used in the laundries – not a joke in San Francisco. But Yick Wo had been operating his laundry for years, when he was told he couldn't operate his laundry anymore without a permit. Unfortunately, if you were Chinese, you didn't get a permit. If you weren't Chinese, then you got one. Yick Wo was fined for operating without the permit, and he couldn't or wouldn't pay the fine, so he was put in jail. The Supreme Court ruled that the administration of that permit law was unconstitutional – even if the laundry owners weren't citizens. Even if the law itself made sense considered in isolation. The Chinese laundry owners still had a right under equal protection, under the equal protection laws of the 14th Amendment." "You would not find such laws in China," Qi lamented. "Well, it took us years to take the legal principle serious," I told him. "Taking your principles seriously takes time." Our conversation continued. We talked about Chinese coolies and how they worked. We talked about Christianity in China. We talked about the beginning of the movie Crazy Rich Asians where they're having a Bible study. We talked about missionaries and Hudson Taylor and the Chinese Inland Mission, and when Qi's family had become Christians. We talked about wars in Asia – in the Pacific against Japan. Qi had a very distinct opinion about the treatment of the Chinese by the Japanese in WWII, which flowed over to his opinion over disputed islands in the South China sea. We talked about the wars in Korea and Vietnam. We talked about Mao, and Communism and the treatment of Christians in China during the cultural revolution. Qi's family had suffered and practiced their faith in secret, but had emerged. We talked about the Three-Self Church in China. "Sanzi Jiaohui" Qi explained, trying to help me to pronounce it correctly. "But my family has spent so much time overseas, it was not critical to us. We didn't argue about religion, we argued about how many hours my father worked." He looked not as happy making this last statement. I decided to change gears altogether. "You'll be married someday. You'll have a wife and probably children. Do you have a girlfriend?" I asked. "Yes. But she is in graduate school in Michigan now. So I only get to see her on vacations. Sometimes we meet in Chicago. We are making some plans, but they have to wait. We text. She likes it, but she thinks it's cold there." We talked about the weather in China, and in the U.S. We moved our location one more time, when a booth opened up. Time passed, but the Rapture still lay in the future. In the meandering talk and silence of our time together, we made friends. The Holy Spirit, as known to coffee houses as He is to great cathedrals, entered somewhere. Eventually Qi said it was time for him to get back home, and we parted company with the idea that he would be back in the coffee house, and we would have a chance to talk again. Perhaps further, on the Book of Revelation, he suggested. ___________________ And in the Spirit he carried me away to a great, high mountain, and showed me the holy city Jerusalem coming down out of heaven from God. Revelation 21:10. Those trained in theology and ministry should present the bulk of the inspired message of Rom. Ch. 12-15. But there is an element of those passages I want to address. I have a law degree, was valedictorian at law school, have practiced law for many years, and have held elected office. I serve as a volunteer on various boards with legal and executive authority over substantial matters. The business of law and government is something with which I am familiar. Although words like "law and government" don't sound San Francisco hippy-ish, don't seem to blend into a coffee-house or a road trip to the last chapters of Revelation, that is my direction now. Rom. 13:1-10 is my topic. Everyone must submit himself to the governing authorities, for there is no authority except that which God has established. Rom13:1a. The passage is central. It does not stand for, nor should it be understood, to be a command to political authoritarianism. It is an invitation to law, to legitimacy, to ascertaining the will of the people in a democracy, enacting that will within the confines of a constitutional system, and then respecting the laws that flow therefrom. Within the world at large, we may be subject to, or may become the governing authorities – but we are always Christians. The Apostle Paul had multiple purposes in so writing – he had a concern with the relationship of Christians to the outside world and to the political authority of the Roman empire. Paul was also concerned about how Christians relate among ourselves. Christian religious/political conflict among ourselves has been a challenge for Christian theology. Theological disagreement may be the reason or the excuse for the ecclesiastical, political or social separation of Christians. Once reasons develop, theological disagreement, leading to differing communions and groupings, becomes the vehicle for separation. As the Reformation commenced and continued through the 16th and 17th centuries, it appeared the immovable object had met the irresistible force. When Christian conscience met Christian government in vehement disagreement, the results were tragically unacceptable in individual cases. Theologically, the issues have never been resolved. One person wishes to pray to the saints, another does not, one expects an early Rapture with no warning, another does not, one thinks the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son, another does not. There are innumerable such differences. The continuing disagreements demonstrate that we have no recognized method of either resolving the dispute, or even a recognized method of staying in communication with each other. The argument continues unresolved. The fallback position for various Christian disputants is spiritual distance and intentional distancing, and attrition over time. Politically, we have addressed the most negative consequences of those 16th and 17th century conflicts by privatizing religious conscience. The results of privatizing Christian conscience are only partially satisfactory, as the 21st century is demonstrating. Organizing a better society is problematic, if each Christian has no greater loyalty than to his or her conscience. Conscience slides into self-will. Beyond denominational or theological boundaries, no one is able to present, to debate, to respond, to adjudicate, to give, or to obey an order issued by a recognized body of Christians, on any issue – not just very large important issues. All issues are 'off the table,' as it were, beyond joint resolution. No one could today post 95 theses on the door of a church and have an audience. We are stalled on Christian conscience-autonomy. No one says 'my conscience is God' but that is the net result. Each spider sits on her own web. The Old Testament analogue is the Book of Judges. The civil and political theory and authority that God has established pertinent to us, and to all, has been two thousand years in the making. The development of this theory is an argument for and an example of common grace, extended by God to all, who makes his sun to shine on the good and on the evil, and sends his rain on the just and on the unjust. "All peaceful beginnings of government have been laid in the consent of the people," John Locke, the British philosopher wrote in his Second Treatise on Government, Sect. 112. His work was instrumental in the framing of American constitutional ideas. Within the United States, we are both the governed, and the governing authorities. Perhaps odd, perhaps obvious to say, but if we as Christians want to reach the heavenly city of God, we have to be capable of governing and being governed by each other. This does not suggest extinguishing the ordinary and necessary debate and contentions that accompany civil and religious life. But at some point, a methodology of decision-making has to be established. Decisions are to be made, and they have to be respected. These 'decisions' are Christian decisions, critical to the communications and communal life of all Christians. That is not intended as a challenge to fundamental theological positions. When our government formed, Maryland did not become Pennsylvania – each state assigned certain powers to a federal government, and retained the rest. Lawful is not lawless, even where there is hard questioning and debate over what is really or ought to be 'lawful.' There are many different ways to connect with each other in the exercise of our Christian faith. Our movement toward the Jerusalem from above is obstructed, if we are situated like a collection of hermit crabs, each communion barricaded in its own shell of theological position, ecclesiastical organization and personal conscience. The authorities that exist have been established by God. Rom. 13:1 b. God created and enables all things, in providing the motive power for all events, outside of whose permissive will nothing ever can happen or could happen. Such establishment includes "the authorities that exist." As Jesus said to Pilate, "You would have no power over me if it were not given you from above." God is the source of lawful authority. The present state of world and national affairs, including our legal and political structures, is not accidental. It may be temporary, or cause us to pray "How long, O Lord, will the wicked by jubilant?" But if we cannot obey our own lawful authority, exercising decisions derived from faith, there is no possibility of building a genuinely lawful structure. If we cannot debate our Christian statements, decrees, findings or laws, enable and enact our Christian decrees, respect or obey our Christian laws, because they come from the authority already announced and ordained by our God and Savior, we're not going to move. We are stranded in the valley of stasis. I am postmillennial, a believer in the Kingdom of God that comes into this world. The extension of Rom. 13:1 b is necessary. This verse sends us forward, makes us look to the future. The current set of authorities have been established by God. The next set of authorities will be established by God - and the next set, after that. We want this set of authorities, each set of authorities, to be better, more Christ-like. When we say more 'Christ-like,' it is not reasonable to expect that denominational and theological differences are going to evaporate. We want to be Christ-like as we assume, or obey, or exchange, this developing authority which expresses itself in constitutional forms among us - not because it results in theocracy or theonomy (or any other system of being ruled by the laws of the Old Testament). Rather, we remember that the "authorities that exist" may be us, or may not be; and if we're not holding office at the moment, we may retain our theological positions or political differences. Do unto others as you would have them do unto you, has special significance when we are talking about different groups of Christians contending over beliefs, ideas, or courses of conduct which may be supported and advanced by force of decree, statement or law. If we are going to move toward a more complete Christian community, theological convictions count, inspiration counts, but also, impartiality counts. We want the debate (and the penalties for losing the debate on whatever topic is at hand) to be just and impartial. The rules, the conduct, the doctrine, whatsoever it is under discussion, and the statement or law that issues from them, or us, are to be impartial. The means and procedure of discussing, debating, challenging or appealing the decision regarding the resolution of Christian issues, have to be impartial. Due Process is a legal term but it paves a spiritual road. It means notice of the issue at hand, before the time and place of decision, and the opportunity to be heard on the point by the decision-makers. We hope valued impartiality flows into our political and national lives. But whether it does or does not flow nationally, we have to communicate these exchanges and accord this due process among ourselves in an impartial manner – and then voluntarily respect the outcome. The amorality of the present state of our national political life is not ultimately acceptable, but neither it is acceptable to go back to the political situation, rife with religious persecutions, that characterized Great Britain (and here in New England) in the 17th century. We do not criminalize people with whom we disagree. We will not move toward a golden, millennial age until we capture solutions to both sets of problems – spiritual unity which enables voluntary association and cooperation, and spiritual dissent. Our risen Lord Jesus has set us a mid-term examination. God has graciously provided us guidance. As explained by Locke in his Second Treatise, sect. 131: And so whoever has the legislative or supreme power of any commonwealth, is bound to govern by established standing laws, promulgated and known to the people, and not by extemporary decrees; by indifferent [impartial] and upright judges, who are to decide controversies by those law; and to employ the force of the community at home, only in the execution of such laws; or abroad to prevent or redress foreign injuries, and secure the community from inroads and invasion. And all this to be directed to no other end but the peace, safety, and public good of the people. The peace that Jesus confers - "Peace I leave with you, my peace I give unto you" (John 14:27), connects to this Lockean peace, safety and the public good. The kingdom of God ("Thy kingdom come," Jesus taught us to pray, Mat. 6:10, "on earth as it is in heaven.") and "the leaves of the tree are for the healing of the nations," Rev. 22:2, converge on this peace. They are intended for this-world Christian implementation, and this implementation and obedience to God's will is not beyond us. John Locke described the "peace, safety and public good of the people" in terms that were attainable. He presented his solution at the time of intense religious persecution that frequently was the excuse, rather than the reason, for political persecution. The experience of the Amish community in self-regulation provides some useful guidance. The Nashville Statement, signed initially by more than 150 evangelical leaders, affirming what is set forth or implied in Scripture about sexuality, particularly Romans ch. 1, is a productive step toward our self-regulation and our movement toward a Holy City. The Nashville Statement engendered disagreement and resentment. Nor do I endorse all views, on all issues, of those Christians who developed the Nashville Statement. The point is to cooperate as actively and as far as we can, but no further. Theological statements and decisions are presented to address conflicting positions. The resentment within large elements of our national society, of the Christian position on the sexual issues addressed in the Nashville Statement, is intense – but that is acceptable. Disregard of God's Word engenders its own consequences. We want to be frog-marched off the Titanic of modern secular culture and nominal Christianity - thrown unceremoniously into a little lifeboat named Jesus and the Bible. We expect to be marginalized with the world's imprecations following, as the Titanic leaves us behind. We may bob in the ocean of broad societal disapproval for a short season. It's not hard to see the iceberg coming. After the iceberg has done its work, we, the Christian community, build a better world. We may communicate our own internal understandings and direction without surrendering those theological positions which are essentially non-negotiable. John Locke calls out the following elements in the above-recited passage: legislative power, established law, impartial judges, a judicious use of 'force' to execute such laws, directed to peace, safety and public good – and we would add, for the community of our faith. The challenge is to connect that political peace, of which we are clearly capable, with Jesus' spiritual peace. The alternative, the Valley of Christian Stasis, is incapable of being characterized as good faith. That is not how the Book of Revelation ends. To disconnect the two kinds of peace, to say that the peace that Jesus provides is always and forever not of this world, is to take a position on eschatology. That is to take the position that the Kingdom of God is not coming (despite praying "thy Kingdom come") in this world except by the visible return of Christ but in no other way. It is to take the position that the Great Commission does not fully succeed (apparently, then, a command to partial failure?). It is to take the position that the ending of Romans ch. 16 ("so that all nations might believe and obey him") doesn't count. If the Kingdom of God is coming in this world, then those good ends that John Locke asserted - peace, safety, the public good - have to be realized in the context of a multitude of Christian expressions (the 'Seven Churches' of Revelation), giving rise to our City in Motion. The political events of the last two thousand years include what has politically taken place in this country in the last 250 years. We may begin with the Deist-influenced proclamation of the Declaration of Independence (which, despite its Deist influences, repeatedly and insistently invokes God, the Creator, the Supreme Judge, and Divine Providence), which is also directly of God. The Declaration of Independence, like all other expressions of common grace, is directed by and under the authority of our risen Lord, Jesus. Pilate's authority derived from Roman military and civil power gets the benefit of God's imprimatur, as spoken by Jesus. Then surely also so does the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and the Federalist Papers. We have political tools. We need to use them. We don't want to supplant the state, we want to create a miniature of a Constitutional and legislative system, for ourselves, entered into by three gates: by Christian faith, by subscription to the doctrine of Scriptural inerrancy, and by a commitment to a forward-looking eschatology. Beyond that, once through those gates 'of the outer courtyard,' we acknowledge a diversity of views, a gathering of seven churches, a lively exchange of ideas. We will make and find our city and move toward peace, joy, and the enjoyment of the presence of God, characterized by our love for God, and our love for each other. There, we will be in a position to lead useful and interesting lives and have enjoyable and interesting discourse. We do not resurrect the past, look to the past, long for the days of ancient Israel, look for theocratical forms of government, or long for the days when our particular theology will be adopted by everyone. Christianity is just beginning. "By calling this covenant new, he has made the first one obsolete. And what is obsolete and aging will soon disappear." Heb. 8:13. The orchestra is just tuning up - we're barely getting started. I have no use at all for nostalgia. To quote a modern theologian, Greg Bahnsen: Postmillennialists believe, therefore, that the kingdom of God will gradually grow on earth, visibly, publicly, and externally. . . It will grow through the gradual conversion of the nations – through the preaching of the Word of God. . . . This salvation of many people must have visible expression and influence and be seen in an outward culture in society. (Victory in Jesus, Bahnsen, CMP 1999, p. 27). (See also, Postmillennialism, an Eschatology of Hope, Keith A. Mattison, P&R Publishing, 1999; The Victory of Christ's Kingdom, John Jefferson Davis, Canon Press, 1996; Prophecy and the Church, Oswald Allis, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1978 (critique of dispensationalism); He Shall Have Dominion, Kenneth Gentry, Apologetics Group Media, 2009 (thorough defense of postmillennialism); and An Eschatology of Victory, J. Marcellus Kik, Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1971) ("the Holy City is situated in time and history . . . " p. 245). (Noting also with all these authors, that their theology is learned, their eschatology is inspiring, their legal and political theory needs better direction.) Consequently, he who rebels against the authority is rebelling against what God has instituted, and those who do so will bring judgment on themselves." Rom:13:2. Paul instructed Christians in the Roman Empire, where we began as a tiny minority. Stay out of trouble, direct your energy away from rebellion, stay away from political revolt or disobedience. Move in our spiritual life and the witness to the growing faith. Paul was concerned about building the church locally and across geographical distances and cultural groups. It was the Holy Spirit saying, "it's okay to obey the Roman authorities – in fact, you should, this is part of your obedience to me, unless (as is clear from the Book of Revelation), you are being asked to deny Christ or otherwise blaspheme." Christ warned his disciples to stay clear of the military and political disaster coming because of the Jewish rebellion brewing against Roman authority in his pointed discourse at the Mount of Olives. In whatever direction we decide to move, it must meet the fundamental standards enunciated by Paul. For rulers hold no terror for those who do right, but for those who do wrong. Do you want to be free from fear of the one in authority? Then do what is right and he will commend you. For he is God's servant to do you good. But if you do wrong, be afraid, for he does not bear the sword for nothing. He is God's servant, an agent of wrath to bring punishment on the wrongdoer. Therefore, it is necessary to submit to the authorities, not only because of possible punishment, but also because of conscience. That is also why you pay taxes, for the authorities are God's servants, who give their full time to governing. Give to everyone what you owe him; if you owe taxes, pay taxes, if revenue, then revenue; if respect, then respect; if honor, then honor. Rom. 13:3-7. Christian, don't do the crime, if you can't do the time. The bearing of the sword is intended for punishment. The state has a monopoly on the use of force, for a good reason. Generally, Christian conscience acts in conjunction with the state (but not always, see, e.g., Martin Luther King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail). In his Letter to the Romans, Paul meant a number of different things by 'the Law,' understood by context: the Ten Commandments, the Law of Moses implying a special revelation of God's will to the Jews, natural law available to and applicable to all people, spiritual law to be followed by Christians out of obedience to the gospel, the law of love, Roman civil or criminal law to be obeyed at the risk of punishment, the law of conscience, including accusations or defenses of conscience, the law of interior struggle with sin, sin and death itself, and the new life of the Spirit - all are referenced in Paul's letter, all characterized in his writing as or associated with the Law. The Law shows us our sins by holding up a mirror to our conduct in the light of God's Law, sending us to call on Christ's atoning mercy. The Law protects the weak from wrongdoing at the hands of those stronger and is essential to a civil society. The Law in all its forms and expressions is surely the great chain, wielded by an angel, which binds Satan in Rev. 20:1 and 2. As the Holy City comes down out of heaven as described in the 21st Chapter of Revelation, it is not described as the City of Law. By implication, the City may be protected by Law. Law may reinforce its walls and its gate. Spiritual law may flow from and through the Church to separate those who may enter the City of God from those who may not. But the Holy City's light, foundations, jewels, gates, streets, river, fountains, or its Tree of Life are not described in terms of Law. In the Sacred City of divine and human joy, where Christ reigns by acclamation, by love and by power, the purposes of the Law have been fulfilled. Lawlessness has no place in the City as it can never enter in. The Abyss may be escaped, only to give rise to further battle and fire, but the Holy City is prepared as a bride. The description of the Millennial City calls us to something higher, further and more perfect than Law as a goal and end of human society. The Law has a purpose and an end, and it reaches fulfillment in Christ's work on the Cross. In a more perfect society, where equity is done everywhere, there is no need to petition a court of equity for relief. Where love and trust are more perfect among people, no judge is needed to assert jurisdiction, hear argument or rule for one party or the other. In a meeting with our beloved, we who love fold our papers, close our law books and put our contracts aside. Their purpose has been served. Love keeps no record of wrong, so we may leave the courtroom. We go to meet for a wedding ceremony and a feast. The beauty of the meeting calls us to travel the road. Questions arise about doing right, what obedience means, in a Constitutional democracy where we are asked to play a part. The part we play nationally, whatever it is, to which we are also called and from which we refuse to be disenfranchised, is not the same as the spiritual movement we pursue among ourselves. We are called to something higher than the surrounding political confrontation and factionalism (not an easy problem to solve; see Federalist No. 10 – Madison thought the danger of factionalism would be solved by the new Constitution, and clearly that has not been the case). John Locke thought the solution was self-evident. "[F]or nobody has an absolute arbitrary power over himself, or over any other, to destroy his own life, or take away the life or property of another. . . Thus the law of nature stands as an eternal rule to all men, legislators as well as others. The rules that they make . . . must be conformable to the law of nature, i.e., to the will of God . . ." 2nd Treatise, sect. 135. To say something must be conformable to the will of God, or the law of nature or an eternal rule, has proved to be guidance not so obvious, beyond the first application, of not destroying life. Many Christians are united on this point at least. Given the number of abortions being performed annually in the United States and western world generally, even Locke's standard of 'not taking away life' appears to have given way to a notion of personal rights that is practically unlimited in its scope or application. In the case of abortion on demand, the notion is tragic on a massive scale, leads to infanticide (and the purposeful abortion of Downs' syndrome babies), is contrary to God's will, is destructive of our national political fabric, and presents an irresistible temptation to federal courts to exceed their Constitutional jurisdiction and intended scope of authority. Next to the Dred Scott decision, Roe v. Wade is the worst decision ever made by the U.S. Supreme Court, and its consequences have been destructive. The decision raises political problems regardless of religious faith – there is no serious legal question of any type that cannot be formulated into a query about individual rights and then answered in such a way as to make individual rights (defined to assure the preferred outcome) preempt and supersede any other type of right. In the case of abortion, all that is necessary is to deny the definition of human life to children in the womb. The definitions decide the outcome. When we now use the term 'civil rights' the meaning is – rights of the individual. In current judicial reasoning, advancing individual rights is always expansive of the good, as long as the individuals are out of the womb. In current judicial reasoning, the rights of the group are nearly always oppressive, subtracting from the net benefit of civil society. My civil rights cannot be added to the civil rights of my fellow citizens, in such a way as to develop a society promoting religiously-based ethical views. One hundred thousand people may not be lead in prayer at a government-sponsored or funded event, if one objects. If it is necessary to justify protecting children in the womb from destruction by making a religious argument, because the definition of the beginning of life implies theological and ethical reasoning, then the destructive consequences of advancing individual rights above other rights are wrongly justified as compelled by the implied language of the Constitution. An intellectual shell game has been played by our federal judiciary, of which Roe v. Wade is the most notorious example – get the definitions right, set up the conflict as the individual vs. the group (included in 'the group' is any assembly of state legislators) – and the desired judicial result will pop out like candy from a dispenser. From this Christian's viewpoint, and I am also a citizen of this nation, this is unacceptable. As an individual, my name is not "Congress," as in the 1st Amendment ("Congress shall make no law"). The idea that ethical decisions, which result in law, may not have religious foundations, is to be rejected. The idea that I may not join with others to vote for or to pass laws which at some point in their chain of reasoning, rely on religious belief or revelation, is to be rejected. A method of judicial reasoning which relies on carefully-crafted initial definitions and nomenclature to avoid the obvious, observable acts of medically terminating life, with the resulting infant body parts available for marketing, is to be rejected. Political acts which have ethical foundations, which themselves have religious foundations, are ordinary acts of Constitutional self-rule, not the establishment of a theocracy. We will do better, because God will compel a better result. The City of God is a promise to seven churches, standing for a society of communities engaged in the voluntary worship of God and obedience to Christ. Discovering the will of God, in our own relations with other Christians, raises harder questions than challenging bad national law or opposing abortion on demand. Discovering God's will mean moving forward to our own better self-governing society, even if we construct a model first on a 'table-top,' as it were. I quote a passage from Locke which will have a familiar sound to any reader familiar with the Declaration of Independence: Great mistakes in the ruling part, many wrong and inconvenient laws, and all the slips of human frailty, will be born by the people without mutiny or murmur. But if a long train of abuses, prevarications, and artifices, all tending the same way, make the design visible to the people, and they cannot but feel what they lie under, and see whither they are going; it is not to be wondered, that they should then rouse themselves, and endeavor to put the rule into such hands which may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected . . . 2nd Treatise, sect. 225. Locke observed that the people may "rouse themselves." Indeed, 'rousing ourselves' is essential. But in what way did the Apostle Paul view 'rousing ourselves?' The difficulty with Paul's passage in Romans ch. 13:3-7, is its static nature. Those admonitions made sense then, for a small religious minority in a vast pagan empire. The Roman authorities were there, and the Roman Christians submitted to them, and were grateful to God for the opportunity to worship him in peace. There was no political development implied; it was intentional separation from Roman interference, by giving no cause for offence, for purposes of Christian religious practice. A difficulty with the passage of Locke cited above is that it takes the matter one, but only one, drastic step forward. If the authorities are inflicting a "long train of abuses . . . all tending the same way" then the people ought to put "the rule into such hands as may secure to them the ends for which government was at first erected." Locke's concepts are binary, but they also will become static – either the people accept the "great mistakes and wrong laws without mutiny or murmer" – or, as the American people did in 177 6, they "rouse themselves" to "put the rule into such hands, etc.," in other words, to put governmental rule into American hands in the legislatures of the American states. Continuing, aspirational movement was not contemplated by John Locke either. The wasn't the problem he was facing 320 years ago, but it is a problem we are facing now. There is much the Book of Revelation does not do. There is one thing it does do, beyond its powerful encouragement in the face of persecution – it says, 'look, there's a goal here, a destination, and we want to get to it.' The Book has an end, and the end is a City. The Great Commission is equally dynamic – Jesus telling us "Go, make disciples." There's a goal here, a command, something we are supposed to be doing – and disciples, discipling and discipline has to extend to more than personal conscience, to the exclusion of Christian community. The argument against amillennialism is parallel to the argument against premillennialism (whether in its dispensational presentation or classical presentation) – those doctrines don't go anywhere. When it comes to Revelation ch. 21 and 22, these doctrines 'sit on their hands.' Rather, our doctrine of eschatology is postmillennial (Christ comes after ("post") the millennium) by our voluntary choice, by Revelation's destination, by inspiration of the Holy Spirit to reach a millennium in this world. Jesus is awaited at the end of the golden, millennial period, however long and wonderful that period may be, a thousand years or a ten times a thousand years – and we have acted in obedience to him in making or moving to such a society and such a world. (For the Kingdom of God will be like a man going on a journey, who called his servants and entrusted to them his property - one to receive five talents, one to receive two, another, to receive one). Our goal is forward. Neither John Lock or the Apostle Paul, or Jesus, say: "let's go back to an Old Testament theocracy as soon as we have a chance." Hence, my profound disagreement with all forms of political theocracy, theonomy, etc. We move to the future here, in terms of our political understanding – our Lord Jesus has not been asleep for the last 2000 years. For that matter, if you need open-heart CABG surgery as I did, you will not seek out a doctor who applies the methods of healthcare available in the days of Moses – there are no instructions in the Old Testament for a triple-bypass procedure. Common grace has done something with respect to medical care, as it has done something with respect to political theory which the churches may apply. After the passage quoted above about obeying the authorities, the Apostle Paul moved directly, with no further transition, to a society characterized by love that has already internalized the Law. The movement is sudden between Rom. 13:7, extolling obedience to external Roman authority, sharing neither political power or a faith with us, to Rom. 13:8. Here is our endpoint: Let no debt remain outstanding, except the continuing debt to love one another, for he who loves his fellow man has fulfilled the law. The commandments, "Do not commit adultery," Do not murder," "Do not steal," "Do not covet," and whatever other commandment there may be, are summed up in this one rule: "Love your neighbor as yourself." Love does no harm to its neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law. If we wish to go On the Road now (and we find ourselves On the Road whether we wish it or not) – static conceptions will not do. We construct with the law in the manner of a homebuilder, using our tools to lay on progressively wiser and more effective structural elements, until we reach the fulfillment of home-building, a home where we may love. That is the postmillennial vision – a millennial world, a golden age of faith, love and peace, before Christ returns. The thousand years of the millennium in Ch. 20 is both a reality and a symbol for that vision. The reality of God's ordaining will is a driving movement. Growth through the Holy Spirit is neither limited to or circumscribed by the symbol of a thousand year time period. We travel to an end and a society good beyond words. Our driving force and our destination comes from God. Golden ages are hard to come by, but not only can we get there, we will. Christ has called us to this, and his sobriety and his power in doing so is beyond question. ____________________________________
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WELCOME TO GAN-EDEN.INFO | ברוכים הבאים לאתר העולמי | אוצר הספרים | Torah Books | דברי תוכחה אלו מיועד לכל ארגוני וועד הכשרות, רבנים, ואדמורי"ם, וצדיקים  ושליחי חב"ד בכל העולם כולו, כל הרבנים משגיחים, ועוד.UNITED STATES and CANADA California  Igud Hakashrus of Los Angeles (Kehillah Kosher) Rabbi Avraham Teichman (323) 935-8383 186  North Citrus Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90036 Vaad Hakashrus of Northern California 510-843-8223  2520 Warring St. Berkeley, CA 94704 Rabbinical Council of California (RCC) Rabbi Nissim Davidi  (213) 489-8080 617 South Olive St. #515, Los Angeles, CA 90014 Colorado Scroll K Vaad Hakashrus  of Denver Rabbi Moshe Heisler (303) 595-9349 1350 Vrain St. Denver, CO 80204 District of Columbia  Vaad HaRabanim of Greater Washington Rabbi Binyamin Sanders 518-489-1530 7826 Eastern Ave.  NW, Suite LL8 Washington DC 20012 Florida Kosher Miami Vaad HaKashrus of Miami-Dade  Rabbi Mordechai Fried Rabbi Manish Spitz (786) 390-6620 PO Box 403225 Miami, FL 33140 Florida  K and Florida Kashrus Services Rabbi Sholom B. Dubov (407) 644-2500 642 Green Meadow Ave.  Maitland, FL 32751 South Palm Beach Vaad (ORB) Rabbi Pesach Weitz (305) 206-1524 5840 Sterling  Rd. #256 Hollywood, FL 33021 Georgia Atlanta Kashrus Commission Rabbi Reuven Stein (404) 634 -4063 1855 La Vista Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329 Illinois Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem  Fishbane www.crcweb.org (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard, Chicago, IL 60645 Midwest Kosher  Rabbi Yehoshua H. Eichenstein Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Goldzweig 773-761-4878 Indiana Indianapolis  Beth Din Rabbi Avraham Grossbaum Rabbi Shlomo Crandall (317) 251-5573 1037 Golf Lane  Indianapolis, IN 46260 Iowa Iowa “Chai-K” Kosher Supervision Rabbi Yossi Jacobson (515) 277- 1718 943 Cummins Pkwy Des Moines, IA 50312 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago  Rabbinical Council - Serving the World Back to Top Kentucky Louisville Vaad Hakashrut 502- 459-1770 PO Box 5362 Louisville, KY 40205 Louisiana Louisiana Kashrut Committee Rabbi Nemes  504-957-4986 PO Box 55606 Metairie, LA 70055 Maryland Star-K Kosher Certification (chalav  Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore, MD 21208 Star-D  Certification (non-chalav Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore,  MD 21208 Massachusetts New England Kashrus LeMehadrin 617-789-4343 75 Wallingford, MA  02135 Vaad Hakashrus of Worcester 508-799-2659 822 Pleasant St. Worcester, MA 01602 Rabbi  Dovid Moskovitz (617) 734-5359 46 Embassy Road Brighton, MA 02135 Michigan Council of  Orthodox Rabbis of Greater Detroit (Merkaz) Rabbi Yosef Dov Krupnik (248) 559-5005 16947 West  Ten Mile Rd. Southfield, MI 48075 Minnesota United Mehadrin Kosher (UMK) Note: unless the  meat states that it is glatt, it is certified not-glatt by the UMK. The cRc only accepts Glatt Kosher  meats. Rabbi Asher Zeilingold (651) 690-2137 1001 Prior Ave. South St. Paul, MN 55116 Missouri  Vaad Hoeir of Saint Louis (314) 569-2770 4 Millstone Campus St. Louis, MO 63146 New Jersey  Badatz Mehadrin -USA 732-363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Double U Kashrus  Badatz Mehadrin USA Rabbi Y. Shain (732) 363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Rabbi  Shlomo Gissinger (732) 364-8723 170 Sunset Rd. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kashrus Council of Lakewood  N.J. Rabbi Avrohom Weisner (732) 901-1888 750 Forest Ave. #66 Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kof-K Kosher  Supervision Rabbi Zecharia Senter (201) 837-0500 201 The Plaza Teaneck, NJ 07666 Rabbinical  Council of Bergen County 201-287-9292 PO Box 1233 Teaneck, NJ 07666 New York-Bronx Rabbi  Zevulun Charlop (718) 365-6810 100 E. Mosholu Parkway South Bronx, NY 10458 New York- Brooklyn Rabbi Yechiel Babad (Tartikover Rav) (718) 951-0952/3 5207-19th Ave. Brooklyn, NY  11204 Central Rabbinical Congress (Hisachdus HaRabanim) Rabbi Yitzchak Glick (718) 384-6765 85  Division Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11211 Rabbi Yisroel Gornish 718-376-3755 1421 Avenue O Brooklyn,  NY 11230 Rabbi Nussen Naftoli Horowitz Rabbi Benzion Halberstam (718) 234-9514 1712-57th St.  Brooklyn, NY 11204 Kehilah Kashrus (Flatbush Community Kashrus Organization) Rabbi  Zechariah Adler (718) 951-0481 1294 E. 8th St. Brooklyn, NY 11230 The Organized Kashrus  Laboratories (OK) Rabbi Don Yoel Levy (718) 756-7500 391 Troy Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11213 Rabbi  Avraham Kleinman Margaretten Rav 718-851-0848 1324 54th St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Debraciner  Rav Rabbi Shlomo Stern (718) 853–9623 1641 56th St. Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Aaron Teitelbaum  (Nirbater Rav) (718) 851-1221 1617 46th St., Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Nuchem Efraim Teitelbaum  (Volver Rav) (718) 436-4685 58085-11th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11225 Bais Din of Crown Heights Vaad  HaKashrus Rabbi Yossi Brook (718) 604-2500 512 Montgomery Street Brooklyn, NY 11225 Vaad  Hakashrus Mishmeres L''Mishmeres 718-680-0642 1157 42nd. St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Kehal  Machzikei Hadas of Belz 718-854-3711 4303 15th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Vaad Harabanim of  Flatbush Rabbi Meir Goldberg (718) 951-8585 1575 Coney Island Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11230 New  York-Manhattan K’hal Adas Jeshurun (Breuer’s) Rabbi Moshe Zvi Edelstein (212) 923-3582 85-93  Bennett Ave, New York, NY 10033 Orthodox Jewish Congregations (OU) Rabbi Menachem  Genack (212) 613-8241 11 Broadway New York, NY 10004 New York-Queens Vaad HaRabonim of  Queens (718) 454-3529 185-08 Union Turnpike, Suite 109 Fresh Meadows, NY 11366 New York-Long  Island Vaad Harabanim of the Five Towns and Far Rockaway Rabbi Yosef Eisen (516) 569-4536  597A Willow Ave. Cedarhurst, NY 11516 New York-Upstate Vaad HaKashrus of Buffalo Rabbi  Moshe Taub (716) 634-3990 3940 Harlem Rd. Amherst, NY 14226 The Association for Reliable  Kashrus Rabbi Shlomo Ullman (516) 239-5306 104 Cumberland Place Lawrence, NY 11559 Rabbi  Mordechai Ungar 845-354-6632 18 N. Roosevelt Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Bais Ben Zion Kosher  Certification Rabbi Zushe Blech (845) 364-5376 30 Mariner Way Monsey, NY 10952 Vaad  Hakashrus of Mechon L’Hoyroa Rabbi Y. Tauber (845) 425-9565 ext. 101 168 Maple Ave. Monsey,  NY 10952 Rabbi Avraham Zvi Glick (845) 425-3178 34 Brewer Road Monsey, NY 10952 Rabbi  Yitzchok Lebovitz (845) 434-3060 P.O. Box 939 Woodridge, NY 12789 New Square Kashrus Council  Rabbi C.M. Wagshall (845) 354-5120 21 Truman Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Vaad Hakashruth of  the Capital District 518-789-1530 877 Madison Ave. Albany, NY 12208 Rabbi Menachem Meir  Weissmandel (845) 352-1807 1 Park Lane Monsey, NY 10952 Ohio Cleveland Kosher Rabbi Shimon  Gutman (440) 347-0264 3695 Severn Road Cleveland Heights, OH 44118 Pennsylvania Community  Kashrus of Greater Philadelphia 215-871-5000 7505 Brookhaven Philadelphia, PA 19151 Texas  Texas-K Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem Fishbane (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard  Chicago, IL 60645 Dallas Kosher Rabbi Sholey Klein (214) 739-6535 7800 Northaven Rd. Dallas, TX  75230 Washington Vaad Harabanim of Greater Seattle (206) 760-0805 5100 South Dawson St. #102,  Seattle, WA 98118 Wisconsin Kosher Supervisors of Wisconsin Rabbi Benzion Twerski (414) 442- 5730 3100 North 52nd St. Milwaukee, WI 53216 CANADA Kashrus Council of Canada (COR)  Rabbi Mordechai Levin (416) 635-9550 4600 Bathurst St. #240, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3V2 Montreal  Vaad Hair (MK) Rabbi Peretz Jaffe (514) 739-6363 6825 Decarie Blvd. Montreal, Quebec H3W3E4  Rabbinical Council of British Columbia Rabbi Avraham Feigelstak (604) 267-7002 1100-1200 West  73rd Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6P 6G5 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago Rabbinical  Council - Serving the World Back to Top INTERNATIONAL ARGENTINA Achdus Yisroel  Rabbi Daniel Oppenheimer (5411) 4-961-9613 Moldes 2449 (1428) Buenos Aires Rabbi Yosef  Feiglestock (5411) 4-961-9613 Ecuador 821 Buenos Aires Capital 1214 Argentina AUSTRALIA  Melbourne Kashrut Rabbi Mordechai Gutnick (613) 9525-9895 81 Balaclava Road Caulfield  Junction, Vic. 3161, Australia BELGIUM Machsike Hadass Jacob Jacobstraat 22 Antwerp 2018  Rabbi Eliyahu Shternbuch (323) 233-5567 BRAZIL Communidade Ortodoxa Israelita Kehillas  Hachareidim Departmento de Kashrus Rabbi A.M. Iliovits (5511) 3082-1562 Rua Haddock Lobo  1091, S. Paulo SP CHINA HKK Kosher Certification Service Rabbi D. Zadok (852) 2540-8661 8-B  Albron Court 99 Caine Road, Hong Kong ENGLAND Kedassia The Joint Kashrus Committee of  England Mr. Yitzchok Feldman (44208) 802-6226 140 Stamford Hill London N16 6QT Machzikei  Hadas Manchester Rabbi M.M. Schneebalg (44161) 792-1313 17 Northumberland St. Salford M7FH  Gateshead Kashrus Authority Rabbi Elazer Lieberman (44191) 477-1598 180 Bewick Road  Gateshead NE8 1UF FRANCE Rabbi Mordechai Rottenberg (Chief Orthodox Rav of Paris) (3314)  887-4903 10 Rue Pavee, Paris 75004 Adas Yereim of Paris Rabbi Y.D. Frankfurter (3314) 246-3647 10  Rue Cadet, 9e (Metro Cadet), Paris 75009 Kehal Yeraim of Paris Rabbi I Katz 33-153-012644 13 Rue  Pave Paris, France 75004 ISRAEL Badatz Mehadrin Rabbi Avraham Rubin (9728) 939-0816 10  Rechov Miriam Mizrachi 6th floor, Room 18 Rechovot, Israel 76106 Rabanut Hareishit Rechovot 2  Goldberg St. Rechovot, 76106 Beis Din Tzedek of Agudas Israel Moetzes Hakashrus Rabbi Zvi  Geffner (9722) 538-4999 2 Press St. Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of the Eidah Hachareidis of  Jerusalem Rabbi Naftali Halberstam (9722) 624-6935 Binyanei Zupnick 26A Rechov Strauss  Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of K’hal Machzikei Hadas - Maareches Hakashrus (9722) 538-5832 P.O.  Box 41109 Jerusalem 91410 Chug Chasam Sofer Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer Stern (9723) 618-8596 18  Maimon St. Bnei Brak 51273 Rabbi Moshe Landau (9723) 618-2647 Bnei Brak Rabbi Mordechai  Seckbach (9728) 974-4410 Noda Biyauda St. 5/2 Modiin Illit PHILIPPINES Far East Kashrut Rabbi  Haim Talmid 312-528-7078 Makati Philippines SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town Bais Din Rabbi D  Maizels (2721) 461-6310 191 Buitenkant St. Cape Town 8001 SWITZERLAND Beth Din Adas  Jeshurun Rabbi Pinchus Padwa (411) 201-6746 Freigulstrasse 37 8002 Zurich Jewish Community  and Central Synagogue Kiev Rabbi B. Bleich (38044) 463-7087 29 Shekavizkaya Str. Kiev  VENEZUELA Union Israelita de Caracus Rabbi Chaim Raitport (528212) 552-8222 Avenida  Marques del Toro #9 San Bernadina Caracas 1011 האלמין אהרן טייטלבוים aaronteitelbaum aaron  teitelbaum aronteitelbaum aron teitelbaum satmar סאטמאר סטמר holmin rabbi shalom y. gross  shalom j. gross shalom gross shalom juda gross shalom yehudah gross שלום יהודה גרוס שלום יהודה  גראסס שלום יודא גראסס האדמו"ר מהאלמין הרב מהאלמין מגן שאול אבדק"ק האלמין אב"ד האלמין ראב"ד  האלמין גאב"ד האלמין ביד"צ האלמין ביד"ץ האלמין בית דין האלמין באר אברהם האלמין האלמין ביתר האלמין  בית שמש האלמין ברוקלין האלמין קרית ספר איחוד האברכים קרית ספר האלמין האלמין צפת האלמין ירושלים  האלמין לעקוואוד האלמין בני ברק פראדזשעקט שוהל האלמין מקדש מעט ניקור שחיטה ועד הכשרות ספרי לימוד קידום אנציקלופדיה ספרי קודש ספרות ספרים לייבערי לייבערי KIBERY LIBRARY אוצר הספרים אוצר  החכמה מאגר MAGAR MAGEA MEGAR קונטרס קונטרסים מאגר התורה מאגר תורנית מאגר התורנית אוצר  הספרים אוצר התורנית אוצר התורני אוצר החרדי אוצר החיילי השם אוצר חיילי צבאות השם בנק הספרים Bank of  booksמחסני ספרים מחסני הספרי מחסן הספר מחסן לספרים מחסני הספר  Hebrew books Yiddish  books English books ספריה וירטואלית אדירת מימדים בית הספרים הלאומי Hebrew Catalogבלוג היהדות יהדות  בלוג פורטל היהדות פורטל הספרים עולם הספרים ספרים בינלאומי ספרים לאומי ספרים חדשים ספרים ישנים ספרים יקרי המציאות ספרים עתיקים ספרי עתיק אנטיק ספרים ספרים אנטיק ספרים פורומים פורומים הספרים פורומי  הספריםHolmin booksספרי הולמין ספרי האלמין ספרים האלמין ספרים הולמין ספרים האלמין דפי אוצר הספרים העולמי - Torah Books International Pages תלחץ בכל מספר ותגיע לשער השמים 502 דפים - 502 בגימטריא  בשר 502 PAGES - 502 gimatria BASA"R vaad hakashrus vaadhakashrus vaad hakashrut  vaadhakashrut nikkur nikur SHCHITA amalek עמלק אדום ישמעאל arab areb עשו גאולה משיח ועד הרבנים ועד הכשרות vaad harabanim mashiach moshiach geulah gen eden גן עדן עולם הבא olem haba safar torah books kotel 613 kotel613 JERUSALEM613 JERUSALEM 613 ירושלים ארץ ישראל הצלה חברה הצלה hatzolah chevra hatzolah holminer rebbe אלעד • אנטווערפן • אפער וועסט סייד • אשדוד • באלטימאר • באוקא ראטאון • באסטאן • בארא פארק • בודאפעסט • בית שמש • ביתר עילית • בני ברק • בעיסוואטער • גאלדערס גרין • געיטסעד • גרעיט נעק • דיעל • דיטרויט • וואדמיר • ווארשע • וויליאמסבורג • וויען • זשיטאמיר • חברון • טאהש • טאראנטא • טינעק • טשיקאגא • יאהאניסבורג • ירושלים • לאוער איסט סייד • לעיקוואד •לאס אנזשעלעס • מאדריד • מאנטרעאל • מאנטשעסטער • מאנסי • מאסקווע • מאונט קיסקא •מארסעי • מיאמי • מילאן • מעלבארן • ניו סקווירא • נווה יעקב • סארסעל • סטעמפארד היל • סידני • סידערהערסט • סיאטל • סי געיט • סקאוקי • עדזשווער • פאסעיק • פאר ראקעוועי • פארעסט הילס • פאריז • פלעטבוש • פייוו טאונס • פראג • פוירט • ציריך • קאשוי • קווינס • קיעוו • קליוולאנד • קרוין הייטס • קרית יואל • רוים • ריווערדעיל • שטראסבורג חסידישע הויפן אוקראינע: אליק | ברסלב | הארנסטייפל | טאלנא | טשערנאבל | מאקאראוו | מעזשביזש | ראכמסטריווקא | רוזשין | סאווראן | סקווירא | סלאוויטע | סודילקאוו | שעפעטיווקע פוילן: אזשאראוו | איזביצע | אלעקסאנדער | אמשינאוו | אפט | אשלג | ביאלא | גור | גראדזשיסק | ווארקע | זיכלין | טשענסטכאוו |כענטשין |לעלוב | לובלין | מאדזשיץ | נעשכיז | נאוואמינסק | סאכאטשאוו | סטריקעוו | פאריסוב | פרשיסחא | קאצק | קאזשניץ | קוזמיר | ראדאמסק | ראדאשיץ | ראדזין | שעדליץ | שעניצע | שידלאווצע מזרח-גאליציע: אלעסק | אניפאלי | בעלזא | בארדיטשוב | באיאן | בורושטין | וויזשניץ | יארעסלאוו | זידיטשוב | זינקאוו | זלאטשאוו | זוטשקע| טשערנאוויץ | טשארטקאוו | דאראג | דראביטש | הוסיאטין | קאמינקא | קאמארנע | קאפישעניץ | קאריץ | קאסאב | קאזלאוו | מאכניווקא | מאנעסטריטשע | פרעמישלאן | סאדיגורא | סאסוב | שפיקאוו | סקאליע | סקולע | סטאניסלאב | סטרעטין | סטראזשניץ מערב-גאליציע: בלאזשעוו | באבוב | דינוב | דאמבראוו | זשמיגראד | טשעטשניעב | ראפשיץ | דזישקוב | גלוגעוו | גארליץ | גריבוב | קשאנאוו | ליזשענסק | מעליץ | נאראל | פשעווארסק | ראפשיץ | צאנז | שינעווע | סטיטשין | סטריזוב | טשאקעווע וואלין: קארלין | לוצק | טריסק | זוויל ליטע: אווריטש | חב"ד | ליובאוויטש |לעכאוויטש | נעשכיז | פינסק-קארלין | סטראשעליע | סלאנים | קאפוסט | קארלין-סטאלין | קאברין | קוידאנאוו רומעניע: באהוש | דעעש | וואסלוי | טעמישוואר | סאטמאר | סאסערגען | סוליץ |סיגוט | סערעט | סערעט-וויזשניץ | סקולען | ספינקא | פאלטיטשאן | קערעסטיר | קלויזענבורג | ריבניץ | שאץ | שטעפענעשט אונגארן: בערעגסאז | חוסט | קאלעוו | קאשוי | קאסאן | קרעטשעניף |ליסקע | מאטעסדארף | מאקעווע | מאשלוי | מונקאטש | מוזשיי | נאדווארנע | נאסויד | נייטרא | פאפא | ראחוב | ראצפערט |סטראפקעוו | טאהש אמעריקע: באסטאן | מילוואקי | פיטסבורג | קליוולאנד ירושלים: דושינסקיא | שומרי אמונים | תולדות אהרן | תולדות אברהם יצחק | משכנות הרועים אנדערע: ניקלסבורג | אסטראוו | טולטשעוו | וויען פרומע אידישע געגנטן | ניו יארק | חסידים | חסידישע הויפן WELCOME TO GAN-EDEN.INFO | ברוכים הבאים לאתר העולמי | אוצר הספרים | Torah Books | דברי תוכחה אלו מיועד לכל ארגוני וועד הכשרות, רבנים, ואדמורי"ם, וצדיקים  ושליחי חב"ד בכל העולם כולו, כל הרבנים משגיחים, ועוד.UNITED STATES and CANADA California  Igud Hakashrus of Los Angeles (Kehillah Kosher) Rabbi Avraham Teichman (323) 935-8383 186  North Citrus Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90036 Vaad Hakashrus of Northern California 510-843-8223  2520 Warring St. Berkeley, CA 94704 Rabbinical Council of California (RCC) Rabbi Nissim Davidi  (213) 489-8080 617 South Olive St. #515, Los Angeles, CA 90014 Colorado Scroll K Vaad Hakashrus  of Denver Rabbi Moshe Heisler (303) 595-9349 1350 Vrain St. Denver, CO 80204 District of Columbia  Vaad HaRabanim of Greater Washington Rabbi Binyamin Sanders 518-489-1530 7826 Eastern Ave.  NW, Suite LL8 Washington DC 20012 Florida Kosher Miami Vaad HaKashrus of Miami-Dade  Rabbi Mordechai Fried Rabbi Manish Spitz (786) 390-6620 PO Box 403225 Miami, FL 33140 Florida  K and Florida Kashrus Services Rabbi Sholom B. Dubov (407) 644-2500 642 Green Meadow Ave.  Maitland, FL 32751 South Palm Beach Vaad (ORB) Rabbi Pesach Weitz (305) 206-1524 5840 Sterling  Rd. #256 Hollywood, FL 33021 Georgia Atlanta Kashrus Commission Rabbi Reuven Stein (404) 634 -4063 1855 La Vista Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329 Illinois Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem  Fishbane www.crcweb.org (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard, Chicago, IL 60645 Midwest Kosher  Rabbi Yehoshua H. Eichenstein Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Goldzweig 773-761-4878 Indiana Indianapolis  Beth Din Rabbi Avraham Grossbaum Rabbi Shlomo Crandall (317) 251-5573 1037 Golf Lane  Indianapolis, IN 46260 Iowa Iowa “Chai-K” Kosher Supervision Rabbi Yossi Jacobson (515) 277- 1718 943 Cummins Pkwy Des Moines, IA 50312 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago  Rabbinical Council - Serving the World Back to Top Kentucky Louisville Vaad Hakashrut 502- 459-1770 PO Box 5362 Louisville, KY 40205 Louisiana Louisiana Kashrut Committee Rabbi Nemes  504-957-4986 PO Box 55606 Metairie, LA 70055 Maryland Star-K Kosher Certification (chalav  Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore, MD 21208 Star-D  Certification (non-chalav Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore,  MD 21208 Massachusetts New England Kashrus LeMehadrin 617-789-4343 75 Wallingford, MA  02135 Vaad Hakashrus of Worcester 508-799-2659 822 Pleasant St. Worcester, MA 01602 Rabbi  Dovid Moskovitz (617) 734-5359 46 Embassy Road Brighton, MA 02135 Michigan Council of  Orthodox Rabbis of Greater Detroit (Merkaz) Rabbi Yosef Dov Krupnik (248) 559-5005 16947 West  Ten Mile Rd. Southfield, MI 48075 Minnesota United Mehadrin Kosher (UMK) Note: unless the  meat states that it is glatt, it is certified not-glatt by the UMK. The cRc only accepts Glatt Kosher  meats. Rabbi Asher Zeilingold (651) 690-2137 1001 Prior Ave. South St. Paul, MN 55116 Missouri  Vaad Hoeir of Saint Louis (314) 569-2770 4 Millstone Campus St. Louis, MO 63146 New Jersey  Badatz Mehadrin -USA 732-363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Double U Kashrus  Badatz Mehadrin USA Rabbi Y. Shain (732) 363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Rabbi  Shlomo Gissinger (732) 364-8723 170 Sunset Rd. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kashrus Council of Lakewood  N.J. Rabbi Avrohom Weisner (732) 901-1888 750 Forest Ave. #66 Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kof-K Kosher  Supervision Rabbi Zecharia Senter (201) 837-0500 201 The Plaza Teaneck, NJ 07666 Rabbinical  Council of Bergen County 201-287-9292 PO Box 1233 Teaneck, NJ 07666 New York-Bronx Rabbi  Zevulun Charlop (718) 365-6810 100 E. Mosholu Parkway South Bronx, NY 10458 New York- Brooklyn Rabbi Yechiel Babad (Tartikover Rav) (718) 951-0952/3 5207-19th Ave. Brooklyn, NY  11204 Central Rabbinical Congress (Hisachdus HaRabanim) Rabbi Yitzchak Glick (718) 384-6765 85  Division Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11211 Rabbi Yisroel Gornish 718-376-3755 1421 Avenue O Brooklyn,  NY 11230 Rabbi Nussen Naftoli Horowitz Rabbi Benzion Halberstam (718) 234-9514 1712-57th St.  Brooklyn, NY 11204 Kehilah Kashrus (Flatbush Community Kashrus Organization) Rabbi  Zechariah Adler (718) 951-0481 1294 E. 8th St. Brooklyn, NY 11230 The Organized Kashrus  Laboratories (OK) Rabbi Don Yoel Levy (718) 756-7500 391 Troy Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11213 Rabbi  Avraham Kleinman Margaretten Rav 718-851-0848 1324 54th St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Debraciner  Rav Rabbi Shlomo Stern (718) 853–9623 1641 56th St. Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Aaron Teitelbaum  (Nirbater Rav) (718) 851-1221 1617 46th St., Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Nuchem Efraim Teitelbaum  (Volver Rav) (718) 436-4685 58085-11th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11225 Bais Din of Crown Heights Vaad  HaKashrus Rabbi Yossi Brook (718) 604-2500 512 Montgomery Street Brooklyn, NY 11225 Vaad  Hakashrus Mishmeres L''Mishmeres 718-680-0642 1157 42nd. St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Kehal  Machzikei Hadas of Belz 718-854-3711 4303 15th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Vaad Harabanim of  Flatbush Rabbi Meir Goldberg (718) 951-8585 1575 Coney Island Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11230 New  York-Manhattan K’hal Adas Jeshurun (Breuer’s) Rabbi Moshe Zvi Edelstein (212) 923-3582 85-93  Bennett Ave, New York, NY 10033 Orthodox Jewish Congregations (OU) Rabbi Menachem  Genack (212) 613-8241 11 Broadway New York, NY 10004 New York-Queens Vaad HaRabonim of  Queens (718) 454-3529 185-08 Union Turnpike, Suite 109 Fresh Meadows, NY 11366 New York-Long  Island Vaad Harabanim of the Five Towns and Far Rockaway Rabbi Yosef Eisen (516) 569-4536  597A Willow Ave. Cedarhurst, NY 11516 New York-Upstate Vaad HaKashrus of Buffalo Rabbi  Moshe Taub (716) 634-3990 3940 Harlem Rd. Amherst, NY 14226 The Association for Reliable  Kashrus Rabbi Shlomo Ullman (516) 239-5306 104 Cumberland Place Lawrence, NY 11559 Rabbi  Mordechai Ungar 845-354-6632 18 N. Roosevelt Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Bais Ben Zion Kosher  Certification Rabbi Zushe Blech (845) 364-5376 30 Mariner Way Monsey, NY 10952 Vaad  Hakashrus of Mechon L’Hoyroa Rabbi Y. Tauber (845) 425-9565 ext. 101 168 Maple Ave. Monsey,  NY 10952 Rabbi Avraham Zvi Glick (845) 425-3178 34 Brewer Road Monsey, NY 10952 Rabbi  Yitzchok Lebovitz (845) 434-3060 P.O. Box 939 Woodridge, NY 12789 New Square Kashrus Council  Rabbi C.M. Wagshall (845) 354-5120 21 Truman Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Vaad Hakashruth of  the Capital District 518-789-1530 877 Madison Ave. Albany, NY 12208 Rabbi Menachem Meir  Weissmandel (845) 352-1807 1 Park Lane Monsey, NY 10952 Ohio Cleveland Kosher Rabbi Shimon  Gutman (440) 347-0264 3695 Severn Road Cleveland Heights, OH 44118 Pennsylvania Community  Kashrus of Greater Philadelphia 215-871-5000 7505 Brookhaven Philadelphia, PA 19151 Texas  Texas-K Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem Fishbane (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard  Chicago, IL 60645 Dallas Kosher Rabbi Sholey Klein (214) 739-6535 7800 Northaven Rd. Dallas, TX  75230 Washington Vaad Harabanim of Greater Seattle (206) 760-0805 5100 South Dawson St. #102,  Seattle, WA 98118 Wisconsin Kosher Supervisors of Wisconsin Rabbi Benzion Twerski (414) 442- 5730 3100 North 52nd St. Milwaukee, WI 53216 CANADA Kashrus Council of Canada (COR)  Rabbi Mordechai Levin (416) 635-9550 4600 Bathurst St. #240, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3V2 Montreal  Vaad Hair (MK) Rabbi Peretz Jaffe (514) 739-6363 6825 Decarie Blvd. Montreal, Quebec H3W3E4  Rabbinical Council of British Columbia Rabbi Avraham Feigelstak (604) 267-7002 1100-1200 West  73rd Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6P 6G5 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago Rabbinical  Council - Serving the World Back to Top INTERNATIONAL ARGENTINA Achdus Yisroel  Rabbi Daniel Oppenheimer (5411) 4-961-9613 Moldes 2449 (1428) Buenos Aires Rabbi Yosef  Feiglestock (5411) 4-961-9613 Ecuador 821 Buenos Aires Capital 1214 Argentina AUSTRALIA  Melbourne Kashrut Rabbi Mordechai Gutnick (613) 9525-9895 81 Balaclava Road Caulfield  Junction, Vic. 3161, Australia BELGIUM Machsike Hadass Jacob Jacobstraat 22 Antwerp 2018  Rabbi Eliyahu Shternbuch (323) 233-5567 BRAZIL Communidade Ortodoxa Israelita Kehillas  Hachareidim Departmento de Kashrus Rabbi A.M. Iliovits (5511) 3082-1562 Rua Haddock Lobo  1091, S. Paulo SP CHINA HKK Kosher Certification Service Rabbi D. Zadok (852) 2540-8661 8-B  Albron Court 99 Caine Road, Hong Kong ENGLAND Kedassia The Joint Kashrus Committee of  England Mr. Yitzchok Feldman (44208) 802-6226 140 Stamford Hill London N16 6QT Machzikei  Hadas Manchester Rabbi M.M. Schneebalg (44161) 792-1313 17 Northumberland St. Salford M7FH  Gateshead Kashrus Authority Rabbi Elazer Lieberman (44191) 477-1598 180 Bewick Road  Gateshead NE8 1UF FRANCE Rabbi Mordechai Rottenberg (Chief Orthodox Rav of Paris) (3314)  887-4903 10 Rue Pavee, Paris 75004 Adas Yereim of Paris Rabbi Y.D. Frankfurter (3314) 246-3647 10  Rue Cadet, 9e (Metro Cadet), Paris 75009 Kehal Yeraim of Paris Rabbi I Katz 33-153-012644 13 Rue  Pave Paris, France 75004 ISRAEL Badatz Mehadrin Rabbi Avraham Rubin (9728) 939-0816 10  Rechov Miriam Mizrachi 6th floor, Room 18 Rechovot, Israel 76106 Rabanut Hareishit Rechovot 2  Goldberg St. Rechovot, 76106 Beis Din Tzedek of Agudas Israel Moetzes Hakashrus Rabbi Zvi  Geffner (9722) 538-4999 2 Press St. Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of the Eidah Hachareidis of  Jerusalem Rabbi Naftali Halberstam (9722) 624-6935 Binyanei Zupnick 26A Rechov Strauss  Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of K’hal Machzikei Hadas - Maareches Hakashrus (9722) 538-5832 P.O.  Box 41109 Jerusalem 91410 Chug Chasam Sofer Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer Stern (9723) 618-8596 18  Maimon St. Bnei Brak 51273 Rabbi Moshe Landau (9723) 618-2647 Bnei Brak Rabbi Mordechai  Seckbach (9728) 974-4410 Noda Biyauda St. 5/2 Modiin Illit PHILIPPINES Far East Kashrut Rabbi  Haim Talmid 312-528-7078 Makati Philippines SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town Bais Din Rabbi D  Maizels (2721) 461-6310 191 Buitenkant St. Cape Town 8001 SWITZERLAND Beth Din Adas  Jeshurun Rabbi Pinchus Padwa (411) 201-6746 Freigulstrasse 37 8002 Zurich Jewish Community  and Central Synagogue Kiev Rabbi B. Bleich (38044) 463-7087 29 Shekavizkaya Str. Kiev  VENEZUELA Union Israelita de Caracus Rabbi Chaim Raitport (528212) 552-8222 Avenida  Marques del Toro #9 San Bernadina Caracas 1011 האלמין אהרן טייטלבוים aaronteitelbaum aaron  teitelbaum aronteitelbaum aron teitelbaum satmar סאטמאר סטמר holmin rabbi shalom y. gross  shalom j. gross shalom gross shalom juda gross shalom yehudah gross שלום יהודה גרוס שלום יהודה  גראסס שלום יודא גראסס האדמו"ר מהאלמין הרב מהאלמין מגן שאול אבדק"ק האלמין אב"ד האלמין ראב"ד  האלמין גאב"ד האלמין ביד"צ האלמין ביד"ץ האלמין בית דין האלמין באר אברהם האלמין האלמין ביתר האלמין  בית שמש האלמין ברוקלין האלמין קרית ספר איחוד האברכים קרית ספר האלמין האלמין צפת האלמין ירושלים  האלמין לעקוואוד האלמין בני ברק פראדזשעקט שוהל האלמין מקדש מעט ניקור שחיטה ועד הכשרות ספרי לימוד קידום אנציקלופדיה ספרי קודש ספרות ספרים לייבערי לייבערי KIBERY LIBRARY אוצר הספרים אוצר  החכמה מאגר MAGAR MAGEA MEGAR קונטרס קונטרסים מאגר התורה מאגר תורנית מאגר התורנית אוצר  הספרים אוצר התורנית אוצר התורני אוצר החרדי אוצר החיילי השם אוצר חיילי צבאות השם בנק הספרים Bank of  booksמחסני ספרים מחסני הספרי מחסן הספר מחסן לספרים מחסני הספר  Hebrew books Yiddish  books English books ספריה וירטואלית אדירת מימדים בית הספרים הלאומי Hebrew Catalogבלוג היהדות יהדות  בלוג פורטל היהדות פורטל הספרים עולם הספרים ספרים בינלאומי ספרים לאומי ספרים חדשים ספרים ישנים ספרים יקרי המציאות ספרים עתיקים ספרי עתיק אנטיק ספרים ספרים אנטיק ספרים פורומים פורומים הספרים פורומי  הספריםHolmin booksספרי הולמין ספרי האלמין ספרים האלמין ספרים הולמין ספרים האלמין דפי אוצר הספרים העולמי - Torah Books International Pages תלחץ בכל מספר ותגיע לשער השמים 502 דפים - 502 בגימטריא  בשר 502 PAGES - 502 gimatria BASA"R vaad hakashrus vaadhakashrus vaad hakashrut  vaadhakashrut nikkur nikur SHCHITA amalek עמלק אדום ישמעאל arab areb עשו גאולה משיח ועד הרבנים ועד הכשרות vaad harabanim mashiach moshiach geulah gen eden גן עדן עולם הבא olem haba safar torah books kotel 613 kotel613 JERUSALEM613 JERUSALEM 613 ירושלים ארץ ישראל הצלה חברה הצלה hatzolah chevra hatzolah holminer rebbe אלעד • אנטווערפן • אפער וועסט סייד • אשדוד • באלטימאר • באוקא ראטאון • באסטאן • בארא פארק • בודאפעסט • בית שמש • ביתר עילית • בני ברק • בעיסוואטער • גאלדערס גרין • געיטסעד • גרעיט נעק • דיעל • דיטרויט • וואדמיר • ווארשע • וויליאמסבורג • וויען • זשיטאמיר • חברון • טאהש • טאראנטא • טינעק • טשיקאגא • יאהאניסבורג • ירושלים • לאוער איסט סייד • לעיקוואד •לאס אנזשעלעס • מאדריד • מאנטרעאל • מאנטשעסטער • מאנסי • מאסקווע • מאונט קיסקא •מארסעי • מיאמי • מילאן • מעלבארן • ניו סקווירא • נווה יעקב • סארסעל • סטעמפארד היל • סידני • סידערהערסט • סיאטל • סי געיט • סקאוקי • עדזשווער • פאסעיק • פאר ראקעוועי • פארעסט הילס • פאריז • פלעטבוש • פייוו טאונס • פראג • פוירט • ציריך • קאשוי • קווינס • קיעוו • קליוולאנד • קרוין הייטס • קרית יואל • רוים • ריווערדעיל • שטראסבורג חסידישע הויפן אוקראינע: אליק | ברסלב | הארנסטייפל | טאלנא | טשערנאבל | מאקאראוו | מעזשביזש | ראכמסטריווקא | רוזשין | סאווראן | סקווירא | סלאוויטע | סודילקאוו | שעפעטיווקע פוילן: אזשאראוו | איזביצע | אלעקסאנדער | אמשינאוו | אפט | אשלג | ביאלא | גור | גראדזשיסק | ווארקע | זיכלין | טשענסטכאוו |כענטשין |לעלוב | לובלין | מאדזשיץ | נעשכיז | נאוואמינסק | סאכאטשאוו | סטריקעוו | פאריסוב | פרשיסחא | קאצק | קאזשניץ | קוזמיר | ראדאמסק | ראדאשיץ | ראדזין | שעדליץ | שעניצע | שידלאווצע מזרח-גאליציע: אלעסק | אניפאלי | בעלזא | בארדיטשוב | באיאן | בורושטין | וויזשניץ | יארעסלאוו | זידיטשוב | זינקאוו | זלאטשאוו | זוטשקע| טשערנאוויץ | טשארטקאוו | דאראג | דראביטש | הוסיאטין | קאמינקא | קאמארנע | קאפישעניץ | קאריץ | קאסאב | קאזלאוו | מאכניווקא | מאנעסטריטשע | פרעמישלאן | סאדיגורא | סאסוב | שפיקאוו | סקאליע | סקולע | סטאניסלאב | סטרעטין | סטראזשניץ מערב-גאליציע: בלאזשעוו | באבוב | דינוב | דאמבראוו | זשמיגראד | טשעטשניעב | ראפשיץ | דזישקוב | גלוגעוו | גארליץ | גריבוב | קשאנאוו | ליזשענסק | מעליץ | נאראל | פשעווארסק | ראפשיץ | צאנז | שינעווע | סטיטשין | סטריזוב | טשאקעווע וואלין: קארלין | לוצק | טריסק | זוויל ליטע: אווריטש | חב"ד | ליובאוויטש |לעכאוויטש | נעשכיז | פינסק-קארלין | סטראשעליע | סלאנים | קאפוסט | קארלין-סטאלין | קאברין | קוידאנאוו רומעניע: באהוש | דעעש | וואסלוי | טעמישוואר | סאטמאר | סאסערגען | סוליץ |סיגוט | סערעט | סערעט-וויזשניץ | סקולען | ספינקא | פאלטיטשאן | קערעסטיר | קלויזענבורג | ריבניץ | שאץ | שטעפענעשט אונגארן: בערעגסאז | חוסט | קאלעוו | קאשוי | קאסאן | קרעטשעניף |ליסקע | מאטעסדארף | מאקעווע | מאשלוי | מונקאטש | מוזשיי | נאדווארנע | נאסויד | נייטרא | פאפא | ראחוב | ראצפערט |סטראפקעוו | טאהש אמעריקע: באסטאן | מילוואקי | פיטסבורג | קליוולאנד ירושלים: דושינסקיא | שומרי אמונים | תולדות אהרן | תולדות אברהם יצחק | משכנות הרועים אנדערע: ניקלסבורג | אסטראוו | טולטשעוו | וויען פרומע אידישע געגנטן | ניו יארק | חסידים | חסידישע הויפן
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Bi(sexuality)The Way, I''m Out This blog serves as an outlet for my thoughts and rumination on Bisexuality and LGBTQ+ topics.
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Welcome To vaad-hakashrus.com - Vaad Hakashrus ברוכים הבאים לאתר ועד הכשרות העולמי דברי תוכחה אלו מיועד לכל ארגוני וועד הכשרות למיניהם, רבנים ואדמורי"ם וצדיקים ושליחי חב"ד בכל העולם כולו, כל הרבנים משגיחים, ועוד.UNITED STATES and CANADA California Igud Hakashrus of Los Angeles (Kehillah Kosher) Rabbi Avraham Teichman (323) 935-8383 186 North Citrus Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90036 Vaad Hakashrus of Northern California 510-843-8223 2520 Warring St. Berkeley, CA 94704 Rabbinical Council of California (RCC) Rabbi Nissim Davidi (213) 489-8080 617 South Olive St. #515, Los Angeles, CA 90014 Colorado Scroll K Vaad Hakashrus of Denver Rabbi Moshe Heisler (303) 595-9349 1350 Vrain St. Denver, CO 80204 District of Columbia Vaad HaRabanim of Greater Washington Rabbi Binyamin Sanders 518-489-1530 7826 Eastern Ave. NW, Suite LL8 Washington DC 20012 Florida Kosher Miami Vaad HaKashrus of Miami-Dade Rabbi Mordechai Fried Rabbi Manish Spitz (786) 390-6620 PO Box 403225 Miami, FL 33140 Florida K and Florida Kashrus Services Rabbi Sholom B. Dubov (407) 644-2500 642 Green Meadow Ave. Maitland, FL 32751 South Palm Beach Vaad (ORB) Rabbi Pesach Weitz (305) 206-1524 5840 Sterling Rd. #256 Hollywood, FL 33021 Georgia Atlanta Kashrus Commission Rabbi Reuven Stein (404) 634-4063 1855 La Vista Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329 Illinois Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem Fishbane www.crcweb.org (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard, Chicago, IL 60645 Midwest Kosher Rabbi Yehoshua H. Eichenstein Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Goldzweig 773-761-4878 Indiana Indianapolis Beth Din Rabbi Avraham Grossbaum Rabbi Shlomo Crandall (317) 251-5573 1037 Golf Lane Indianapolis, IN 46260 Iowa Iowa “Chai-K” Kosher Supervision Rabbi Yossi Jacobson (515) 277-1718 943 Cummins Pkwy Des Moines, IA 50312 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago Rabbinical Council - Serving the World Back to Top Kentucky Louisville Vaad Hakashrut 502-459-1770 PO Box 5362 Louisville, KY 40205 Louisiana Louisiana Kashrut Committee Rabbi Nemes 504-957-4986 PO Box 55606 Metairie, LA 70055 Maryland Star-K Kosher Certification (chalav Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore, MD 21208 Star-D Certification (non-chalav Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore, MD 21208 Massachusetts New England Kashrus LeMehadrin 617-789-4343 75 Wallingford, MA 02135 Vaad Hakashrus of Worcester 508-799-2659 822 Pleasant St. Worcester, MA 01602 Rabbi Dovid Moskovitz (617) 734-5359 46 Embassy Road Brighton, MA 02135 Michigan Council of Orthodox Rabbis of Greater Detroit (Merkaz) Rabbi Yosef Dov Krupnik (248) 559-5005 16947 West Ten Mile Rd. Southfield, MI 48075 Minnesota United Mehadrin Kosher (UMK) Note: unless the meat states that it is glatt, it is certified not-glatt by the UMK. The cRc only accepts Glatt Kosher meats. Rabbi Asher Zeilingold (651) 690-2137 1001 Prior Ave. South St. Paul, MN 55116 Missouri Vaad Hoeir of Saint Louis (314) 569-2770 4 Millstone Campus St. Louis, MO 63146 New Jersey Badatz Mehadrin -USA 732-363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Double U Kashrus Badatz Mehadrin USA Rabbi Y. Shain (732) 363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Rabbi Shlomo Gissinger (732) 364-8723 170 Sunset Rd. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kashrus Council of Lakewood N.J. Rabbi Avrohom Weisner (732) 901-1888 750 Forest Ave. #66 Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kof-K Kosher Supervision Rabbi Zecharia Senter (201) 837-0500 201 The Plaza Teaneck, NJ 07666 Rabbinical Council of Bergen County 201-287-9292 PO Box 1233 Teaneck, NJ 07666 New York-Bronx Rabbi Zevulun Charlop (718) 365-6810 100 E. Mosholu Parkway South Bronx, NY 10458 New York-Brooklyn Rabbi Yechiel Babad (Tartikover Rav) (718) 951-0952/3 5207-19th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11204 Central Rabbinical Congress (Hisachdus HaRabanim) Rabbi Yitzchak Glick (718) 384-6765 85 Division Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11211 Rabbi Yisroel Gornish 718-376-3755 1421 Avenue O Brooklyn, NY 11230 Rabbi Nussen Naftoli Horowitz Rabbi Benzion Halberstam (718) 234-9514 1712-57th St. Brooklyn, NY 11204 Kehilah Kashrus (Flatbush Community Kashrus Organization) Rabbi Zechariah Adler (718) 951-0481 1294 E. 8th St. Brooklyn, NY 11230 The Organized Kashrus Laboratories (OK) Rabbi Don Yoel Levy (718) 756-7500 391 Troy Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11213 Rabbi Avraham Kleinman Margaretten Rav 718-851-0848 1324 54th St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Debraciner Rav Rabbi Shlomo Stern (718) 853–9623 1641 56th St. Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Aaron Teitelbaum (Nirbater Rav) (718) 851-1221 1617 46th St., Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Nuchem Efraim Teitelbaum (Volver Rav) (718) 436-4685 58085-11th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11225 Bais Din of Crown Heights Vaad HaKashrus Rabbi Yossi Brook (718) 604-2500 512 Montgomery Street Brooklyn, NY 11225 Vaad Hakashrus Mishmeres L''Mishmeres 718-680-0642 1157 42nd. St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Kehal Machzikei Hadas of Belz 718-854-3711 4303 15th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Vaad Harabanim of Flatbush Rabbi Meir Goldberg (718) 951-8585 1575 Coney Island Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11230 New York-Manhattan K’hal Adas Jeshurun (Breuer’s) Rabbi Moshe Zvi Edelstein (212) 923-3582 85-93 Bennett Ave, New York, NY 10033 Orthodox Jewish Congregations (OU) Rabbi Menachem Genack (212) 613-8241 11 Broadway New York, NY 10004 New York-Queens Vaad HaRabonim of Queens (718) 454-3529 185-08 Union Turnpike, Suite 109 Fresh Meadows, NY 11366 New York-Long Island Vaad Harabanim of the Five Towns and Far Rockaway Rabbi Yosef Eisen (516) 569-4536 597A Willow Ave. Cedarhurst, NY 11516 New York-Upstate Vaad HaKashrus of Buffalo Rabbi Moshe Taub (716) 634-3990 3940 Harlem Rd. Amherst, NY 14226 The Association for Reliable Kashrus Rabbi Shlomo Ullman (516) 239-5306 104 Cumberland Place Lawrence, NY 11559 Rabbi Mordechai Ungar 845-354-6632 18 N. Roosevelt Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Bais Ben Zion Kosher Certification Rabbi Zushe Blech (845) 364-5376 30 Mariner Way Monsey, NY 10952 Vaad Hakashrus of Mechon L’Hoyroa Rabbi Y. Tauber (845) 425-9565 ext. 101 168 Maple Ave. Monsey, NY 10952 Rabbi Avraham Zvi Glick (845) 425-3178 34 Brewer Road Monsey, NY 10952 Rabbi Yitzchok Lebovitz (845) 434-3060 P.O. Box 939 Woodridge, NY 12789 New Square Kashrus Council Rabbi C.M. Wagshall (845) 354-5120 21 Truman Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Vaad Hakashruth of the Capital District 518-789-1530 877 Madison Ave. Albany, NY 12208 Rabbi Menachem Meir Weissmandel (845) 352-1807 1 Park Lane Monsey, NY 10952 Ohio Cleveland Kosher Rabbi Shimon Gutman (440) 347-0264 3695 Severn Road Cleveland Heights, OH 44118 Pennsylvania Community Kashrus of Greater Philadelphia 215-871-5000 7505 Brookhaven Philadelphia, PA 19151 Texas Texas-K Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem Fishbane (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard Chicago, IL 60645 Dallas Kosher Rabbi Sholey Klein (214) 739-6535 7800 Northaven Rd. Dallas, TX 75230 Washington Vaad Harabanim of Greater Seattle (206) 760-0805 5100 South Dawson St. #102, Seattle, WA 98118 Wisconsin Kosher Supervisors of Wisconsin Rabbi Benzion Twerski (414) 442-5730 3100 North 52nd St. Milwaukee, WI 53216 CANADA Kashrus Council of Canada (COR) Rabbi Mordechai Levin (416) 635-9550 4600 Bathurst St. #240, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3V2 Montreal Vaad Hair (MK) Rabbi Peretz Jaffe (514) 739-6363 6825 Decarie Blvd. Montreal, Quebec H3W3E4 Rabbinical Council of British Columbia Rabbi Avraham Feigelstak (604) 267-7002 1100-1200 West 73rd Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6P 6G5 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago Rabbinical Council - Serving the World Back to Top INTERNATIONAL ARGENTINA Achdus Yisroel Rabbi Daniel Oppenheimer (5411) 4-961-9613 Moldes 2449 (1428) Buenos Aires Rabbi Yosef Feiglestock (5411) 4-961-9613 Ecuador 821 Buenos Aires Capital 1214 Argentina AUSTRALIA Melbourne Kashrut Rabbi Mordechai Gutnick (613) 9525-9895 81 Balaclava Road Caulfield Junction, Vic. 3161, Australia BELGIUM Machsike Hadass Jacob Jacobstraat 22 Antwerp 2018 Rabbi Eliyahu Shternbuch (323) 233-5567 BRAZIL Communidade Ortodoxa Israelita Kehillas Hachareidim Departmento de Kashrus Rabbi A.M. Iliovits (5511) 3082-1562 Rua Haddock Lobo 1091, S. Paulo SP CHINA HKK Kosher Certification Service Rabbi D. Zadok (852) 2540-8661 8-B Albron Court 99 Caine Road, Hong Kong ENGLAND Kedassia The Joint Kashrus Committee of England Mr. Yitzchok Feldman (44208) 802-6226 140 Stamford Hill London N16 6QT Machzikei Hadas Manchester Rabbi M.M. Schneebalg (44161) 792-1313 17 Northumberland St. Salford M7FH Gateshead Kashrus Authority Rabbi Elazer Lieberman (44191) 477-1598 180 Bewick Road Gateshead NE8 1UF FRANCE Rabbi Mordechai Rottenberg (Chief Orthodox Rav of Paris) (3314) 887-4903 10 Rue Pavee, Paris 75004 Adas Yereim of Paris Rabbi Y.D. Frankfurter (3314) 246-3647 10 Rue Cadet, 9e (Metro Cadet), Paris 75009 Kehal Yeraim of Paris Rabbi I Katz 33-153-012644 13 Rue Pave Paris, France 75004 ISRAEL Badatz Mehadrin Rabbi Avraham Rubin (9728) 939-0816 10 Rechov Miriam Mizrachi 6th floor, Room 18 Rechovot, Israel 76106 Rabanut Hareishit Rechovot 2 Goldberg St. Rechovot, 76106 Beis Din Tzedek of Agudas Israel Moetzes Hakashrus Rabbi Zvi Geffner (9722) 538-4999 2 Press St. Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of the Eidah Hachareidis of Jerusalem Rabbi Naftali Halberstam (9722) 624-6935 Binyanei Zupnick 26A Rechov Strauss Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of K’hal Machzikei Hadas - Maareches Hakashrus (9722) 538-5832 P.O. Box 41109 Jerusalem 91410 Chug Chasam Sofer Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer Stern (9723) 618-8596 18 Maimon St. Bnei Brak 51273 Rabbi Moshe Landau (9723) 618-2647 Bnei Brak Rabbi Mordechai Seckbach (9728) 974-4410 Noda Biyauda St. 5/2 Modiin Illit PHILIPPINES Far East Kashrut Rabbi Haim Talmid 312-528-7078 Makati Philippines SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town Bais Din Rabbi D Maizels (2721) 461-6310 191 Buitenkant St. Cape Town 8001 SWITZERLAND Beth Din Adas Jeshurun Rabbi Pinchus Padwa (411) 201-6746 Freigulstrasse 37 8002 Zurich Jewish Community and Central Synagogue Kiev Rabbi B. Bleich (38044) 463-7087 29 Shekavizkaya Str. Kiev VENEZUELA Union Israelita de Caracus Rabbi Chaim Raitport (528212) 552-8222 Avenida Marques del Toro #9 San Bernadina Caracas 1011 האלמין אהרן טייטלבוים aaronteitelbaum aaron teitelbaum aronteitelbaum aron teitelbaum satmar סאטמאר סטמר holmin rabbi shalom y. gross shalom j. gross shalom gross shalom juda gross shalom yehudah gross שלום יהודה גרוס שלום יהודה גראסס שלום יודא גראסס האדמו"ר מהאלמין הרב מהאלמין מגן שאול אבדק"ק האלמין אב"ד האלמין ראב"ד האלמין גאב"ד האלמין ביד"צ האלמין ביד"ץ האלמין בית דין האלמין באר אברהם האלמין האלמין ביתר האלמין בית שמש האלמין ברוקלין האלמין קרית ספר איחוד האברכים קרית ספר האלמין האלמין צפת האלמין ירושלים האלמין לעקוואוד האלמין בני ברק פראדזשעקט שוהל האלמין מקדש מעט ניקור שחיטה ועד הכשרות
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Jewish Dublin Walking Tours | Touring Jewish Dublin on a Walking Tour The best and most engaging place to learn about Dublin's 1000-year-old Jewish history Join us for a 2-hour tour through little Jerusalem.
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Congregation Schaarai Zedek | Enriching Tampa's Reform Jewish Heritage for over 100 years B'ruchim Habaim The synagogue is traditionally known by three names: beit t'fillah (a house of worship), beit midrash (a house of study), and beit k'nesset (a house of gathering). Schaarai Zedek is a welcoming, inclusive synagogue that embodies these three names. As a house of worship, we pray together in diverse ways, celebrating Shabbat and holidays with meaningful, engaging services. As a house of study, we learn together, from the Amy Gail Buchman Preschool and the Flom Religious School through our seniors, with creative methods, engaging classes, and intriguing lectures. And as a house of gathering, Schaarai Zedek is a place for Jewish families of all types to come together for events including movie nights, community service projects, campfires by the lake, or live music and dancing. Whatever we do, our goal is always to create and support the Jewish community and have fun while we do it. But most importantly, the bayit that is Schaarai Zedek is not just a house, it is a home. As we pray together, learn together, and gather together, we love being together. Welcome home. Welcome to Schaarai Zedek. -Rabbi Joel Simon
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Temple Beth David, Westwood, MA Our Reform congregation at Temple Beth David is a caring, active and diverse community for all aspects of Jewish life. In Westwood, MA, we serve towns across the Rt. 109 corridor. We welcome interfaith, LGBTQ, Jews by Choice, and those in the process of conversion. Temple Beth David is affiliated with the Union for Reform Judaism.
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Bi(sexuality)The Way, I''m Out This blog serves as an outlet for my thoughts and rumination on Bisexuality and LGBTQ+ topics.