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Ti Fab Engineering - Home - Titanium, Chlorinator, Platinum,India Titanium, India, Chennai, Chennai Titanium, CHLORINATOR, CATHODIC PROTECTION, ELECTRO CHLORINATOR, PLATINUM ANODE, Platinum India, Pt ANODE, MMO ANODE, DSA ANODE, TRIBLE OXIDE COATING, COATING, MODULAR CELL, MEMBRAINE CELL, BI POLOR CELL, MONOPOLAR CELL, Titanium FLANGE, FASTNERS, Titanium BOLT, Titanium NUT, WASHERS,Titanium ANODE BASKET, ELBOW, TEE, Titanium HEATING COIL, Titanium COOLING COIL, AGITATOR,Titanium COOLER, REACTOR, SHAFT, SLEEVE, Titanium IMPELLER, LOCK NUT, EXPELLER, TITANIUM, TITANIUM INDIA, TANTALUM, HASTALLOY, NICKEL, MONEL, INCONEL, ZIRCONIUM, COPPER, STAINLESS STEEL, NICROFER, ALLOY 20, ACID REGENERATION, ANTI CORROSION, WASTE WATER TREATMENT, GAS CHLORINATION, EFFULENT TREATMENT,Platinum India, CAUSTIC SODA, Titanium ELECTRO PLATING, Titanium ANODISING, MEATEL FINISHING, AEROSPACE, MARINE, SPACE, CHLORATE, BROMATE, IODATE, VALVE, BALLVALVE,Titanium India GLASS LINED, REPAIR KID, SHAPED PARTS, BAYONET HEATER, CRUCIBLE, CONDENSOR, COLUMNS, VENTURY, SPRAY NOZZLE, ORTHOPEDIC, ELECTRO CHEMICAL, HEAT EXANGER, CHEMICAL PROCESS PUMP, CENTRIFUGAL PUMP, Titanium BLOWER, NUCLER, CHEMICAL MIXER, Titanium PIPE LINES, THERMOWELL, SENSOR SAFETY POCKET, LINING, AQUA HEATER, Titanium India, Platinum India Ti Fab Engineering are the manufactures of Titanium,Titanium mesh rod, Chlor-Alkali and Desalination application, Cathodic Protection and Electrochlorination Application, Ship building Industries, Metal Finishing, Electro Plating, Semi Conductors and PCB Industries, Electro Chemical Industries, Chemical, Paper, Petro Chemical and Fertilizer Industries, Electrical &; Electronics Engineering Industries, Fluid and Instrumentation Engineering, Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industries, Defense / Atomic and Aero Space Industries, Sugar Industries Repairing and Glass lined Vessels Industries, Evaporators & Vacuum Metallising Industries, Titanium Mesh,Platinized Titanium Anode,Titanium plate, Titanium mesh rod and Niobium, Tantalum, MIXED METAL OXIDE COATED TI ANODE, electrodes are also made from Nb, Ta or Zr
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Hypoxia Chambers - We manufacture and sell hypoxia chambers, hyperoxia, CO2 incubators, modular incubator chambers, hot box systems, for IVF In Vitro Fertilization and stem cell and tissue culture. Hypoxia Chambers - We manufacture and sell hypoxia chambers, hyperoxia, CO2 incubators, modular incubator chambers, hot box systems, for IVF In Vitro Fertilization and stem cell and tissue culture.
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Drainage Cells - Buzon Pedestal - Modular Tanks - Ausdrain AUSDRAIN specialises in the manufacture and distribution of drainage cell products and modular underground tanks for rainwater harvesting and stormwater management. View our Website for More Info!
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Home Page Telecom Site Solutions, LLC, Dallas, Texas- Home Page - Leading manufacturer and integrator of custom cell site trailers, cell site on wheels, cell on wheels, cell site on light truck, cell on light truck, cell site on van, cell site van, cell on van, hummer applications, mobile hummber applications, satellite dish trailers, satellite trailers, satellite communications trailers, cell site towers, cell towers, towers, broadband wireless trailers, mobile communication systems trailer, emergency communication systems, platforms, galvanized platforms, telecommunication shelters, explosion proof shelters, pneumatic masts, screw drive masts, diesel generators, gasoline generators, natural gas generators, marine generators, generator lighting systems, towable lighting systems, transfer switches, generator connectors, AC distribution panels, custom generator trailers, utility trailers, landscape trailers, ATV trailers, double ATV, equipment trailers, pipe top trailers, car haulers, gooseneck trailers, lowboy trailers, skid-steer trailers, bobcat trailers, specialty trailers, single axle trailers, tandem axle trailers, triple axle trailers, flatbed trailers, heavy duty trailers, cargo trailers, livestock trailers, horse trailers and custom telecom installation services.
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AIM Biotech - 3D cell culture AIM Biotech offers an easy-to-use, modular platform for incorporating 3D cell culture into your research. AIM chips enable you to co-culture different cell types discrete 3D and 2D compartments, using hydrogels of your choice. Other important parameters
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Solida Biotech - Manufacturer of Bioreactors and Fermenters Solida Biotech is a manufacturer of Bioreactors and Fermenters for fermentation and cell culture. We produce innovative modular bioreactors and fermenters.
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- PT. Fransindo Pratama - jual kunci tools non sparking tools indonesia mesin las dongkrak buaya harga tang distributor Fire Extinguishers, Fire Alarm, Fire Equipment, Nozzle, Chemical, Hydrant, Fire Pump Portable, ABC General Purpose Portable Extinguishers, BC General Purpose Portable Extinguishers, Purple K Portable Fire Extinguishers, CO2 Portable Fire Extinguishers, Class D Portable Fire Extinguishers, Class K Restaurant Portable Fire Extinguishers, Halotron Portable Fire Extinguishers, Water Portable Fire Extinguishers, Wheeled Fire Extinguishers,  GENERAL MAINTENANCE CHEMICALS: Acrylic Coating, Aluminum Coil Cleaner, Aluminum Cleaner AC Cleaner, Anti Seize Lubricant, Anti Spatter, Battery CleanerBattery Terminal Protector, Belt Dressing, Brake Cleaner, Choke Carb Cleaner, Combustion Improver, Contact Cleaner, Cutting Oil, Drain Opener, Dry Lubricant, Electric Motor Cleaner, Engine Degreaser, Gear and Wire rope Lubricant, Heavy Duty Degreaser Waterbased Solventbased, Industrial Waterless Hand Cleaner, Clear Red Insulating Varnish, Metal Cleaner, Mould Cleaner, Mould Release Silicone Non Silicone, Mould Release Non Paintable Paintable, Multi Purpose Cleaner, Nozzle Welding Gel, Oil Spill Dispersant, Paint Stripper Gel Liquid) , Penetrating Oil, Radiator Coolant, Rust Converter, Rust Preventive Anti Rust, Rust Remover, Safety Solvent Degreaser, Silicone Lubricant Technical Food Grade) , Spinerette Lubricant, Spot Finder: Cleaner, Penetrant, Developer, Stainless Steel Cleaner, Stainless Steel Pickling, Super Steam Cleaner,  HOUSEHOLD dan INSTITUTIONAL CLEANERS: Carpet Shampoo, Dishwash Liquid, Floor Cleaner, Glass Cleaner, Hand Soap, Metal Polisher, Oven and Grill Cleaner, Pine Oil Freshener Karbol Wangi, Porcelain Ceramic Cleaner Porstex, Vinyl Dressing, AUTOMOTIVE RELATED PRODUCTS: Radiator Coolant, Tire Polisher, Car Shampoo, Engine Degreaser, Windshield Fluid, WATER TREATMENT CHEMICALS: Corrosion Inhibitor, Microbiocide, Scale Remover, Neutralizer, Oxygent Scavenger, ULTRASONIC CLEANER CHEMICALS: Metal Cleaner Ferrous Non-Ferrous, Optical Cleaner, GREASES: Multi Purpose Grease, Anti Seize Copper Aluminum, Electric Motor Grease, High Temperature Grease, Non Melting Grease, Semi Fluid Grease, Silicone Grease, Slide Way Grease, Wheel Bearing Grease, White Food Grease, Brand: Loctite adhesive, UPS chemical industri marine, WD40 lubricant, Araldite epoxy, Sika sealant adhesive, Dow Corning sealant Silicone product, Magnaflux spotcheck, Treebond gasketing adhesive, Devcon metal repair epoxy, Molykote chemical maintenance, Vecom water gasoline finder paste, kolorkut water gasoline finder paste , sakaphen electric insulator, Permatex gasket forming, gojo hand cleaner, nabakem chemical maintenance, bostix building adhesive) , belzona epoxy adhesive, cordobond epoxy adhesive, toyo grease, CrC penetran contact cleaner, Aron alpa adhesive, autosol polish metal, cam grinding paste, shell water ditector, Shell Water Detector Capsules, LPS, molyslip, nestlebond, belray, chemola, jetlube, fastchem, jumbo, klube r, omega, deltalube, primer99, lubriplate, prestone, pertamina, bulgary, rocol, solut ex, sprayon, krylon, citgo, grease, rema tiptop, shinetsu, bestolife, chemtronik, wirelock, loctite, GE, 3M, Philip, efotex, easters, dextone,ALAT LAB, ALAT KESEHATAN, ALAT TESTING, Ohaus, My Weigh, Tanita, Weigh-Tronix, Jennings, Gram Precision, Vector US Balance, Scaleworks, Rite Weight, Escali, MSI, Ashiba, Toyo, Acculab, Salter, Rice Lake, CAS, DIGI, Mettler Toledo, On Balance, DIPSE, Pesola, Sartorius, DigiWeigh, A& D Weighing, Shinko, Detecto, Fast Weigh, Fuzion, Cardinal, Adam Equipment, Toledo, Tangent, KernFOGGING MACHINE, Melation, Abate, Anemometer, Barometer, Sound Level Meter, Gas Detector, Tachometer, Thichness Gauge, Speed Meter, Water Testing, Oil Testing, Gas Detector Monitor, Microscope, Vibration Meter, Dust and Particulate Monitor, Stack Sampler, Win Monitor, Sun Shine Monitor, Rain Gauge, Emission Check, Food Testing, Explosive Detector, Gas Detector, Breathing Apparatus, Hand Held Metal Detector, Gold/ Meta/ Mineral Locatoret, Full Arestor, Safety Belt and Harnesses, Safety Shoes,  - Steel Door and Windows - Forklift Solid Tyres, Heavy Equipment Tyres, Equipment Wheels, Forklift Wheels / Velg, Special Battery - Others Laboratory Equipments Actuator Cylinder, Pneumatic Control Valves Aerator, Gas diffusers, Air Blower, Air Cleaner, Filter Air Cleaner, Air Filtration System Air / Gas Analysis, Air Sampling Pump, Indoor Air Quality Monitor, CO2 Meter, Gas Monitor, Air Monitor, Gas detection tube, gas sampling pump, Single Gas Monitor, Multi Gas monitor, Confine Space Gas Monitor Ventilation system, Fixed Gas Monitor, Gas Leak detector, Refrigerant Leak Detector, CO Meter, Combustible Gas Leak Detector, Ultrasonic Leak Detector, Oxygen Analyzers Airflow Measurement, Anemometer, Thermoanemometer, vane anemometer, Air Velocity Meter, Air volume meter Alarm, Incandescent Lights, Low Profile Audible Alarms, Low Profile Strobe Lights Balances, Handheld Balances, Digital Balances, Portable Balances, voyager balances, calibration masses, Analytical balances Moisture Determination Balances, Moisture Analyzers, Basic Infrared Moisture Analyzer, Micro and Ultra balances Portable Counting Scales, Counting Scales, Bench Scales, Platform scales, Explosion Proof Scales, Washdown scales, Drum scales, Mechanical Balances, Hanging Scales, Crane scales, Laboratory Mass Set. Baths & Circulators, Immersion Circulator, Heated Circulating Baths, Digital Controller Baths, Circulating Oil Baths, Refrigerated Circulating Baths, Refrigerated Tank, Immersion Chillers, Air Cooled Recirculator Calibration Equipment, Airflow Calibrator, Balance Calibration Masses, Conductivity Standards, Humidity Calibrator, pH Buffers, Pressure Calibrator, Process Calibrator, Temperature Calibrator, Viscosity Standards,  Compact Process Calibrator,  Centrifuges, Variable Speed Microcentrifuges, centrifuge Filters, Fixed Speed Centrifuges, High Performance Centrifuges, Microcentrifuges Tubes, Centrifuge Bottles, Tube, Micro tube,  Chromatography, Autosampler vials, Columns, Purifier, Regulator, Septa and Straight ferrules, Syringes, Traps and Filter, Tubing Color and Gloss Meters, Light Both, Haze Meter, Digital Gloss Meter Combustion Analyzers,  Compressors, Refrigerated Air Dryer, Particulate Filter, Coalescing Filter, Lubricator, Oilless Air Compressor, Regenerative Blower,  Conductivity, Salinity Meter, TDS Testrs, EC Testrs, Resistivity, Temperature Meter, Water Quality Meter, Benchtop Conductivity Meter, Conductivity Controller, Conductivity Transmitter, Resistivity Controllers, Transmitter, Analyzers, Solenoid Metering Pump. Contamination Control, Particles, Fibers, Nonvolatile Residue, Ions, Wiper, Wipes, Floor Mats, Vacuum Cleaner, Apparel, Shoe Cover, Head Cover, Hood, Sleeve Protector, Apron, Vinyl Glove, Nitrile Glove, Latex Gloves, Welding Glove, Fitter Glove, Cotton Glove. Air Monitor, Mass Monitor, Particle Counter, compuflow thermoanemometer,  Static Control, Wrist Straps, Heel and Toe Grounders, Work surface monitor, Floor Mat, Static Charge Meters, Surface Test Kit, Ionizing Air Gun, Ionizing Air Blower, Static Control Spray Cryogenics, Dewar Flasks, Tempering Beakers, Cryobiological Inventory System, Retrieval Device, Canister Storage System, Insulated Containers, Cryo Tube, Vial Freezing Container, Benchtop Chiller, Labtop Cooler, Cryo Glove, Apron Density : Specific Gravity Cup, Pycnometer, Digital Specific Gravity Meters, Gay-Lussac Bottles, Digital Density & Specific Gravity Meter Desiccators: Electronic Desiccators, Static Free Desiccators, Ultra Low RH Desiccators Cabinet, Desiccants, Alumina Silicate, anhydrous calcium Sulfate Dispensers, Repetitive Bottletop Dispenser, Precision Digital Dispensers Electrical : Motor Rotation Testers, Electrical Circuit Analyzers, Voltage/ Continuity Tester, Analog Tester, Clamp Meter, Voltage and Current Recorder, Milliohm Meter, Digital Micro Ohmmeter, Digital Megohmmeter, Ground Resistance Tester, Resistance Test Kit, Gauss Tesla Meters, Clamp Power Meter, Leakage Tester, Digital Multimeter, Precision Multimeter, Power Quality Analyzer, Oscilloscope, Fiber Optic Power Meters, LAN Cable Tester, Ground Resistance Tester, Inverter, Battery Charger. Electrophoresis, Gel Runner, Gel Systems, Electrophoretic Blotting Systems, Vertical Gel System, Gel Casting, Comb, Spacers, Gel Wrap Gasket, Glass Plates, Casting clamps, Gel Imaging Documentation, Ultraviolet Lamp, Gel Grying System Filter Membranes, Agarose, Molecular Weight Markers,  Environmental Chambers, Dehumidifiers, Humidity Controllers Evaporator : Digital Rotary Evaporator System, Compact Rotary Evaporator, Centrifugal Solvent Evaporator System, Evaporator & Concentrator, O-rac system Extraction, Fat Analysis System, Extraction and Analytical Glassware Fermentation, Modular Fermentation Start up Kit, Pre-Packaged Systems, Fermentation Accessories, Antifoam Meter, CO2 meter, Flow Filtration System,  Filtration, Disposal Filterware, Sampling Capsule, shaker, Centrifuge Filter, Stirred Cells, Dialysis Tube, Filter Paper, Filter Mesh, Filter Device, Vacuum pressure Pump, Pressure Filtration, membranes, Syringe Filter Holder, Water Filtration Elements, Compact Filtration System, Compressed Air Purification from Ultrafilter, Prefilter, Dryer, Microfilter, Activated carbon Fitting : Chromatography, Compression Fittings, Luer Fitting, Pipe Fitting, Quick Disconnect Fitting, Sanitary Fitting, Barbed Fittings Flame Photometer Flowmeter, Acrylic Flowmeters, Laboratory Flowmeter, Dual Scale Flowmeter, Spring Flowmeter, Piston and Vane Flowmeter, Mechanical Bellows Flowmeters, Gas / Liquid Flowmeter, Tokico, Tut Hill, Tokyo Keiso, Magnaught, Water Flowmeter, Ultrasonic Flowmeter, Area Flow Controller, Gas Mass Flow Transmitters, Thermal Gas Flow Controllers,  Volumetric Flowmeter, Differential Pressure Gas Flowmeter, High Accuracy Turbine meters, Turbine Flowmeter, insertion Turbine Flowmeters, Accumulators, Gear Flowmeter, High Viscosity Flowmeter, Digital Flowmeter, Magnetic Flowmeter, Paddle Wheel Flowmeter Flowsensor, Transmitter, Flow Monitors and Controller, Flow Display Panel Meter, Flow Switches, Flow Indicator, Flid Bed Dryers. Forces and Torque : Digital Force Gauges, Economical Torque Meter, Compact Digital Force Gauge, Mechanical Force Gauge, Force Gauge Test Stand, Force / Torque Gauge, Spring Testing System, Variable Speed Test Stand, Force System and Load Cells, Automated Test System, Tensile and Compression Fixture, Test Stand,  Freeze Dryers, Drying, Vacuum Pump, Glassware, Optional shell freezer Furnaces : Box or muffle furnaces, crucible furnace, melting furnace, tube furnace, vacuum furnace, accessories. Heating Equipment : Ceramic Beaded Heaters, Fiberglass Heating Cord, Heat Gun, Heat Sealers, Heat Exchanger, Infrared Heating Lamp for drying of paint / surface coating, Immersion Heater, Drum Heater, Flexible Drum Heater, Heating Mantles, Electromantles, funnel heating mantles, staining jar. Homogenizer, Stirrer motor, Accessories, Tube and Pastle, blender, dispersing machine, electronic controller, module, generators Hood, ductless Fume Hoods, PCR Enclosures, Biosafety Cabinet, Cleanroom benches Hot Plates : Digital Hot Plates, Explosion Proof Hot Plate, Industrial Hot Plate, Dry Block Heaters Humidity : Hygrometer, Thermohygrometer, Humidity / Temperature Pen, Humidity Sticks, Wireless Thermohygrometer, Digital Psychrometers, Sling Psychrometers, Dew Point, RH/ Temperature Transmitters, Dew Point Transmitters, Moisture Analyzer. Hydrometer : Specific Gravity Hydrometer, Degrees API, Degress Baume, Soil Hydrometers, Sugar Hydrometers, Specialty Hydrometers, Plastic Hydrometers, Specific Gravity Cups, Density and Specific Gravity Meter. Ice Maker : Flaked and Cubed Ice Maker, Benchtop Ice Maker, Dry Ice Machine, Insulated Containers, Cryogenic Polyurethane Ice Bucket Incubator : Mini Incubator, Compact Incubator, Digital Incubator, Gravity-Convection Incubator, Laboratory Incubator, CO2 Incubator, Incubating / Refrigerating Shakers, Translucent chilling & Heating Incubator, BOD Incubator Labware : Burettes, Clamps and Support, Desiccators, Tank, Vials, Adapters, ampules, Bags, Beakers, Bins, Bottles, Bowls, Brushes, Burettles, Cable Ties, Carboys, Containers, Crucibles, Cylinders, Desiccators, Dishes, Distillation Apparatus, Environmental Containers, Film and Foil, Flasks, Funnels, Label, Ladles and Dippers, Matting and Liners, Mortars and Pestles, Pails, Pens, Racks, Sample Containers, sciops and Spoons, Spatulas and Stir Rods, Stoppers, Tanks, Tape, Tubes, Vials, Watch Glasses Laser Products : Laser Pointers, Laser Power Meter, Laser Modules, Adjustable laser Alignment Tools, Diode Laser Models, Laser Level Tools Level Control : Float Switches, Capacitance Switches, Conductivity Switches, Optic Switches, Magnetostrictive Transmitters, RF Capacitance Transmitters, Ultrasonic Transmitter / Controller. Life Science : Dry Baths for compound Synthesis, High Throughput Screening, Synthesis Products, Liquid Handling Multiwell Plates, Plate washers, concentrator, Microplate immunology, filter plateschilling / heating, thermomixer, semidry blotting system, Slot Blot, Transfer Membrane, Gel Blot Paper, Blotting, cloning cylinder, Crosslinker / concentrator, Electroporation, Hybridization, PCR, Spectrophotometry, Radiation Safety, Wave Bioreactor, Media Bag, Flasks, Cell Culture Multiwell Plates, Slide System, coverslips, Vacuum Tweezers, Roller Bottles, Bioprocess Vessels Lighting and Illumination : Fluorescent and Incandescent Safety Lighting, Wrap Light, Water Resistant Hand Lamp, Flood Light, Explosion Proof Light. Magnifier : Linen Tester, Measuring Magnifier, Binocular Magnifier, Eyeglass Loupe, Illuminated Magnifiers, Ultraviolet Magnifier, Snakeeye Inspection Kit, Night Vision Scope Material Handling : Panel Bin, Drum, step stools, containers, Carts, meja dorong, Dollies, Storage Cabinet, Hand Pallet, Hydraulic Pallet, Rise Truck, Forklift. Melting Point, Digital Melting Point, Dilatometer, Automatic Melting Point. Microbiology : Agar dispenser system, dehydrated culture Media, Brand 3160 Dishes, Autoclavable Petri Dishes, inoculation loops and needles, spreaders, inoculating turntables, sampling swabs, deluxe colony counter, hand tally counter, replica plating, Ion Meter, Digital Microbial Air Sampler, Dilution Bottles and Rack, Serological Pipettes Microscope : Compact Microscope, Stereo and Streozoom microscope, streozoom microscopes with digital camera, Monocular Microscope, Binocular Microscope, Trinocular Microscope, Digital Video Camera System. Mill : Hand Mill, analytical Mill, bead mill, mortar grinder mill, centrifugal grinding mill, plate mills,  Mixer : Laboratory Mixer, Industrial Mixer, Static Mixer, Stir Pak, Servodyne Electronic Mixer, Torque Mixer, Digital Mixer, Brushless Mixer, Manual Powder Mixer, Batch Mixer, Drum / Barrel Heavy Duty Mixer, Double Helix Mixer, Industrial Mixer, Static Mixer. Moisture Determination : Grain Moisture Detector, Non-Destructive Moisture Meter, Moisture Meter Kit, Water Activity Systems. Motor : Air Motor, Air Powered Gear Motors, Oiless Air Motors, AC Motor, AC Controllers, Type 56 C-Fase Motor Nitrogen Determination, Protein Analysis, Rapid Digestor, Rapid Still II Distiller, Protein and Nitrogen Analysis systems. Oven : Economical Grativity Convection Ovens, Mechanical Convection Ovens, Vacuum ovens, Economical Gravity Convection Ovens, High temperature Gravity Convection Ovens, Mechanical Convection Ovens, Vacuum Ovens, Safety Ovens Oxygen : DO Transmitter, DO Meter, BOD Meter, Benchtop Meter, Bottle Rack, COD and TOC Test Kit and Reactor, DO Controller, DO Analyzer, DO Probes. Petroleum Testing : Field Test Kit, Flash Point Tester, Penetrometer, Digital Penetromrter, Petroleum Calorimeter, Distillation Apparatus, Freezing Point Apparatus, Cloud and Pour Point Chamber and Bath pH / Ion Meter : pHydrion Pencil and Test Strips, pH Tester, pH Calibration Kits, pH and ORP Continuous Monitor, pH 5 and pH 6 Meter, Ion 5 and Ion 6 Meters, pH/ mV/ Temperature Meter, pH/ mV/ Deg Celsius Meter, ph/ DO Meter, pH/ Con 10 pH/ Conductivity/ Temperature Meter, Water proof pH Meter, Economical Waterproof pH Meter, Benchtop pH 510 and Ion 510 Meters, pH Laboratory Electrodes, pH Control Pipettes and Pipettors : Serological Pipettes, Pasteur Pipettes, Transfer Pipette, Measuring Pipette, Dropper, Micropipett, Fixed Volume Pipettor, adjustable volume pipettors, focus pipettors, ultramacropipettors, multichannel pipettors, electronic pipettors, positive displacement micropipettors, Filter Pipette Tips Polarimeter : Manual Polarimeter, semiautomatic polarimeter,  Pressure : Vacuum gauge, Pressure Gauge, process gauge, Digital gauges and controller, calibration equipment, deadweight tester, electronic calibrators, Transmitter gauge, absolute, barometric, Switches, Digital Vacuum Gauge, Analytical Gas Regulator, Pressure Recorder, Process Meter, Panel Meter Tubing : Tygon, norprene, viton, ptfe, polysulfone, polycarbonate, polyphenylene sulfide, stainless steel, masterflex,  Pumps : Fixed speed, variable speed, Quick couple Drive, Pump Heads, Flowmaster, Tubing bed, forty channel, pump tubing, Centrifugal Pump, Compressors, Drum and Hand Pump, Gear Pump, Industrial Hose Pump, Ismatec Tubing Pumps, Metering Pumps, Positive Displacement Pumps, Vacuum/ Pressure Pumps, Pumping Flamable Liquids, Air Powered Mechanically Coupled Pumps, Chemical Duty Transfer Pump, Corrosion Resistance Mechanical Coupled Pumps, Multistage Centrifugal Pump, Immersed Vertical Centrifugal Pumps, Closed impeller Close-Coupled Pumps, High Pressure Coupled Pump, Magnetic Drive Turbine Pumps, Submersible Pumps, Micropocessor Controlled Submersible Sump Pumps Drum and Hand Pump, Container Pump, Air operated double diaphragm pump kits, sanitary drum Pumps, Economical Gear Pump, Metering pump, Bellow pump, chemical feed system pump, diaphragm pump, peristaltic pump, piston pump, polymer pump, syringe pump, positive displacement, progressive cavity Recorders, Temperature / humidity recorder, temperature/ volt datalogger, modular paperles recorder, honeywell recorder, flatbed recorder, DC Current & Voltage Datalogger, Voltage/ pulse / shock / current process datalogger Refractometers : Salt and Refractive index refractometer, wine refractometer, brick refractometer, fluid / coolant / battery acid refractometers, digital refractometer, abbe refractometer, refractive index standard solution Refrigerator : chromatography refrigerators, safety refrigerator/ freezer, glass door laboratory refrigerators, Ultra low temperature freezer up to - 85 deg C Safety : Apparel, Uniform, Environment monitoring, ergonomic, eye protection, eyewashes, fire protection, first aid, gloves, hearing protection, lock out/ tagout, matting, respiratory protection, shield, sign and floor sign, spill control and waste disposal, storage and handling, safety shoes, fitter glove, welding glove, welding apron, fitter glove, welding glove, smaw welding glove, lab coat, coverall, rubber over boots, safety boots, head cover, shoe cover, boot cover, chemical splash suits, PVC rain suits Safety Environment Monitoring : Digital Sound level meter, sound meter, acoustical calibrator, sound level meter, sound level datalogger, economical noise dosimeter, light probe meter, light meter, broad range light meter, High Intensity light meter, digital radiometer, radiation monitor, surface radiation monitor, beta radiation shield, personal heat stress monitor, thermal vest, Dual position CO2 / temperature meter, Indor quality Meters, gas detection Tubes, Fixed gas monitor, single gas monitor, multigas monitor, radio, handy talky, walky talky, wrist support, back support belt,  Safety : Eye Protection, spectacles, safety glasses, safety goggles, face shield, lens cleaner Safety Eyewashes : eyestations, personal eyestations, faucet mount eyewashes, eyewash bowls, showers, eyewash bowls, combination showers Safety : Fire Extinguisher, CO alarm Safety : First Aid : Digital Blood Pressure Monitor, Vinyl Glove, Latex Gloves, chloroprene gloves, glove liners, disposable gloves, nitrile gloves, neoprene, pvc, butyl, norfoil, cryo, heat resistance, cold weather gloves,  Safety : Hearing Protection, ear plug, ear band, earmuffs Safety : Matting, spongue mats, anti fatigue mats, draining floor mats, rejuvenator mats Safety : Respiration : N95, R95, P95, N100 Respirator, dust mask, particulate respirator, half mask respirator, AO5 AO7 Respirator, Powered Air Purifying Respirators, Air Supply System, Respirator wipes Safety : Sign and Floor Sign Safety : Spill Control and Waste Disposal, Sorbents, spill pads, oil sorbents, Absorbent kit, spill cleanup kit Safety : Storage and Handling, sewer stoppers, high capacity secondary spill containment pallet, splill-containment vessels, overpack salvage drums, secondary containment dolly, drum bogie, poly cylinder bumper brackets. Samplers : Aluminum Round Scoops, Dipper Sampler, cylindrical probe, sample spatula, conical sampler, piston sampler, sampler probe, powder sampler, sample thieves, swing samplers, extension rods, economical soil sampler, soil auger kit, disposable polyethylene and teflon bailer shakers : orbital shaker, orbital shakers, benchtop orbital shakers, dual action shakers, rocker, dry powder rocking shaker, vortex shakers, genie shakers, pulsing vortex shaker, volumetric flask shakers, rotating shakers, rotator, microplate shakers, incubator shaker Sieves : siever shakers, vibro separator, pocket sieve kit, Testing sieves, ultrasonic test sieve cleaner Soil Analysis : soil sampler, soil auger, pocket penetrometer, soil test kit, portable turf lab, soil/ compost thermometers, soil moisture meter, lead test kit, soil ph electrodes Spectroscopy : visible spectrophotometers, visible and UV Visible, graphical display spectrophotometer, fluorometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometers, NMR Tubes, Scanning IR spectrophotometer, cuvette Sterilizers : Portable sterilizer, benchtop sterilizers, sterilizer accessories Stirrers : Compact Stirrer, Air or Water driven magnetic stirrer, battery powered magnetic stirrer, Electromagnetic stirrers, stirrers and Hot plates, aluminum stirring hot plate, slow speed stirrer, digital stirring hot plate, stirring hot plate, stirring hot plate with temperature probe, digital stirring hot plate, multiposition stirrers, immersible modular stirrers, super magnetic stirrer, thermoline illuminating stirrer, large volume stirrer, stirring hot plate, stir bars, stir bar retrievers. Surface testing : durometer, pocket durometer, mini dial durometers, standard dial durometers, digital durometer, test block, portable hardness tester, hardness tester, ultrasonic thickness gauge, low cost ultrasonic thickness gauge, digital coating thickness gauge, mechanical magnetic thickness gauge, portable porosity detector, surface roughness tester, laminator, fail tester,  Syringes : disposable syringes, polypropylele sharp collector, jumbo syringes, needles, syringe pipettors, repetitive syringe dispensers, high performance syringers, microsyringes, gel loading syringes, stainless steel syringes. Tachometers and stroboscopes : tachometer with inverting display, digital tachometer, pocket tachometer, contact tachometer, laser tachometer, lcd tachometer, dual function tachometer, combination tachometer, combination optical tachometer / stroboscope, optical tachometer, tachometer / counter / totalizer, digital strobotachometer, digital stroboscopes. Tanks : polyethylene drums Temperature : Thermocouple calibrator / simulator, temperature calibrator, precicion multifunction calibrators, thermometer calibrators, economical temperature simulators, Precicion Multifunction Calibrator, Infrared digital Calibrator, thermometer calibrator, portable calibrator baths, thermometer calibration systems Temperature : Control, Panel Mount, thermocouple & RTD Panel Meters, Universal Input Panel Meters, Temperature Process controllers, Temperature / process controllers, universal input controller, temperature controller, temperature / process indicator, on/ off controllers, display temperature meters, AC Power Controller,  Temperature : alarms, temperature controller with timer, temperature transmitter system, temperature switch, incandescent light temperature switch, relays, Pocket thermometer, surface thermometer, anti bacterial pocket thermometer, solar powered adjustable angle thermometer, soil / compost thermometer, hot and cold holding thermometer, bimetal thermometer with 4 to 20 mA output, bimetal thermometer with type K thermocouple output, industrial bimetal thermometer, thermowells Temperature : Digital Indicator, pocket thermometer, pen style thermometer, wide range thermometer, long stem thermometer, large display thermometer, T bar head thermometer, adjustable angle thermometer, thermometer timer, thermometer with alarm, minimum and maximum reading thermometer, floating thermometer, thermohygrometer, solar powered thermometer, panel mount lcd thermometer, compact panel mount thermohygrometers Temperature : Glass thermometer, Partial emersion, total immersion, dairy thermometers, spirit filled thermometer, oven testing thermometer, thermometer magnifier Temperature : Infrared thermometer, IR Food thermometer, food safety infrared thermometer, compact infrared probes, laser sighted infrared thermometer, single laser, dual laser, scope sighting type, direct viewing infrared thermometers, infrared imaging camera, infrared sensor, infrared digital calibrator, infrared sensor with transmitters Temperature : thermocouple recorder, temperature recorder, wireless recorders, temperature / humidity datalogger, compact temperature dataloggers, large display temperature datalogger, multi point monitor, high temperature submersible datalogger, mini temperature datalogger Temperature : temp 6 rtd thermometer, rtd thermometer, rtd thermometer with ansi connector, precision rtd thermometer, high accuracy dual input platinum rtd thermometer, rtd probes, industrial rtd probes, protection head probe assemblies, RTD Transmitter, thermowellsanitary rtd assembly, rtd adapter, connector and extension cables Temperature : Thermistors, temp 4 and temp 5 thermistor thermometers, thermistor thermometer, water resistant handheld thermistor thermometer, five channel scanning thermistor thermometer, 400 and 500 series thermistor accessories, thermistor probe,  Temperature : Thermocouple instruments, type K swivel thermometer, Type K pocket thermometer, economical thermocouple thermometer, temp J/ K/ T thermometer, backlit type K thermometer, single-channel datalogging thermometer with rs 232 output, , type J/ k/ T thermocouple thermometers, type K thermometer, 50 series II thermocouple thermometer, water resistance thermocouple thermometer, dual J T E K thermocouple thermometer, 12 channel scanning thermometer, penetration probes, air/ gas probes, surface probespecialty surface probes, specialty surface probes, spring clamp probes, flexible insulated wire probes, fine gauge, high temperature flexible bare wire probes, thermocouples probes with stripped wire end, handles and detachable probe, thermocouple thermowellsthermocouple wire, thermocouple accessories, rubber boots for probe connections Tensiometer : contact angle micrometer, tensiometer, semiautomatic tensiometer, automatic tensiometer, bubble tensiometers Timer : stopwatch, mechanical stopwatch, digital timersintervalometer, electronic digital timers, programmable interval timer Titration : Volumetric Titration, portable titration, automatic titration, programmable titration, coulometric titration Tools : Laboratory Tools kit, electrical engraver, calipers and micrometers, Precision indicator, Vise Turbidity : Turbidity Meter, Portable Turbidity, Benchtop turbidity meter, Paddle stirrer Ultrasonic : Ultrasonic Cleaner, Stainless Steel Ultrasonic Cleaners, Ultrasonic Generator Systems Ultrasonic : Ultrasonic Processor, 130 Watt / 500 watt / 750 watt ultrasonic processors Ultraviolet equipment : Ultraviolet lamp, Pen UV Lamps, High intensity longwave UV Lamps, Hand held ultraviolet lamps, Three-way UV Lamps, Ultraviolet viewing cabinet, ultraviolet fluorescent tables, ultraviolet/ white light tables, UV Bench Lamps, UV Germicidal lamps, Ultraviolet intensity meters, germicidal detector and lamp monitor, UV Disinfections system monitor, high capacity ultraviolet sterilizer, combination filter / ultraviolet sterilizers Vacuum / Pressure Pumps : Dry Pump, Water lubricated pump, oil lubricated pump, hand held operated vacuum / pressure pumps, venturi vacuum pumps Valves : Globe Valves, Gate Valves, Butterfly valves, Check valves, PVC Ball Valves, Metering Ball Valves, Elliptical Valves, Three Way ball Valves, Teflon Ball Valves, Carbon steel Valves, Stainless Steel Valves, Alloy Steel Valves, True Union Valves, Ystrainer, diaphragm valves, Pipe joint compound, thread sealer, Needle Valves, Metering Valves, Volumetric Gas Mass Flow Controller, Spray Nozzle, slow rotation nozzle, pinch valves, solenoid valves, pneumatic solenoid and manifold block, Plastic Valves, Cryogenic Liquid CO2 Solenoid Valves, Gas Regulator, Pressure Relief Valves, Pneumatic Actuated Butterfly valve, deionized water valves, pneumatic drain valves Vials : Cap crimper, decrimper Vibration : Vibration Meter, Pocket vibration Meter, vibration with electronic stethoscope, industrial vibration monitor, machine monitor Viscometer : Falling Ball Viscometer, Portable disposable Viscometer, ford viscosity cups, consistometer, bubble viscometer kits, sample viscometer, glass capillary viscometers, visco clockbath cooler, constant temperature bath, viscosity baths, sybolt viscometer bath, rotational viscometer Washer : Glassware washers,  Water purification : Reverse osmosis systems, water purification system, b pue, e pure, nano pure RO, Easy pure, deionization system, Filter Cartridges, Ion Exchange Cartridges, Monobed Deionizers, Laboratory Water still, compact general purpose stills, distillation system, automatic glass still, ultraviolet sterilizers Water sampling : Drum and Tank samplers, extendable tank sampler, HDPE Coliwasa, swing samplers, bailers, water level loggers, water level indicator, water samplers, dredges, coretaker, portable sampler kits, sludge nabber, portable sampler, composite samplerperistaltic sampler, peristaltic sampling pump, GPS Water Testing : Bacterial testing equipment, colorimeter, digestion apparatus, dye tracers, lead analyzers, multiparameter meters, test kits, test strips, water quality test strips, titrimetric test kit, colorimetric test kits, lead test kits, arsenic test kit, coliform test kit, bacterial assay kit, liquid sanitizer strength verification kits, collection system, dye tracers, liquid analysis system, single test colorimeter kits, aquamate visible and UV / Visible Water analysis spectrophotometers, pH/ conductivity/ temperature meter, Portable multiparameter meter, water quality meters, handheld analysis system, flexible electrode holder, digestion apparatus, lead analyzer Weather Measurement : Compass, digital compass, thermoanemometer, weather radio, barometer / altimeter, weather monitor, digital wireless weather center, wireless weather stations, professional weather stations, weather transmitters, rain gauges, digital rainfall gauge, wireless digital rain gauge, water deep gauge. Kami menjual bermacam macam kebutuhan chemical industri, yang lain nya.
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DDK Scientific DDK Scientific, Corp. provides a wide range of services to the pharmaceutical, healthcare and food industries. Our associates have over 100 years of combined experience in the areas of: • Design, manufacture and validate custom Ultraviolet light (UV) tunnel and UV pass through for surface sterilization. • Design, manufacture and validate custom room air sterilization equipment for hospital rooms and doctor’s waiting rooms. • Design, manufacture and validate USP 797 compliant isolators • Design, manufacture and validate custom isolators • Design, manufacture and validate custom clean rooms, modular clean rooms and portable clean rooms • Design, construct and validate stem cell research laboratories
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TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
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TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
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BonaudiDesign | Product Design and Development Bonaudi™; is an award-winning Industrial Design and Manufacturing firm based in Shanghai, China. Since 2004, we have been offering a unique and fast-paced design solution for Individuals, Startups, and Corporations from all over the world. Our online support and International Associates allow us to provide you with a 24/7 support no matter where you or your business is located. We have the perfect set of tools and professionals you need to kickstart your new business idea.
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Jeff Boss for Congress from NYC 2018 - JEFF  BOSS  WITNESSED  THE  NSA  PLAN  THE   911  ATTACKS! JEFF  IS  ON  THE  BALLOT  FOR  THE  3RD TIME  IN  2016  FOR CONGRESS .    WWW.BOSSFORCONGRESS.COM.   JEFF  IS  AN  NSA  WHISTLE BLOWER.JEFF BOSS WITNESSED THE TOP HIGHEST CLEARANCE IN THE NSA GIVING PHONE CARDS TO THE 911 HIJACKERS IN MARCH OF 2001, AND TALKING ABOUT FLYING 12 PLANES INTO BUILDINGS ON THE SAME DAY. JEFF HAS OVER 500 PEOPLE ON DVD ADMITTING THE NSA GAVE THEM $20,000 TO KEEP QUIET AFTER THEY RECEIVED JEFF’S CAMPAIGN LITERATURE ABOUT THE NSA ARRANGING THE 911 ATTACKS. JEFF HAS OVER 40 AFFIDAVITS FROM PEOPLE SAYING THEY WERE GIVEN $20,000 FROM THE NSA TO KEEP QUIET AND WERE THREATENED WITH HARM IF THEY TOLD ANYONE, THAT THE NSA DID THE 911 ATTACKS. JEFF HAS A LIST OF OVER 10,000+ PEOPLE WHO GOT THE $20,000 FROM THE NSA.IN THE PAST JEFF WAS ON THE BALLOT FOR PRESIDENT(2008,2012), U.S. SENATE 2008, 2014 (11,000 votes in 2008),  CONGRESS, GOVERNOR OF NJ(2009 & 2013)(16,074 votes in 2009), State Senate. NO MAIN STREAM MEDIA IN THE USA WILL RUN JEFF’S STORY. THE MEDIA IS CONTROLLED BY THE  NSA.I Witnessed a family member, high up in the NSA (National Security Agency) planning the 911 attack. She was helping Ramsi Yousef (responsible for the 93 bombing at the World Trade Center) call his uncle Khalid Sheikh Mohammed(considered the mastermind of the 911 attack) from the NSA secret prison in Alexandria, VA and she was talking about flying 12 planes into buildings. She was providing phone cards to what turned out to be the hijackers. I never heard the dates or the names of the buildings and I never thought anything would ever happen. But on September 10, 2001 I was told to go the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. My first day in a new office, and I was yelled at by 4 supervisors not to be late. I was late. Thank G-d. The NSA wanted the oil in Iraq, which has the second largest oil reserve in the world. Certain powerful people in the NSA told me that the electronic voting machines can be hacked into and the vote changed within seconds. If we do not have our vote, then we are not a democracy. By creating a culture of Fear, the NSA has helped to pass the Patriot Act, which trashes our Constitution. Now the NSA doesn’t need a warrant to listen to every ones phone calls & emails or go into their homes. The NSA is now listening to every ones phone calls and e mails using an enormous computer. The NSA spies on Wall Street and makes unlimited money. America has been overthrown by the NSA, our Civil liberties, Constitution, and Democracy are rapidly disappearing. I will not let them hijack my country. The NSA controls the media and prevents Jeff Boss’s message from being heard. Don’t you think a person who was on the ballot for President of the United States twice & U.S. Senate in New Jersey twice, and Governor of New Jersey (twice), State Senate,  and has filed to be on the ballot for  President in 2016, and talked about the NSA arranging the 911 attack would be known? The Star Ledger, NY Times and Jersey Journal refused to run my paid for political ads. I have videos of over 500 people on DVD admitting on tape that the NSA gave them $20,000 to keep quiet after they received my campaign literature and threatened to kill them if they told anyone that the NSA did the 911 attacks. I have over 40 affidavits from people saying the same thing. I have over 20 U.S. servicemen in uniform saying the same thing on DVD. I even have Al Gore admitting that the NSA did the 911 attacks on DVD using an NSA secret code. Every time I post the videos, they are edited out or altered, even on You Tube. Every time I am on TV or Radio and talk about the 911 attack or show videos they are edited out. THINGS I WILL DO FOR YOU AS YOUR CONGRESSMAN.$20.00  minimum wage. Legalize Marijuana and Tax the sale. Free Internet College for all under and graduate degrees. It is time that anyone who wants to be a lawyer, nurse, doctor, or any degree is free on the internet for everyone, including books. Get rid of the Patriot Act. Get our Constitution back.  No killing at the animal shelters. 100,000+ of new modular apartments where the rent is no more than $200 for a 1 bedroom in every state No more car insurance a $400 flat rate insured by the State. No federal tax for federal workers. No state tax for city & state workers. Legalize sports betting at your lottery machines and use the revenue to open 100 charter schools with union teachers in every state. We will make the schools in U.S. the best in the world. Dogs allowed in restaurants and clubs like they are in France. Equal rights for everyone. I have a lot of great ideas to make the United States the best country in the world. Since the NSA is trying to kill me every day for whistle blowing on the NSA. I have been involved with the NSA for more than 25 years. My home and car are bugged and poisoned,  I have a letter from a security company saying RF waves are off the charts coming out of my car.  I have William Binney a former top NSA Deputy admitting on camera that the NSA is trying to kill me for whistle blowing.  I HAVE BEEN STAYING PART TIME AT MY FRIENDS HOUSE AT 201 WEST 117TH ST APT 2B NYC, AND THE APARTMENT IS BUGGED AND POISONED BY THE NSA. IMPEACH PRESIDENT OBAMA FOR AUTHORIZING THE NSA TO KILL JEFF BOSS CANDIDATE FOR CONGRESSS FOR THE 3RD TIME. The following is how the NSA in my opinion operates illegally in America and around the world. The NSA has unlimited money and spends hundreds of billions of dollars a year on this program. The NSA trades on insider information, from their illegally spying on Wall Street and makes as much money as they need. The NSA has millions of spy’s across the globe. 95% of anyone that comes from a foreign country who spend more than 30 days in America, or goes to college in America is recruited by the NSA and is sent back as a spy to sabotage and spy on their home country. THE NSA HAS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF SPYS IN EVERY COUNTRY.  IF THESE FOREIGNERS REFUSE, THE NSA TELLS THEM THAT THE NSA WILL KILL THEM AND THEIR FAMILIES. 90% of all the Congressman, Senators and Governors staff are employed by the NSA. This includes all the interns on Capitol Hill. This way the NSA spies on them and gathers dirt on them. 70% of all doormen, security guards, including at every Federal building, are working for the NSA. This way the NSA can break into anyone’s home or office. The NSA controls the lie detecting machines in almost all Federal agencies. 90% of all store managers work for the NSA, 50% of all nurses, 50% of all pharmacists, 30% of all U.S Marshalls and lots of FBI Police have been recruited by the NSA, and every Chief of Police, and most Sergeants and Lieutenants in every town works for the NSA. 90% of the graduating class at West Point, Annapolis, Air Force, and Coast Guard Academy are recruited by the NSA. This way the NSA controls the top people in the Military, and this is another way the NSA has overthrown America. The NSA also recruits every Valedictorian in every high school in America. 90% of every student that attends an Ivy league school is recruited by the NSA along with Georgetown and GW. This way when these people get into powerful positions, the NSA owns them. The NSA is ten times worse than the Nazis and kills hundreds of thousands of people a year who are on their list. That includes protesters, people who question the government, and many others. The NSA kills hundreds of thousands of people a year by poisoning their food. The NSA has a chef and coffee maker in almost every coffee shop and restaurant.  Don’t eat out with your cell phone with you, and microwave all your id’s and credit cards for 4 seconds only, to throw off the GPS tracking that is in the credit cards and driver’s license. You will see the silver eagle on the back of the credit card with lines through the wings. This means that the GPS chip is broken. It won’t hurt your credit card or id’s. The NSA poisoned the food of the clean up crews at ground zero that worked the pile. The Ground Zero clean up crews found unexploded explosives in the pile. The NSA didn’t want any witnesses.  My telephone # is 201-887-3910 and my e mail is jeffboss1@aol.com. The NSA has been intercepting my phone calls and email so it is best to meet me in NYC on the first Monday of the Month in front of the NY Times 8th Ave entrance at 11am-11.30am. My websites are being altered or blocked by the NSA. Whenever, I go to the FBI the agents working for the NSA, block my complaints from being seen or write bad reports about me as directed by the NSA.  I have filed over 20+ complaints with the FBI & the U.S. Attorney''s office. The FBI doesn''t seem to care that tens of thousands of Americans have been threatened with death if they tell anyone that the NSA did the 911 attacks.A lot of people are saying THIS  PAPER  IS  WORTH  $20,000 TO THE NSA TO GET BACK. If the NSA offers you a job remember, if you really work for the NSA you spend months training, get finger printed, background checked, a healthcare plan, a Government ID, a W2 , a Pension plan, If the NSA offers  you a job you better get all those things or they are  just  giving you hush money till they kill you. IF you take the NSA money, you must tell  30+ people that the NSA gave you money to cover up for the NSA  doing the 911 attacks, or the NSA will kill you. WHEN YOU TELL 30+ PEOPLE, INCLUDING PEOPLE IN THE GOVERNMENT, THE NSA WILL LEAVE YOU ALONE. THE MORE PEOPLE YOU TELL THE SAFER YOU ARE! The NSA will throw some type of hypnotic wave through your cell phone to keep you quiet. IF YOU DON’T GET THE MONEY THAT MEANS THAT YOU EITHER WORK FOR THE GOVERNMENT OR ARE ON A NSA LIST AS A PROTESTER, OR SOME ONE WHO QUESTIONS OUR GOVERNMENT. IF THE NSA DOESN’T APPROACH YOU PLEASE TELL EVERYONE YOU KNOW MY STORY. ATTENTION NSA AGENTS: Secret code word is leave it on the ground. Over 40,000+ NSA agents have been killed, to cover up for the NSA doing the 911 attacks. It is time not to follow these traitors, that are running the NSA. Possible Russian moles are running the Agency. Speak out and put my story in the media and save America.  Possible RFD chip in the paper, use a microscope. My printer told me on camera that the NSA is giving him special paper to print with, that has a chip in the paper, so the NSA can track who gets the paper. The only people with this technology is the NSA  
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Oorja Corporation | Enabling power by extending battery range for the telecommunications and materials-handling industries Oorja Corporation develops and manufactures direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)-based power systems that use methanol, combining a fuel cell and a traditional battery to provide a high-power solution that significantly reduces operating costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Oorja designs, develops, and commercializes reliable, economical modular DMFCs ranging in power from 1 to 5 kW, which…
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Calex DC DC Converters, COTS Power Modules, AC DC Power Supplies and Signal Conditioners Calex offers a full selection of DC DC converters, CBAM™ Calex Brick Assembly Modules, AC DC power supplies and signal conditioners for the telecommunications, avionics, aerospace, process control and medical industries.
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Jeff Boss for Congress from NYC 2018 - JEFF  BOSS  WITNESSED  THE  NSA  PLAN  THE   911  ATTACKS! JEFF  IS  ON  THE  BALLOT  FOR  THE  3RD TIME  IN  2016  FOR CONGRESS .    WWW.BOSSFORCONGRESS.COM.   JEFF  IS  AN  NSA  WHISTLE BLOWER.JEFF BOSS WITNESSED THE TOP HIGHEST CLEARANCE IN THE NSA GIVING PHONE CARDS TO THE 911 HIJACKERS IN MARCH OF 2001, AND TALKING ABOUT FLYING 12 PLANES INTO BUILDINGS ON THE SAME DAY. JEFF HAS OVER 500 PEOPLE ON DVD ADMITTING THE NSA GAVE THEM $20,000 TO KEEP QUIET AFTER THEY RECEIVED JEFF’S CAMPAIGN LITERATURE ABOUT THE NSA ARRANGING THE 911 ATTACKS. JEFF HAS OVER 40 AFFIDAVITS FROM PEOPLE SAYING THEY WERE GIVEN $20,000 FROM THE NSA TO KEEP QUIET AND WERE THREATENED WITH HARM IF THEY TOLD ANYONE, THAT THE NSA DID THE 911 ATTACKS. JEFF HAS A LIST OF OVER 10,000+ PEOPLE WHO GOT THE $20,000 FROM THE NSA.IN THE PAST JEFF WAS ON THE BALLOT FOR PRESIDENT(2008,2012), U.S. SENATE 2008, 2014 (11,000 votes in 2008),  CONGRESS, GOVERNOR OF NJ(2009 & 2013)(16,074 votes in 2009), State Senate. NO MAIN STREAM MEDIA IN THE USA WILL RUN JEFF’S STORY. THE MEDIA IS CONTROLLED BY THE  NSA.I Witnessed a family member, high up in the NSA (National Security Agency) planning the 911 attack. She was helping Ramsi Yousef (responsible for the 93 bombing at the World Trade Center) call his uncle Khalid Sheikh Mohammed(considered the mastermind of the 911 attack) from the NSA secret prison in Alexandria, VA and she was talking about flying 12 planes into buildings. She was providing phone cards to what turned out to be the hijackers. I never heard the dates or the names of the buildings and I never thought anything would ever happen. But on September 10, 2001 I was told to go the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. My first day in a new office, and I was yelled at by 4 supervisors not to be late. I was late. Thank G-d. The NSA wanted the oil in Iraq, which has the second largest oil reserve in the world. Certain powerful people in the NSA told me that the electronic voting machines can be hacked into and the vote changed within seconds. If we do not have our vote, then we are not a democracy. By creating a culture of Fear, the NSA has helped to pass the Patriot Act, which trashes our Constitution. Now the NSA doesn’t need a warrant to listen to every ones phone calls & emails or go into their homes. The NSA is now listening to every ones phone calls and e mails using an enormous computer. The NSA spies on Wall Street and makes unlimited money. America has been overthrown by the NSA, our Civil liberties, Constitution, and Democracy are rapidly disappearing. I will not let them hijack my country. The NSA controls the media and prevents Jeff Boss’s message from being heard. Don’t you think a person who was on the ballot for President of the United States twice & U.S. Senate in New Jersey twice, and Governor of New Jersey (twice), State Senate,  and has filed to be on the ballot for  President in 2016, and talked about the NSA arranging the 911 attack would be known? The Star Ledger, NY Times and Jersey Journal refused to run my paid for political ads. I have videos of over 500 people on DVD admitting on tape that the NSA gave them $20,000 to keep quiet after they received my campaign literature and threatened to kill them if they told anyone that the NSA did the 911 attacks. I have over 40 affidavits from people saying the same thing. I have over 20 U.S. servicemen in uniform saying the same thing on DVD. I even have Al Gore admitting that the NSA did the 911 attacks on DVD using an NSA secret code. Every time I post the videos, they are edited out or altered, even on You Tube. Every time I am on TV or Radio and talk about the 911 attack or show videos they are edited out. THINGS I WILL DO FOR YOU AS YOUR CONGRESSMAN.$20.00  minimum wage. Legalize Marijuana and Tax the sale. Free Internet College for all under and graduate degrees. It is time that anyone who wants to be a lawyer, nurse, doctor, or any degree is free on the internet for everyone, including books. Get rid of the Patriot Act. Get our Constitution back.  No killing at the animal shelters. 100,000+ of new modular apartments where the rent is no more than $200 for a 1 bedroom in every state No more car insurance a $400 flat rate insured by the State. No federal tax for federal workers. No state tax for city & state workers. Legalize sports betting at your lottery machines and use the revenue to open 100 charter schools with union teachers in every state. We will make the schools in U.S. the best in the world. Dogs allowed in restaurants and clubs like they are in France. Equal rights for everyone. I have a lot of great ideas to make the United States the best country in the world. Since the NSA is trying to kill me every day for whistle blowing on the NSA. I have been involved with the NSA for more than 25 years. My home and car are bugged and poisoned,  I have a letter from a security company saying RF waves are off the charts coming out of my car.  I have William Binney a former top NSA Deputy admitting on camera that the NSA is trying to kill me for whistle blowing.  I HAVE BEEN STAYING PART TIME AT MY FRIENDS HOUSE AT 201 WEST 117TH ST APT 2B NYC, AND THE APARTMENT IS BUGGED AND POISONED BY THE NSA. IMPEACH PRESIDENT OBAMA FOR AUTHORIZING THE NSA TO KILL JEFF BOSS CANDIDATE FOR CONGRESSS FOR THE 3RD TIME. The following is how the NSA in my opinion operates illegally in America and around the world. The NSA has unlimited money and spends hundreds of billions of dollars a year on this program. The NSA trades on insider information, from their illegally spying on Wall Street and makes as much money as they need. The NSA has millions of spy’s across the globe. 95% of anyone that comes from a foreign country who spend more than 30 days in America, or goes to college in America is recruited by the NSA and is sent back as a spy to sabotage and spy on their home country. THE NSA HAS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF SPYS IN EVERY COUNTRY.  IF THESE FOREIGNERS REFUSE, THE NSA TELLS THEM THAT THE NSA WILL KILL THEM AND THEIR FAMILIES. 90% of all the Congressman, Senators and Governors staff are employed by the NSA. This includes all the interns on Capitol Hill. This way the NSA spies on them and gathers dirt on them. 70% of all doormen, security guards, including at every Federal building, are working for the NSA. This way the NSA can break into anyone’s home or office. The NSA controls the lie detecting machines in almost all Federal agencies. 90% of all store managers work for the NSA, 50% of all nurses, 50% of all pharmacists, 30% of all U.S Marshalls and lots of FBI Police have been recruited by the NSA, and every Chief of Police, and most Sergeants and Lieutenants in every town works for the NSA. 90% of the graduating class at West Point, Annapolis, Air Force, and Coast Guard Academy are recruited by the NSA. This way the NSA controls the top people in the Military, and this is another way the NSA has overthrown America. The NSA also recruits every Valedictorian in every high school in America. 90% of every student that attends an Ivy league school is recruited by the NSA along with Georgetown and GW. This way when these people get into powerful positions, the NSA owns them. The NSA is ten times worse than the Nazis and kills hundreds of thousands of people a year who are on their list. That includes protesters, people who question the government, and many others. The NSA kills hundreds of thousands of people a year by poisoning their food. The NSA has a chef and coffee maker in almost every coffee shop and restaurant.  Don’t eat out with your cell phone with you, and microwave all your id’s and credit cards for 4 seconds only, to throw off the GPS tracking that is in the credit cards and driver’s license. You will see the silver eagle on the back of the credit card with lines through the wings. This means that the GPS chip is broken. It won’t hurt your credit card or id’s. The NSA poisoned the food of the clean up crews at ground zero that worked the pile. The Ground Zero clean up crews found unexploded explosives in the pile. The NSA didn’t want any witnesses.  My telephone # is 201-887-3910 and my e mail is jeffboss1@aol.com. The NSA has been intercepting my phone calls and email so it is best to meet me in NYC on the first Monday of the Month in front of the NY Times 8th Ave entrance at 11am-11.30am. My websites are being altered or blocked by the NSA. Whenever, I go to the FBI the agents working for the NSA, block my complaints from being seen or write bad reports about me as directed by the NSA.  I have filed over 20+ complaints with the FBI & the U.S. Attorney''s office. The FBI doesn''t seem to care that tens of thousands of Americans have been threatened with death if they tell anyone that the NSA did the 911 attacks.A lot of people are saying THIS  PAPER  IS  WORTH  $20,000 TO THE NSA TO GET BACK. If the NSA offers you a job remember, if you really work for the NSA you spend months training, get finger printed, background checked, a healthcare plan, a Government ID, a W2 , a Pension plan, If the NSA offers  you a job you better get all those things or they are  just  giving you hush money till they kill you. IF you take the NSA money, you must tell  30+ people that the NSA gave you money to cover up for the NSA  doing the 911 attacks, or the NSA will kill you. WHEN YOU TELL 30+ PEOPLE, INCLUDING PEOPLE IN THE GOVERNMENT, THE NSA WILL LEAVE YOU ALONE. THE MORE PEOPLE YOU TELL THE SAFER YOU ARE! The NSA will throw some type of hypnotic wave through your cell phone to keep you quiet. IF YOU DON’T GET THE MONEY THAT MEANS THAT YOU EITHER WORK FOR THE GOVERNMENT OR ARE ON A NSA LIST AS A PROTESTER, OR SOME ONE WHO QUESTIONS OUR GOVERNMENT. IF THE NSA DOESN’T APPROACH YOU PLEASE TELL EVERYONE YOU KNOW MY STORY. ATTENTION NSA AGENTS: Secret code word is leave it on the ground. Over 40,000+ NSA agents have been killed, to cover up for the NSA doing the 911 attacks. It is time not to follow these traitors, that are running the NSA. Possible Russian moles are running the Agency. Speak out and put my story in the media and save America.  Possible RFD chip in the paper, use a microscope. My printer told me on camera that the NSA is giving him special paper to print with, that has a chip in the paper, so the NSA can track who gets the paper. The only people with this technology is the NSA  
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ACEMEX-ELECTROAMERICA : PESAJE INDUSTRIAL Fabricantes de Bsculas y Sistemas de Pesaje Industrial. Automatizacin de Procesos y Desarrollo de Software de Control. Ms de 46 aos de experiencia desde 1970.
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Calex DC DC Converters, COTS Power Modules, AC DC Power Supplies and Signal Conditioners Calex offers a full selection of DC DC converters, CBAM™ Calex Brick Assembly Modules, AC DC power supplies and signal conditioners for the telecommunications, avionics, aerospace, process control and medical industries.
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Industrial Vending Machines IIC Seaga''s IIC industrial vending machines deliver on point-of-use access inventory management for industrial, PPE and MRO supplies. The industrial vending machine system eliminates stock outages while increasing productivity and removing human error from stock recordkeeping and control.
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Lone Worker Safety- GraceLoneWorker.com – Work Alone Proactive Protection of Lone Workers with Immediate Notification Does Not Rely on Cellular Service • No Fee • Intrinsically Safe • Extremely Rugged
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My title BI/OND the versatile Organ-on -chip platform. BI/OND Empowers biologists with hardware solutions for cell-based assays. BI/OND’s customizable Organ-on-Chips (OOCs) are built to outperform the limitation of standard in vitro assays. In the early phase of drug testing, Petri dishes and animals can fall short of predicting what happens inside the human body. To achieve accurate disease models and thus better medicine, it is fundamental to recreate human physiology and pathology. BI/OND offers unique hardware solutions for OOC applications that can be used to achieve this goal.
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+91-9999173744 Digital Hearing Aids In Gurgaon | Hearing Loss Test in Gurgaon | Audiologist At Gurgaon Hearing Aids Center, we ensure that the people of Gurgaon have access to professional, independent and affordable hearing care treatment. Being proudly independent, we always identify the best treatments for our clients from the full range of available solutions - including hearing testing, rehabilitation, counselling and hearing aids from all leading manufacturers.
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MakerHackerBuilder This space promotes curiosity and cooperation. More companies are joining the philosophy of open software and hardware. Hacker/Makerspaces are opening all over the world. The Internet, especially with sites like Quirky, Instructables and You Tube, have changed the way people, ideas and resources come together. People are going out of their way to Cooperate and share.The Hacker – Maker - Builder movement is upon us.Through knowledge comes understanding. The term ''hacker'' really describes a personwho understands a topic well enough to interact with it.Take what you know and learn to build upon it. Experiment, fail and create.Re-imagine something in a new context. All new art and music come through hacks.Inventions and innovations always come about by making incremental changes to existing things (and thoughts)that evolve into wonders.Nothing is created in a vacuum.Share what you know. Everyone has something to offer. Humans got to where we are by getting better and better at passing knowledge along. Partake of any of the opportunities that are multiplying in societies. Encourage cooperation on any front. Cross pollinate your ideas with whomever will listen. Innovators everywhere are using things in new ways and combining them into new products. Be a part of that.
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Fermentor - Lambda Minifor | The World‘s most innovative Fermentor for your laboratory Laboratory fermentor LAMBDA MINIFOR offers a specially designed compact, modular, autoclavable, bench-top fermentation and cell culture system
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Wiring Diagram | A visual representation of the electrical system or circuit in a vehicle machine. This article is an ultimate tutorial for wiring diagram Wiring Diagram | A visual representation of the electrical system or circuit in a vehicle machine. This article is an ultimate tutorial for wiring diagram
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Science – Technology – Innovation & Ciência – Tecnologia – Inovação @ Rodrigo Nunes Cal – The human life expectancy needs to increase very rapidly through excellent ideas and innovations. @ A expectativa de vida humana precisa aumentar muito rapidamente por meio de excelentes ideias e inovações. & Sou uma pessoa que tenta aprender com os próprio erros para não cometê-los futuramente. Estou sempre em busca do processo de evolução em todos os níveis. I am a person who tries to learn from my own mistakes to not commit them in the future. I´m always looking for the process of evolution at all levels. The human life expectancy needs to increase very rapidly through excellent ideas and innovations. @ A expectativa de vida humana precisa aumentar muito rapidamente por meio de excelentes ideias e inovações. & Sou uma pessoa que tenta aprender com os próprio erros para não cometê-los futuramente. Estou sempre em busca do processo de evolução em todos os níveis. I am a person who tries to learn from my own mistakes to not commit them in the future. I´m always looking for the process of evolution at all levels.
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ExecutiveBiz – An Executive Mosaic Media Property Iridium Communications CEO Matt Desch said he believes the industry needs new regulations that would mitigate failed satellites and other space debris in orbit, Space Intel Report reported Wednesday. Desch, a 2019 Wash100 winner, said those regulations should include a policy that would ground satellite and rocket developers in the event of an in-orbit failure and require them to determine the cause of the problem.
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Charite - Experimental Surgery Experimental Surgery, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Surgery, researcj projects, publications and news
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AutoCrib® | Leaders in Vending Solutions Since 1995 AutoCrib® can vend about anything. Learn more about our industrial vending products that can help you with your inventory management issues.
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Welcome to MVR Technology Manufacturer, Supplier and exporter of Weighbridge, Portable Weighbridges, Electronic Weighbridge, Single Axle Weighbridges from Andhra Pradesh, India
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Kamiya Biomedical Company K-ASSAY, The Assay You can Trust...
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Neptech Inc. - New Product Technology Neptech, Inc. provides custom product and filtration solutions for processes requiring consistent temperature control of industrial fluids, gases, and air.
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SANU VENTILATION SYSTEM The SANU VENTILATION SYSTEM was born exclusively for the UAE market from the union of the over thirty years of SANU Company with ITALIAN TECHNOLOGY for the design, the production, the construction andthe installation of industrial air ventilation systems, air purification, powerlessair ventilation, industrial fans, gravity vent and industrial supply.
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Kamiya Biomedical Company K-ASSAY, The Assay You can Trust...