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[ line dream garden ] line dream garden fan page. a directory of sorts. consists of lists of slot combos, events etc. *disclaimer: translations from JP to ENG are put through Google Translator, therefore prone to mistakes....
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PP Strapping Band Making Machine, Mono Filament Making Machine (HDPE/LD PE/PP), PP String (Sutli) Making Machine, Pipe Making Machine, Blown Film Making Machine, Wire And Cable Coating Line, Recycling Line With Pelletiser, Auxilary Equipment we are Extrusion Machinery Manufacturer, Manufacturer of Extrusion Line, Manufacturer of Thermoplastic Extrusion Machinery in India, Ahmedabad. Our Product line consists plastic processing machinery, PP Strapping Band Making Machine, Mono Filament Making Machine (HDPE/LD PE/PP), PP String (Sutli) Making Machine, Pipe Making Machine, Blown Film Making Machine, Wire And Cable Coating Line, Recycling Line With Pelletiser, Auxilary Equipment
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Spiral Formed Wire Products - Helical Line Products Helical Line Products in Ohio is a manufacturer of spiral formed wire products. Our product line consists of items that are used primarily for the protection and support of conductors and strand
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Gastroenterologists in Chester County, PA | Main Line Gastroenterology Main Line Gastroenterology Associates consists of 21 board-certified gastroenterologists near Philadelphia, PA. Click here to learn more.
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:: Main Line Executive Realty :: Main Line Executive Realty''s team consists of highly-trained experts in every aspect of property management, including marketing, leasing, maintenance, collections, evictions, accounting, inspections, and legal compliance.
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RS ENGINEERING PROJECTS | RSEP has executed RSEP projects in wide segments consists of Industrial, I. T. Spaces, Commercial Spaces etc. dynamic engineers determination to be the successful total solution provider in Electrical Engineering established RSEP in 2016. RSEP has executed RSEP projects in wide segments consists of Industrial, I. T. Spaces, Commercial Spaces etc. dynamic engineers determination to be the successful total solution provider in Electrical Engineering established RSEP in 2016. Their commitment and loyalty towards the deliverables has transformed RSEP to a great success. RSEP is well reputed for their standards in all the services and workmanship, which in turn ''value for money'' to the customer. RSEP is always having approach towards total customer satisfaction and is looking for sustained long term relationship.
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perceptioniseverythingdotcom | Art, like morality, consists of drawing the line somewhere. Art, like morality, consists of drawing the line somewhere.
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DMP Harris Printing - business Acquired and owned by Centurion Print Ltd, Auckland. DMP-Harris has been acquired by Centurion Print, Auckland. consists also of Corporate Print Solutions, Axis Print and Trueprint. We are not just printers, we are so much more...marketing, logo design, brochures, flyers, marketing cards, promotional products, calendars, mail outs, direct mail, business cards, letterhead, banners and display stands, memo pads, graphic design services, offset and digital print requirements. In fact all your printing solutions.
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The Perfect Pucker, Natural Therapy For Your Lips & Skin The Perfect Pucker is a line of skin care products that keeps your skin looking and feeling its best. Made primarily from naturally derived ingredients, the line consists of flavored lip remedies, hand lotions, body butters, a foot care line, and much more There''s even a line for men called ML 143. Our signature product is our Lip Exfoliant. This amazing product heals dry, chapped lips with the use of natural and organic ingredients. It conditions and softens your lips, making them instantl
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Little Roseberry, Natural Personal Care Products for Kids made in USA. Little Roseberry is a line of natural children personal care products for your family made in USA, using organic ingredients with the most honest and transparent ingredients that you would want to use with your children. Our line consists of a line of personal care products for kids such as hair gels, baby shampoo, etc
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Little Roseberry, Natural Personal Care Products for Kids made in USA. Little Roseberry is a line of natural children personal care products for your family made in USA, using organic ingredients with the most honest and transparent ingredients that you would want to use with your children. Our line consists of a line of personal care products for kids such as hair gels, baby shampoo, etc
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Shavonne Dorsey Designs Shavonne Dorsey Designs - When a woman wears a Shavonne Dorsey design, she exudes opulence, class and beauty. Created for curvaceous women, the line makes women feel powerfully feminine and sophisticated. The Shavonne Dorsey line consists of strat...
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Wholesale LARP Weapons, Clothing, Armor, Distributor of Epic Armoury at LARP Distribution LARP Distribution is your leading U.S. wholesale distributor for the Epic Armoury product line. Our Epic Armoury product line consists of Live Action Roleplaying weapons and armour that is ever expanding.
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Furniture designed for a relaxed lifestyle - TRADEWINDS Furniture Trade Winds Furniture is designed for a relaxed lifestyle — our line consists of cottage and coastal, transitional and traditional, all with a colorful flair. Everything in our line is hand-made, hand-painted, and hand-rubbed creating a lightly-distressed appearance. Our designs mix and match well, changing personality as different color options are applied.Our furniture is made from plantation-grown and kiln-dried mahogany and mindy, as well as premium hardwood veneers
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Frontpage | Fine Line Network Fine Line is a full service production company focused on innovative concepts with a fresh approach. The combined experience of the in-house team covers award-winning short films, innovative commercials, state of the art corporate videos, interesting documentaries and tailored media content. The company consists of four departments working closely to transform an idea into an eye
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Visa We are a natural, vegan, 100% cruelty free, hemp-derived oil enhanced makeup line. Our entire line consists of 100% hemp derived CBD which only contains trace amounts of CBD (0.3%) made in the USA.
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J Weber Jewelry J Weber Jewelry is a fine jewelry line that features a subtle modern twist on classic design. Our earrings and necklaces integrate precious and semi precious gemstones with fine metals. We''re located in Brooklyn, New York and work throughout NYC. Our designs are sold online and in brick and mortar shops. Our line consists of delicate fine jewelry that utilizes gemstones to playfully combine light and color. We also offer customized bridesmaids jewelry in affordable packages.
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Wholesale LARP Weapons, Clothing, Armor, Distributor of Epic Armoury at LARP Distribution LARP Distribution is your leading U.S. wholesale distributor for the Epic Armoury product line. Our Epic Armoury product line consists of Live Action Roleplaying weapons and armour that is ever expanding.
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Furniture designed for a relaxed lifestyle - TRADEWINDS Furniture Trade Winds Furniture is designed for a relaxed lifestyle — our line consists of cottage and coastal, transitional and traditional, all with a colorful flair. Everything in our line is hand-made, hand-painted, and hand-rubbed creating a lightly-distressed appearance. Our designs mix and match well, changing personality as different color options are applied.Our furniture is made from plantation-grown and kiln-dried mahogany and mindy, as well as premium hardwood veneers
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Visa We are a trendy fast fashion retailer that specifically targets young fashion forward modest women. We search the fashion world for styles that are fashion forward and super trendy that can be worn by a modest woman, our line consists of modest denim skirts, modest dresses, modest tops, layering tops & shells.
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Karlyn Industries Ignition Wire Sets, STI Wire Sets, PHAT WIRES, Bremi Ignition & Suspension Parts Karlyn Industries is a manufacturer and distributor of ignition and suspension parts for Japanese and European cars. Our product line consists of ignition cable sets (including STI wire sets & PHAT wire sets), distributor caps, rotors, direct ignition coils and front end suspension parts
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Barrington Automation: Precision pneumatic grippers, linear actuators, rotary actuators, pick and place units, robotic work cells Barrington Automation designs and manufactures modular components for factory automation. The complete line consists of pnuematic linear actuators and rotary actuators, precision grippers, table slides and elevating tables which fit together to provide an endless variety of motion combinations to create pick and place units for robotic work cells. American made.
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+FE Music | Home The official website of Grammy nominated independent soul duo The Foreign Exchange and their imprint, +FE Music. The Foreign Exchange consists of American rapper/singer/songwriter Phonte and Dutch producer/multi-instrumentalist Nicolay. Visit this website for news, music, videos, photos, tourdates and downloads.
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Riley Blake Designs Riley Blake Designs colorful fabrics include cottons, flannels, sparkle cottons, organic cotton, knits, dreamy, and laminates in a range of designer and basic prints. Their coordinating “Sew Together” line consists of a bevy of complementary buttons, ric-rac, ribbons and lace, project kits and panels, zippers by the yard, and crocheted flowers.
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King Off-Road Racing Shocks: Coil Overs, Bypass, OEM, UTV, Air Shocks, Bump Stops, Springs, Replacment Parts, Tools, Springs « King Off-Road Racing Shocks : kingshocks.com King Shocks is a manufacturer and servicer of custom made adjustable and rebuildable automotive shock absorbers and performance racing products for utility vehicles, OEM replacement and professional racing use. Our company prides itself on putting quality, performance and customer service above all else. Every product we sell is the result of constant testing and development done with top racers in competition worldwide. This real world testing exposes our designs to a level of abuse and destructive forces that cannot be duplicated in a laboratory or on a computer spreadsheet. Our “hands on” experience enables us to make rapid design advancements others haven’t even dreamed up yet. Our product line consists of Coilover, Bypass, Smoothie Emulsion and Airshocks as well as Bumpstops, tools supplies and racing jacks. Our OEM and UTV upgrade kits offer serious performance upgrades and simple bolt-on installation. They are available for stock vehicles or those modified with aftermarket lift
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Hawking Technology - WiFi Networking Solutions Hawking Technology is a leading manufacturer of Indoor/Outdoor Wireless Networking devices for Home WiFi or Business/Industrial WiFi. Our line consists of WiFi USB Adapters, WiFi Repeaters, WiFi Extenders, WiFi Bridges, WiFi Access Points, WiFi Routers, Print Servers, WiFi Antennas, Outdoor WiFi, Dual Band and Wireless AC Solutions.
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Home - Drytac Drytac serves a truly international marketplace. Our core product line consists of a wide range of window, wall & floor graphic media, laminating films & mounting adhesives, custom & pattern coating, high-performance tapes, industrial adhesives, durable labels and product development services.
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Sun Xtender Solar Batteries - Photovoltaic Battery The Sun Xtender Battery line consists of specialty lead-acid solar, photovoltaic batteries, and renewable energy storage batteries manufactured by Concorde Battery Corporation.
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Siddharth Chlorochem Pvt Ltd | calcium chloride solid | calcium chloride liquid | Sodium CMC Detergent Grade | Glycolic Acid (70% Tech. Grade) The Company is engaged in the manufacturing activities of Organic Chemicals and other speciality Derivatives. The Products line consists of Monochloro Acetic Acid (MCAA), Ethylene Di Amine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA Acid), EDTA Di- Sodium And EDTA Tetra Sodium, Glycolic Acid, Hydrochloric Acid, Sodium MCAA, Sodium CMC, Etc…
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Home - Pedigo USA Pedigo’s current product line consists of nearly two hundred items, including stools, instrument tables, I.V. stands, surgical case carts, exchange and distribution carts, bassinets and many other stainless steel and chrome items. Pedigo items can be found in the emergency rooms, exam rooms, operating rooms and sterile processing departments of the world’s finest medical institutions.
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GIOCAM Yamasua Corp : Manufactures and supplies quality wholesale apparel to small and medium retailers and specialized boutique owners YAMASUA CORP. has the pleasure to introduce GIOCAM export collection. This unique line consists of beach wear and casual manufacture with the finest and NATURAL 100% Peruvian cotton, oriented for today''s modern woman, men and children
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Barsmith | Crafted Bar Essentials and Mixes for the Perfect Cocktail Barsmith expertly crafts syrups, brines, mixes and bar essentials for the perfect cocktail. Devised by expert bartenders, Barsmith products are created with the highest quality non-GMO ingredients, free of artificial flavors or colors. The result is the most pure, delicious and noteworthy cocktails around. The Barsmith line consists of fresh and innovative blends such as Honey Ginger and Old Fashioned syrup and timeless classics including Sweetened Lime Juice, Grenadine, Dirty Martini, Simple Syrup, Bloody Mary and Margarita.
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Beau & Belle Littles Beautiful Products For Your Little Beau Or Belle Family owned, family focused. Making beautiful reusable baby products with love. Our core line consists of the Nageuret Swim Diaper, we love it and so will you!
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Home - Drytac Drytac serves a truly international marketplace. Our core product line consists of a wide range of window, wall & floor graphic media, laminating films & mounting adhesives, custom & pattern coating, high-performance tapes, industrial adhesives, durable labels and product development services.
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Optical DVI Extender, Optical HDMI Extender, Optical SDI Extender, DVI HDMI Converter | OPHIT OPHIT��s product line consists of Optical DVI Extender, Optical HDMI Extender, Optical SDI Extender, Multi Quad Viewer, Optical DisplayPort Extender, Multi Scaler Viewer, DVI HDMI Converter, Multi Video Processor, HDMI SDI Converter, DVI Matrix Switcher, multi-format video converter, Medical endoscopy video converter and is getting reputation in over 20 countries in the world.
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Fintech Campus | Premium Office Park Pretoria East FinTech Campus is an office park which consists of two premium grade office buildings based in Pretoria East with state-ofthe-art technology.
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Marsk Cosmetics Luxury Make Up Marsk Cosmetics Luxury Make Up. Our cosmetics line consists of all natural and certified organic ingredients. And yes, our products are Marsk Quality Assure
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RRS® CE CLAS III INJECTABLE - Home RRS® is a powerful tool for doctors who need high quality, CE Class III injectable products which are highly effective and safe. The complete line consists in three families or 14 different products, allowing every doctor to find the best solution for each individual patient need.
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Speacial brass and pipe fitting professional :: MLVI :: Merikarvian LVI-Tuote Oy Our product range consists special brass products and pipe fittings. Additionally we offer services in design, casting and machining.
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Home | Total Mailing Solutions Inc With over twenty five years experience in the paper processing industry.Total Mailing Solutions LLC has been a leading supplier to corporations,schools,government,non-profits and institutions across the USA.Our product line consists of pressure seal equipment and checks perfect for payroll...
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Vector Smart Object9 Hotsy Iowa is a one stop shop for all of your pressure washer needs. Hotsy's product line consists of pressure washers, parts, detergents, and accessories. Visit our website to learn more about the products and services we offer. We have locations in Urbandale and Cedar Rapids, serving all of Iowa. Contact us today!
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Bower Hill Bourbon Whiskey Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey. Crafted in the Spirit of Rebellion. Our award winning line consists of Barrel Strength, Single Barrel and Barrel Reserve.
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Barrington Automation: Precision pneumatic grippers, linear actuators, rotary actuators, pick and place units, robotic work cells Barrington Automation designs and manufactures modular components for factory automation. The complete line consists of pnuematic linear actuators and rotary actuators, precision grippers, table slides and elevating tables which fit together to provide an endless variety of motion combinations to create pick and place units for robotic work cells. American made.
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WTF Streetwear - The cutting edge of streetwear WTF Streetwear is a modern fashion company specializing in limited edition pieces, suitable for everyday use. Every order placed on our site is fulfilled with careful consideration. We are a top upcoming underground Streetwear brand in 2018. Our main line consists of hoodies, t-shirts, and long sleeves.
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Münchhausen Productions | Production services in Estonia, Spain and Finnish Lapland Münchhausen offers high-quality productions and facilities for commercial, stills, film and TV. The package consists of transparent budgeting, a team of seasoned professionals, skilled production management and renowned hospitality. Productions with Münchhausen are carried out “the Scandinavian way”, which means open communication, mutual trust and confidence.
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FaroeLandia - Seafood from the Faroe Islands We supply fresh environmental right seafood from the cleanest ocean in the world. Our product line consists whole, cut, salted, dried, smoked or frozen quality seafood products. We deliver the world's best products within 24 hours after capture.
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Home page Our product line consists of chemical solutions prepared to exact quality standards and certified for use in laboratories and production processes. We regularly produce chemical solutions to specifications designed by government and regulatory bodies, commercial and trade associations, and the specific needs of individual users and businesses.
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Homak | Tool Chests and Cabinets | Tool Box | Gun Safes Your Homak product line consists of tool boxes, tool cabinets, safes, and other accessories. Each item is manufactured to exceed customer’s expectations, and to provide strength and dependability to the customer.
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Homak | Tool Chests and Cabinets | Tool Box | Gun Safes Your Homak product line consists of tool boxes, tool cabinets, safes, and other accessories. Each item is manufactured to exceed customer’s expectations, and to provide strength and dependability to the customer.
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Home - Drytac Drytac serves a truly international marketplace. Our core product line consists of a wide range of window, wall & floor graphic media, laminating films & mounting adhesives, custom & pattern coating, high-performance tapes, industrial adhesives, durable labels and product development services.
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Riovea Natural Skincare Riovea's Illuminating Line consists of Riovea's natural brightening series: Illuminating Cleanser, Illuminating Toner, Illuminating Serum, and Illuminating Cream. Brightening series balances moisture and oil content of your skin, reduces wrinkles, fine lines and pores, brightens your skin and bring out its radiance!
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Newton Scanning Systems Incorporated NEWTON INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS INC. is one of the leading barcode supplier in the Philippines. NISI is a leader and pioneer in the Automatic Identification Technology and development in the Philippines. It was established in mid-1994 headed by an expatriate engineer from Spectra-Physics, Incorporated. Our product line consists of an extensive list of equipment from market leaders, with dependable and reliable brand names of barcode label printer, barcode scanners, thermal transfer printing software, barcode labels and ribbons.
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Nostalgic Reproductions : Home : Mostly Signs Mostly Signs produces and distributes reproduction nostalgic products. Our product line consists of Tin Signs, Thermometers, Tin Calendars, Light Switch Covers, License Plates. Refrigerator Magnets and Canvas Posters.
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Wayne Wolverines Legion Baseball Main Line Legion Champions The Wayne Wolverines is an American Legion baseball organization based in Wayne, Pennsylvania and consists of 19U, 15U, 14U, and 13U baseball teams.
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AIDOOAID – Specialty Hair and Skin Care AidooAid - The Hair Follicle Re-Activation System line consists of the naturally-derived (drug-free), topical regimen The Hair Loss Combatant and derivatives of which tackle hair loss, alopecia, and baldness through re-activation of the dormant hair follicles to elicit hair growth.
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Homak | Tool Chests and Cabinets | Tool Box | Gun Safes Your Homak product line consists of tool boxes, tool cabinets, safes, and other accessories. Each item is manufactured to exceed customer’s expectations, and to provide strength and dependability to the customer.
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AIDOOAID – Specialty Hair and Skin Care AidooAid - The Hair Follicle Re-Activation System line consists of the naturally-derived (drug-free), topical regimen The Hair Loss Combatant and derivatives of which tackle hair loss, alopecia, and baldness through re-activation of the dormant hair follicles to elicit hair growth.
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Home page Our product line consists of chemical solutions prepared to exact quality standards and certified for use in laboratories and production processes. We regularly produce chemical solutions to specifications designed by government and regulatory bodies, commercial and trade associations, and the specific needs of individual users and businesses.
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King Off-Road Racing Shocks: Coil Overs, Bypass, OEM, UTV, Air Shocks, Bump Stops, Springs, Replacment Parts, Tools, Springs « King Off-Road Racing Shocks : kingshocks.com King Shocks is a manufacturer and servicer of custom made adjustable and rebuildable automotive shock absorbers and performance racing products for utility vehicles, OEM replacement and professional racing use. Our company prides itself on putting quality, performance and customer service above all else. Every product we sell is the result of constant testing and development done with top racers in competition worldwide. This real world testing exposes our designs to a level of abuse and destructive forces that cannot be duplicated in a laboratory or on a computer spreadsheet. Our “hands on” experience enables us to make rapid design advancements others haven’t even dreamed up yet. Our product line consists of Coilover, Bypass, Smoothie Emulsion and Airshocks as well as Bumpstops, tools supplies and racing jacks. Our OEM and UTV upgrade kits offer serious performance upgrades and simple bolt-on installation. They are available for stock vehicles or those modified with aftermarket lift
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Riley Blake Designs Riley Blake Designs colorful fabrics include cottons, flannels, sparkle cottons, organic cotton, knits, dreamy, and laminates in a range of designer and basic prints. Their coordinating “Sew Together” line consists of a bevy of complementary buttons, ric-rac, ribbons and lace, project kits and panels, zippers by the yard, and crocheted flowers.
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Itinerary Travel Clothing | Perfect Travel Wardrobe for Women and Men The perfect travel wardrobe for women and men on the go. The line consists of easy, elevated basics and wardrobe essentials that work with any body type and pack amazingly well so you can take them anywhere.
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Homak | Tool Chests and Cabinets | Tool Box | Gun Safes Your Homak product line consists of tool boxes, tool cabinets, safes, and other accessories. Each item is manufactured to exceed customer’s expectations, and to provide strength and dependability to the customer.
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Hawking Technology - WiFi Networking Solutions Hawking Technology is a leading manufacturer of Indoor/Outdoor Wireless Networking devices for Home WiFi or Business/Industrial WiFi. Our line consists of WiFi USB Adapters, WiFi Repeaters, WiFi Extenders, WiFi Bridges, WiFi Access Points, WiFi Routers, Print Servers, WiFi Antennas, Outdoor WiFi, Dual Band and Wireless AC Solutions.
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+FE Music | Home The official website of Grammy nominated independent soul duo The Foreign Exchange and their imprint, +FE Music. The Foreign Exchange consists of American rapper/singer/songwriter Phonte and Dutch producer/multi-instrumentalist Nicolay. Visit this website for news, music, videos, photos, tourdates and downloads.
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Karlyn Industries Ignition Wire Sets, STI Wire Sets, PHAT WIRES, Bremi Ignition & Suspension Parts Karlyn Industries is a manufacturer and distributor of ignition and suspension parts for Japanese and European cars. Our product line consists of ignition cable sets (including STI wire sets & PHAT wire sets), distributor caps, rotors, direct ignition coils and front end suspension parts
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Beau & Belle Littles Beautiful Products For Your Little Beau Or Belle Family owned, family focused. Making beautiful reusable baby products with love. Our core line consists of the Nageuret Swim Diaper, we love it and so will you!
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Home - Drytac Drytac serves a truly international marketplace. Our core product line consists of a wide range of window, wall & floor graphic media, laminating films & mounting adhesives, custom & pattern coating, high-performance tapes, industrial adhesives, durable labels and product development services.
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Sun Xtender Solar Batteries - Photovoltaic Battery The Sun Xtender Battery line consists of specialty lead-acid solar, photovoltaic batteries, and renewable energy storage batteries manufactured by Concorde Battery Corporation.
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Khadi Natural Singapore The Khadi Natural Personal Care Line consists of wide range of skin-care, hair-care and body-care. All products are herbal, ayurvedic and natural.
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Home | NIE University NIE University consists of three state-of-the-art facilities – NIE Institute of Technology, NIE Industrial Training Institute & NIE First Grade College. Contact for admissions 2019-20.
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Vector Smart Object9 Hotsy Iowa is a one stop shop for all of your pressure washer needs. Hotsy's product line consists of pressure washers, parts, detergents, and accessories. Visit our website to learn more about the products and services we offer. We have locations in Urbandale and Cedar Rapids, serving all of Iowa. Contact us today!
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Blue Carbon Technology Inc Blue Carbon Technology Inc. designs, manufactures and markets of solar products for residential, commercial and industrial application worldwide. Blue Carbon Technology Inc. product line consists solar home system, solar street light, solar freezer,solar water pump and solar panel.
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Visa The Greatest Ever Hair offers the greatest quality, 100%, virgin remy human hair extensions that money buy! TGE product line consists of hair extensions, wigs, closures, frontals, clip-ins, hidden halos, I-Tips, U-Tips, and hair care accessories. TGE Hair is a one-stop shop for all your hair needs!
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Barsmith | Crafted Bar Essentials and Mixes for the Perfect Cocktail Barsmith expertly crafts syrups, brines, mixes and bar essentials for the perfect cocktail. Devised by expert bartenders, Barsmith products are created with the highest quality non-GMO ingredients, free of artificial flavors or colors. The result is the most pure, delicious and noteworthy cocktails around. The Barsmith line consists of fresh and innovative blends such as Honey Ginger and Old Fashioned syrup and timeless classics including Sweetened Lime Juice, Grenadine, Dirty Martini, Simple Syrup, Bloody Mary and Margarita.
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Visa We are a trendy fast fashion retailer that specifically targets young fashion forward modest women. We search the fashion world for styles that are fashion forward and super trendy that can be worn by a modest woman, our line consists of modest denim skirts, modest dresses, modest tops, layering tops & shells.
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email_F Copy + Shape Join the Kitty Bingo crew now to play the best online bingo mobile bingo site and kitty slot games Get free bingo bonus and 100 free spins on your first deposit!
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email_F Copy + Shape Join the Kitty Bingo crew now to play the best online bingo mobile bingo site and kitty slot games Get free bingo bonus and 100 free spins on your first deposit!
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Surgical Education – The most reliable and up to date resource for residents and surgeons Starting 1/26/2018, the content is available as iOS or Android app only. The desktop platform will no longer be updated. Please visit App Store  or Google Play to download app. Thank you.    
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All Wheels Forward | The blog about transportation and random ranting New Taipei Metro's Danhai LRT line opened on December 24, 2018. The initial segment has 11 stations, an additional 3 stations including one connecting to the Lovers Bridge area in Tamsui will open by the end of 2019 or early 2020. The first phase of the Danhai light rail transit Green Mountain Line (淡海輕軌綠山線) runs at 15 minute headways between 06:30am and 22:00pm. It takes about 25-30 minutes to get from Hongshulin station V01 (Hongshulin Taipei MRT staton) to Kanding station V11 (Danhai New Town area). Currently the line is 4.5 miles long (7.3km), but once completed it will be 9 miles (14km). There are no plans for underground segments and stations. The track runs on both elevated and surface levels. The Green Mountain Line within a few years will be connected to the Blue Line, currently under construction. Most of the light rail line uses overhead wires to power the trams, however between the Binhai Shalin and Danhai New Town stations the trams are able to run catenary free, which means the LRVs don't have to draw power from overhead wires as they turn at the intersection between the two stations. The Danhai Light Rail fleet consists of 15 Warrior trams built by Taiwan Rolling Stock Company (TRSC). These are the first modern light rail vehicles to be built in Taiwan. TRSC partnered with Voith Engineering Services on designing the light rail vehicles. The Danhai light rail transit (Green Mountain Line) is part of a master plan to connect the whole Taipei metropolitan area with transportation links. With the Taoyuan MRT, which opened in 2017, along with the Taipei MRT and new LRT lines it will allow residents and visitors a like to travel without reliance of an automobile with access to alternative transportation options instead. It certainly will be interesting to see what developments sprawl up along these new lines. TOD (transit oriented development) has come with lots of benefits, but also some problems as well. I think its good to have a well connected region, which in return helps improve the quality of life. The southern city of Kaohsiung was the first city that started a light rail system in Taiwan (2014).
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RDTW Collectables Tullytown,Pa #1 Diecast Cars and Trucks Hobby Shop please use Chrome or Firefox as your brouser for best website results.
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VillaconMundial | La Voz de Villa Consuelo The speedy evolution connected with rock audio Rock Popular music & it has the Rapid Advancement Introduction Songs has been having man since dawn of your energy. Every conquer or appear can getting be considered in the form of form of songs. Dating back towards early fella music happens to be something as simple as the comforting sound to a waterfall or possibly a tree unsteadiness with the the wind or a wild animal performing through a natrual enviroment. Today music is so diversified and so engrained in our everyday life that almost every youngster or young adults & also an adult contains a vast set of songs that they can might take note of on their audio players. There are various varied branches of favorite songs existing at this time. These companies have now enlarged to involve everything from the tribal music to most things that comes out of any synthesizer. And even although look for music in a great many forms at present, I'm absolutely sure the idealists would refuse with what the youth of today call great music. Now-a-days it seems typically the search is actually on for that "in music". Music that is making anyone feel good at this time and which is discarded inside a heartbeat the moment something a great deal better comes along. Precisely what is it which includes made ordinary music visit so stable all these several years? The reason why We have chosen Rock music intended for my class paper issue is that, I truly am really passionate about this kind of genre of music. Coarse Music or perhaps Rock as it is so called will be vastly often neglected by individuals, most of who simply correlate it using negative stereotypes like drug addiction, alcohol dependency facts, violence, sexual abuse, demonic control along with vices. An individual cannot responsibility people for having these types of misconceptions about Rock considering that over the years most of the famous Natural stone artists have come to be referred to mainly for their own drug dependancy and other stupendous behaviour under the influence of alcohol and toxic chemicals. However it is vital to understand that certain must independent the artisan from his particular music not pass pointless judgment on the music just based on the vices of the specialit. Another misunderstanding is that natural stone is only percussion and guitar, when that could be only individuals face involving Rock. The good news is host involving other tools that are important elements to really are fun music as one, other than basically guitar and percussion. Coarse Music -- History & Origins I may now always like to begin with the History of Stone music. Just where did it start? What are their roots? Ways has it developed along the ages? What is the circumstance at present? There are several views as to where the Rock style got right up and planning. And many think Rock originated in the west with the daybreak of Coarse & Spin by Elvis Presley. Even so that is not the case. All this started off during the post-war urbanization of The united states. The popular tunes of the overdue 1940s bundled country new music, folk audio, the reds, rhythm as well as blues (known as R& B), jazz music and ancient music. Generally rock songs hails from a combination of various popular music styles at that time in the country of North america. Rock popular music started off in the late 1940s when folks wanted to go out on their own from the gradual beat punk music along with the slow electrified blues audio to a with more speed beat & rhythm brimming tune at that time. The rock sound will be believed to possess primarily came with the any guitar. It is believed that the active guitar tracks used in yellows music appeared to be soon mixing up in with other forms of music like folk, classical music, folk popular music and other preferred forms of audio existing good. All this generated the beginning of Natural stone music to be a separate sort of favorite songs which previously came to be called Rock a few Roll towards the early 1950's. Around that point i. electronic. the delayed 1940's to early 1950's Rhythm in addition to Blues (R& B) artists mainly targeted on the dark audience. Even so later onwards musicians started playing for one multi-racial customers. These music artists and bands also themed the modern forms or even blends about music toward this customers. Later on the fast overcom blends regarding R& B and the troubles etc came into existence coined since 'Rock d Roll'. "It is assumed that for 1951 within a town with Cleveland, Oh in STATES a artist by the name of Joe Freed has been said to have began playing a new form of R& B audio for a multi-racial audience & is regarded an have 1st used the term 'Rock 'N' Roll' to indicate his songs. " Supply: Icons involving Rock instructions Scott Schinder with Andy Schwartz & Encyclopaedia Britannica - Rock Music. Really are fun Music tutorial Evolution Rock and roll music can be believed to be those types of genres of music containing evolved really rapidly during the last 50 for you to 60 many years. Its high-speed evolution is witnessed mostly over the last 50 years. It all initiated with good old Rock a few Roll in the exact 1950's. That later advanced in the 1960's which was thought of as a Golden Era for Rock audio. Rock required a totally diverse turn along with the British invasion of ordinary by the Beatles. This was soon after followed by what exactly came to be often known as Surf tunes in America that had been a mix of typically the catchy really are fun n rotate n often the hip in addition to happening Beatles music. The exact Beatles new music also led to a new type of music that is called because the hippy plus psychedelic really are fun music. In the 1970's which will came to be identified as the memorable years advanced different different rock popular music such as Tough Rock, A-hole Rock & also Put Rock. The very 1980's viewed a change within the band members' hair styles. That era at the same time was recognized for what was named as curly hair bands. That included varieties rock which include punk stone & funk rock. That led to the exact evolution about Heavy Metal. Groups used to wear well leather dirt bike pants and carried insane extended hairdos. Typically the 1990's exhibited a completely completely new and outrageous evolution of rock. Them gave more recent forms of natural stone such as Grunge Rock & Alternative Ordinary. It presented the revolutionary any guitar distortion & feedback. Most genres with the 1950's onwards till the very 1999's continue to be well known right now. Most of the bandz in people eras are nevertheless popular right now. Many of today's bands still play all the styles of rock music. A few of them even get remakes of them songs implementing modern day kinds and instruments. The afterward half of 2000 also witness something that very well came to be often known as fusion favorite songs. It anxious bringing together conventional music (Western or Indian) and blending it in with modern day natural stone music. This unique style right now is very popular specially in our country among all of our Indian youngsters that have combined the Native indian classical instruments very properly with assets like the any guitar, keyboard, carambolage, etc . The particular 1950's The actual 1950's afforded rise to the Youth culture. It suffering problems like racial tensions & the advent of the main Cold War. This earliest saw typically the advent of Really are fun n Move with fantastic artists including Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Rich, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Dark areas, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley & often the Comets, Gene Vincent, the Everly Friends, and Carl Perkins, among the many others. These were considered to be the first wave associated with Rock some remarkable Rollers. Good ole' in its initially stage has been described as simply just blues by electric guitar audio attached to them. In its purest form, Really are fun & Move was as basic as about three chords, a solid yet insistent guitar to come back beat, together with a catchy tune. Early natural stone & spin was sucked from sources mainly including pinks, R& H, and nation, but also gospel, traditional put, jazz, together with folk. Those genres were definitely combined together in a straightforward, blues-based melody structure which has been fast, danceable, and catchy. Rockabilly come about in the mid1950's. It is only a mix of rock 'n roll, country audio, blues, along with a little spruce too. Obtained a fundamental audio genre belonging to the 50's. The actual father's and also founders with Rock some remarkable Roll emerged t be known as Costs Haley, Elvis Presley, Bit of Richard & Chuck Maqui berry. Their audio revolutionized the music industry and later it was gave strategy to new varieties of rock song in the many decades to follow. Within today's situations their tunes is still favored. Rockabilly appeared to be popularized by means of white singers like Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins & Jerry Lee Lewis who typically concentrated on the country sources of the music. The Popular visits recorded around that time was "That's Okay (Mama)" - Elvis Presley, "Heartbreak Hotel" - Elvis Presley, "Rock Around the Clock" - Charge Haley & the Comets, "Folsom Living hell Blues" -- Johnny Funds, "Blue Suede Shoes" tutorial Carl Kendrick. Another popular form of Rock n Are collected the 1950's was called the 'Doo Wop'. It emphasized on multi-part vocal harmonies and insignificant backing words of the melody & helped with lumination instrumentation. It is origins were being African American vocal groups similar to the Inkspots & the Mill Brothers. Famous bands on this form of songs were The actual Orioles, Often the Ravens and The Clovers, the fact that used a substantial element of traditional gospel new music in their songs. The great hits included "The Great Pretender" - The actual Platters, "Yakety Yak" - The Coasters & "Yes Sir, That's my Baby" - The exact Clovers coupled with many others. Down the road during the 1950's Elvis Presley came to be named the California king of Rock n Function. Even today he has still commemorated as 'The King'. The actual decline about Rock a few Roll has been witnessed in the early 1960's with the dying of popular musicians including Buddy Holy and Richie Valens inside of a plane wreck; the travel of Elvis Presley in the army, the actual retirement about Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions regarding Jerry Lee Lewis and Place Berry and also the breaking of your payola scandal. All of the preceding incidents provided a sexual enjoyment that the good ole' era provides come to a stop. However during its diminish rock in the roll observed a feminine area with an intro to probiotics benefits of love ballads targeted to a female audience & the surge of female groups for example the Crystals and then the Shirelles. The many events the fact that occurred in the very 1950's at some point led to what precisely came to be generally known as Surf Popular music, Garage Ordinary & the main Twist dancing craze. Risk major celebration that was successful in the 1960's was those of the climb of Language Rock in Roll while using emergence with the Beatles which had been greatly affected by the America's 1950's Rock and roll n Roll. The 1960's The 1960's witnessed a lot of events that adheres to that of the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Showdown, Surf Popular music, Hippie customs, The Bay area Scene, The Music of Protests & typically the birth with Heavy Metal. Also Rock some remarkable Roll in the particular 1960's had 4 development or elements. These sections are the following: Part As i - Often the Beatles & The British isles Invasion Element II - Motown New music Part 3 - Typical Rock: The exact Sounds on the 1960's Section IV aid Message New music Before 1963 i letusdothehomework.com/. at the. 1961 onwards America noticed the rise of Ocean Music some sort of Rock and Roll. This particular music has been pioneered by way of Duane Eddy, Link Wray, and The Efforts that put in distinctive "wet" reverb design & speedy alternate choosing to the popular music. One of the well-known hits has been "Let's Visit Trippin" in 1961 and this announced the ocean music trend. The in history favourite string quartet of this years is The Beach Boys. Area I - The Beatles & Often the British Incursion During this decades i. y. post 1963 America and the rest of the universe witnessed just what exactly came to be well-known only simply because 'The English Invasion'. While in the 1960's the most well find out and globally renowned band with the British offensive was the one and only Beatles. Often the Beatles till today are believed to be to be the in history success stories of the 1960's. The reason the Beatles are considered the most effective and most powerful rock groups of all time would be the because they had taken what Elvis and other Good ole' n Move artists established in the 1950's and metamorphosed it towards a whole new distinct thing. That's why this years is known as a bed that gave birth and labor to a modern of Ordinary. The Beatlemania had began with its first of all single hurt song throughout 1962 "Love Me Do" in Great Britain. Along with the Rock a few Roll of your 1950's the very Beatles widely popularized new genre of good ole' music including ranging from folks rock that will psychedelic appear. The Beatles were thus influential through the 1960's this their modern ideals had been considered to be cultural & societal revolutions. Several other great visitors of the Beatles include "I Wanna Store Your Hand" which offered 2 . 6th million copies in the United States in barely two weeks. The particular Beatles came out with many visitors during this years such as "She Loves You", "Please Please Me", and so forth Other growing bands within this era enclosed The Dork Clark Five, The Kinks & Typically the Rolling Stones. The In business Stones finest hit during this period was "Honky Tonk Woman" Part II - Motown Music Motown was a Detroit based track record company this was founded through Berry Gordy who was some one-time flow line worker within Ford Motor. It became essentially the most successful dark-colored owned history company by means of 1963. Motown had many vocal communities, songwriters & musicians. The background music recorded appeared to be known for her "tight orchestrations and catchy lyrics". The music was according to the injustice to the black locality during the Municipal War. The exact Motown greats were The particular Temptations, The actual Four Passes, Martha Reeves & typically the Vandellas as well as Diana Ross & Typically the Supremes. Area III -- Classic Really are fun: The Tones of the 1960's This era witnessed the fact that was known as the Hippe tradition. Their significant chant seemed to be 'Make Enjoy Not War'. Peace has been their actual theme. The Beatles is amongst the famous groups that transitioned during this period in terms of their own look along with music. Various other artist installed to everyday living were Jefferson Airplane, Elegance Slick, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, The Doors, Steppenwolf, Clair & Garfunkel, Mamas and also the Pappas and also Lovin Spoonful. The famous show of this age was The Woodstock. This was some sort of concert regarding promoting contentment, love & brotherhood. Artists like Jimi Hendrix shook up the conjunction. Part IV - Note Music A good number of themes in rock and roll on this era addressed love and even relationships removed wrong. It all followed the war on Vietnam & the variety of protests getting undertaken. The music was a trial to magnify upon the government actions occurring at this time like the civilizado rights exercise, the expanding unrest above the war around Vietnam, along with the rise about feminism. The main "message" inside song aimed at peace. Quite a few songs gained substantial airplay and became "anthems" at concert events, rallies, in addition to demonstrations. The main Message thru Folk Tunes & Often the Message by Rock Tunes The most well known artists to emerge from the particular folk custom include Joe Dylan, Nancy Baez, Phil Ochs, and also the trio identified as Peter, Paul holmes, and Betty. In 1965, a strong artist, Barry McGuire strong ! the charts with a song that resembled the escalating turmoil on the globe. Other favorite hippy and even psychedelic artists such as White Floyd, The actual Who, The very Rolling Gemstones, The Yardbirds, the Happier Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, and others did start to rule the earth. These bands provided rise on the counterculture exercise, trendsetters, by their drug caused lyrics together with hypnotic tunes. Other genres of ordinary began to come out such as progressive rock and that is experimenting with many other instruments except for guitar, muskie and pieces. This was prominent by Pinkish Floyd. Men or women rock ended up being popularized by just Bob Dylan and Janis Joplin. Typically the 1960's inevitably gave your pregnancy to heavy metal and rock which is a thicker, heavy, and highly amplified genre involving rock primarily popularized through Black Sabbath. The world had been just now starting out witness the particular tremendous electrical power & impact rock seriously had about society. The particular 1970's From the 1970's the Vietnam World war had was concluded, the protests stopped & people begun to settle down. Along with that, the background music too performed settle down. The whole world witnessed often the split on the Beatles & also often the death regarding John Lennon. The 70's rock audio brought various cultures and even audiences more together than you ever have. Rock music began to part out straight into new races like Tough Rock, Heavy metal and rock & Punk Rock. Directed Zeppelin became extremely popular using its perfect mix of Hard Coarse & Sorrow music how they could phone call its own. In that era bands and artists and painters such as Brian Bowie, Indeed, The Eagles, and California king became very influential. Concerning the late 70's the world furthermore witnessed often the rise of Punk Rock and roll. The starting up fathers connected with punk had been The Ramones. They blended thoroughly anarchism along with teenage wrath with rock 'n roll and this came to be known as Punk Rock. Various other bands for example the Sex Pistols and The Clash helped popularize and redefine punk rock. This new, highly effective and forceful genre about music affected many groups of the future. The exact 1980's Thereafter came typically the 1980's. Good ole' Music improved itself in a manner that everyone was going to be part of the very upcoming field. The music required a different switch, more in relation to punk coarse, new tide, heartland really are fun and choice rock. The majority of people would consider the 80's as interesting features of big hairdos and androgyny. The gay and lesbian activists required to inside of a big simply by this several years. People begun embracing one other sex and everybody had coloring in almost everything they did or possibly wore. The inspired often the rock popular music scene dramatically. The eighties saw from enthusiasm to neon pinkish socks, damaged by adult males. Creativity was expressed which means that greatly within the 1980's and also artists put on their identity with golden technologies. The 1980's music picture is probably considered as amongst the strangest moments in the advancement of stone music. Music artists were carrying out everything, a variety of00 bubblegum appear, sentimental always ballads to be able to thumping utility beats and perhaps the hardest good ole' metal. This particular decade pretty much saw it. Artist including Bruce Springsteen, Guns as well as Roses, Viajan Halen, AC/DC, Aerosmith, Flat iron Maiden, Metallica, Bon Jovi, and Motley Crue can best end up being remembered for his or her power ballads and excellent guitar solos. A new type of music called like 'New wave' also blossomed from dick, funk, and even disco. It turned out made well-known by music artists such as Estrella, The B-52's, Talking Head, and Blondie. Indie coarse or Renewable rock currently well known begun to emerge in the late 1980's with artists for instance U2, R. E. Meters., The Cure, The main Smiths, and Sonic Youngster were very fashionable with young people. Punk moreover became more popular with rings such as Dark colored Flag and then the Dead Kennedys. This was at the same time the time for producers. They are importance matured and musicians took our own a good the manufacturer could take most of their records for the market. Subsequently came often the advent of possessing soundtracks with movies. File companies had any idea the economics in placing song inside a movie, the response was basically tremendous. Regardless of variety, the background music is the eighties was a huge hit, this still is. In addition to that's considering that the music mention the imagination of the people, it all made zero apologies, you can identify with the slow ballad by Phil Collins within the afternoon and set up their particular black leather-based jacket, rocking to In terms of iron Maiden by means of night time, everyone dint need to apologize that will anyone. Flexibility of manifestation, experimenting along with lyrics grew to be an integral part of the main eighties. Which is precisely the good reason that the eighties they say can not ever die. The actual 1990's The early to mid 90's was basically known as typically the era connected with grunge along with alternative rock. Nirvana was known as the most common grunge wedding band of the 90's. Grunge song can be described as dusty guitar, robust guitar riffs with distortion and opinions. It contains dark words of the tune and attributed teenage worry. Popular grunge and choice bands ended up Pearl Jam, Nirvana, Jane's Addiction in addition to Alice around Chains. A very iconic scene was associated with the occurence of female artists. Women were becoming much less dependent on men, and fewer oriented on the way to having a family-based future. These folks were daughters of girls who fought for same rights they usually expressed it- in the form of terms and information. The paper, Billboard contributed to the financial success within the music marketplace. It altered the way it ranked available girls and albums of music artists by tallying actual income at retailers instead of with the industry-manipulated word of mouth marketing. Rock unexpectedly beat pop in terms for sales, and "minority" genre such as state and hip-hop began to enter the charts. That led the industry to invest a lot more in these fraction genres. The 1990's demonstrated that music appeared to be for the crowd and that the concept behind popular music was to see the artist as one, his construction, his team, his lyrics, his image, his songs video spectacular personality. Anyone had their favorite type of favorite songs and a favourite genre, popular artist together with a favorite cd. You couldn't help it- there were plenty of choices by this time. 2000 aid Present Alternate choice rock even now is one of the famous and largest genre associated with rock songs. Emo, is known as a new sub-contract genre for rock which consists of extreme emotional words of the tune with serious punk root. It was widely popularized by rings like Through First for you to Last, Often the Used, Brand New and softer bands for example Dashboard Confessional and Brilliant Eyes that may also be identified as indie. The word "indie" literally stands for unbiased and is the term for bands that are part of a private record tag. However , at this time indie includes a whole new that means. Indie serves as a mainly up until now hidden and better version of other rock. Well-liked indie bands and artists include Passing away Cab meant for Cutie, The very Strokes, Elliott Smith, The Decemberists, The particular Arcade Fire, The Misiva Service & a few many others. Heavy metal has now reached a really new degree. Sub-genres regarding heavy metal just like black combination, death stainlesss steel and thrash metal which is certainly very deafening, aggressive and fast approached the industry. Preferred hardcore metal bands include Slipknot, Because i Lay Coloring, Korn, Indicacion Jean and also Cannibal Depouille. Alternative stone has now grow to be an all effort hit utilizing bands that include Incubus, Pink Hot Chili Peppers, Chevelle, Coldplay, and also the Foo Mma fighters. Pop ordinary is another common genre. It is rock combined with a more general approach together with popular song lyrics. Pop rock bands can include Fall Out Youngster, All-American Rejects, Ashlee Simpson, Avril Lavigne, and others. One other form of favorite songs that came in relation to was the hiphop rock. People symbolized the actual fusion with the raw, streets music and also hard natural stone pelting sounds. It was a fast hit along with the fans with both the categorie. Examples of these kinds of were Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Religious beliefs no More, Rage Against the Machines, etc Really are fun Music inside the Indian Predicament Rock favorite songs caught about in Asia during the the middle of 70's. From the hearing reports of my dad and his friends in small time bands actively playing the good oldies like Elvis Presley, The actual Carpenters, Typically the Beatles, The particular Shadows, Joe Dylan and various other artists their guitars. Just read was many these types of small online communities which were predominantly Catholics which played the many dance volumes mainly for marriage ceremonies & the Christmas flow. These were the main jive & the turn numbers that others used to love to dance in order to back in the day. In regards towards the 80's artists like Directed Zeppelin, Ominous Straits & Jethro Tull became noiseless popular. People used to order these music cassettes in addition to listen to these kinds of music particular audio cassette players & Sony Walkman. That nonetheless was a quite a while ago. Points soon transformed with the Gulf of mexico War for 1991 opening the entrance to medium in The indian subcontinent. MTV was initially one of the options that were beamed, along with CNN. Apart from Put music what exactly caught at quickly had been rock. Nevertheless as an viewers, the amounts in Asia were yet minimal. It previously was only bands like Outl Leppard, Note Jovi and also U2 that will caught the fancy of a lot of people. For a large extent, rock began and concluded with Profound Purple's Interstate Star. The love for rock only designed name-dropping and wanting to tone fashionably edgy. All that adjusted quickly converted to from the calendar year 2000 onwards. Hard rock and roll quickly snagged on in conjunction with its in the us Heavy Metal and is also literally worshipped in many technological innovation colleges across India. Numerous groups are formed in a number of areas where the exact rock landscape is still lively. These include Goa, Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune & Delhi. A lot of popular India bands come from these kind of areas and still have composed rather famous bites that are well recognized to the Indian native Rockers. Many engineering educational facilities still shell out tribute for you to Rock by hosting Natural stone shows in which fans from various parts from the country hasty to gather head bang with harmony. The earliest rock band with India to get famous seemed to be Indus Creed. Famous Native american rock rings of today comprise of bands for example Zero, Pentagram, Parikrama, These individuals Clones plus various some. One taking place rock displays of Mumbai used to be often the Independence Really are fun gig on Rang Bhavan popularly often known as I-Rock which used to be jam-packed and packed as it was seriously popular and had rings playing with all over the country. Away from late very good of i-rock has deceased down because of the change in time and venue due to specific restrictions. Some other new genre of rock music containing probably advanced in The land of india is Fusion rock that involves blending Of india classical equipment with that on the electric guitar, key pad & accus. This is whatever is definitely springing up in the country together with rock melodies in Hindi rather than English language and even in Hinglish. I even now feel that you can find very poor liberalization for Coarse music in your country but since time goes by by elements will definitely are considered getting better. You evident simply to Channel V's 'Launch Pad' that arises every year the fact that hunts to search for the Countries most well liked and ideal Rock band. Alongside Channel Sixth v, MTV even offers started one thing called seeing that Rock with Desi Beats that hunts for fusion rock groups of the region and popularizes the best. One other evident undeniable fact that rock tunes is reeling in up easily was the release of the dvd 'Rock On' directed by just & with Farhan Akhtar. Conclusion For that reason I ardently believe that Natural stone music which consists of legendary Past can never perish out. It will probably always be a component of culture and may always be find out as truley what shapes customs & firmly affects world. It is lastly meant for customers to understand that Stone is just with regards to the music and also the passion this drives inside youth. It should not be stereotyped with drug abuse alcoholism & other bassesse. For this to happen this gives lingual braces the people that need to change their valuable ways along with it is essential in the famous performers to set a example as they owe the idea to their lovers as much as that they owe it to the new music. Another important element is that although opportunities near your vicinity for Coarse music have become low & it is extremely hard to become significant, society need to encourage the kids that have a desire for this new music.
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Prototype | Prototyping Your Future / HCI IxD Any large organisation, be it public or private, monitors the media for information to keep abreast of developments in their field of interest, and usually also to become aware of positive or negative opinions expressed towards them. At least for the written media, computer programs have become very efficient at helping the human analysts significantly in their monitoring task by gathering media reports, analysing them, detecting trends and – in some cases – even to issue early warnings. We present here trend recognition-related functionality of the Europe Media Monitor (EMM) system, which was developed by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) for public administrations in the European Union (EU) and beyond. EMM performs large-scale media analysis in up to seventy languages and recognises various types of trends, some of them combining information from news articles written in different languages. EMM also lets users explore the huge amount of multilingual media data through interactive maps and graphs, allowing them to examine the data from various view points and according to multiple criteria. A lot of EMM's functionality is accessibly freely over the internet or via apps for hand-held devices. Introduction Automated Content Analysis (ACA) is likely to be more limited than human intelligence for tasks such as evaluating the relevance of information for a certain purpose, or such as drawing high-level conclusions. Computer programs are also error-prone because human language is inherently ambiguous and text often only makes sense when the meaning of words and sentences is combined with the fundamental world knowledge only people have. However, computers have the advantage that they can easily process more data in a day than a person can read in a life time. Computer programs are particular useful in application areas with a time component, such as monitoring the live printed online media, because they can ingest the latest news articles as soon as they get published and they can detect changes and recognise and visualise trends. Due to the amount of textual information they can process, computer programs can be used to gain a wider view based on more empirical evidence. These features make ACA applications powerful tools to complement human intelligence. At least for the written media, the manual paper clipping process of the past – cutting out newspaper articles and combining them into a customised in-house news digest – has to a large extent been replaced by automatic systems. Computers can take over repetitive work such as gathering media reports automatically, categorising them according to multiple categories, grouping related documents, recognising references to persons, organisations and locations in them, etc. Using this filtered and pre-processed data, human analysts can then focus on the more demanding tasks of evaluating the data, selecting the most relevant information and drawing conclusions. The work of analysts will be more efficient if the computer programs can extract more information and the more high-level information they can recognise. Trend recognition is deemed particularly useful as it partially summarises events and it may help users detect hidden developments that can only be seen from a bird's perspective, i.e. by viewing very large amounts of data. Trend visualisations may serve as early warning tools, e.g. when certain keywords are suddenly found frequently or when any combination of other text features suddenly changes, compared to the usual average background. Trend prediction would then be the next logical step: based on regular historical observations specifically co-occurring with certain trends, it should be possible to predict certain trends when the same feature combinations occur again. Such an effort was described by O'Brien (2002) for the challenging domain of conflict and instability. A major challenge for complex subject domains such as societal conflict or war is that the data needed for making a reliable prediction may simply not exist and/or that some specific factors may decide on whether or not a conflict arises, factors that lie outside the realm of statistical analysis (e.g. the sudden sickness or death of a political leader). In any case, features for predictions should probably include data that can only be found outside the document corpus, such as statistical indicators on the economy and on the society (More REFS). The main disciplines contributing to ACA are called computational linguistics, natural language processing, language engineering or text mining. In recent years, this field has made a leap forward due to insights and methods developed in statistics and in machine learning, and of course due to the strong increase of computer power, the availability of large collections of machine-readable documents and the existence of the internet. In Section 2, we will give an overview of EMM, its functionality and its users. We will particularly point out the usefulness of aggregating information derived from the news in many different languages, which has the advantage of reducing any national bias and of benefitting from information complementarity observed in media sources written in different languages. In Section 3, we will then present a variety of trend presentations and data visualisation techniques used in EMM. These include time series graphs using numbers of articles on a certain subject, the usage of automatically extracted information on named entities mentioned in any selection of news, map representations combining geographical and subject domain information, opinion trends, graphs comparing information derived from the social media with that from the online version of printed media, and more. In Section 4, we summarise the benefits of automatic media monitoring, not without pointing out limitations of ACA and the potential dangers of relying on automatically derived information based on large volumes of textual data. Europe Media Monitor (EMM) A brief Overview 2.1 Overview Europe Media Monitor (EMM) stands for a whole family of media gathering and analysis applications, including NewsBrief, NewsExplorer, the Medical Information System MedISys, BlogBrief, NewsDesk and more (Steinberger et al. 2009). EMM was entirely developed at the JRC. While the main users are the EU institutions and the national authorities of the 28 EU member states, EMM was also made accessible to international organisations (e.g. various United Nations sub-organisations, the African Union and the Organisation of American States) and to the national authorities of selected partner countries of the EU. The first version of NewsBrief came online in 2002 while NewsExplorer came in 2004, but both systems processed smaller volumes of news and they had less functionality. EMM currently gathers a daily average of about 220,000 online news articles per day in seventy languages from approximately 4,000 different web sources (status May 2015). The news sources were manually selected with the purpose to represent the major newspapers of all countries in the world and to include European-language news (especially English) from around the world. For reasons of balance, it was decided not to include all easily accessible news sources, but to monitor a comparable number of news sources per country, with a focus on Europe. EMM additionally processes news feeds from over twenty press agencies. It visits news-like websites such as governmental and non-governmental web pages and it monitors social media such as Twitter, FaceBook and selected blog sites. The public versions of EMM do not show commercially acquired documents and usually have less functionality than the EC-internal versions. Separately for each language, the news articles then undergo a series of processing steps, including language recognition, document duplicate detection, Named Entity Recognition (NER) for persons, organisations and locations, quotation extraction, sentiment/tonality analysis, categorisation into one or more of the over 1,000 different subject domain classes. EMM then clusters related articles into groups, which allows users to examine the load of articles in an organised fashion. The different EMM applications provide different functionality, described in the next section. Family of EMM news monitoring applications NewsBrief (Figure 1) is the most widely used system. It provides users with near-real-time information on their field of interest in all seventy languages. Separately for each language, news gathered within a sliding four-hour window (8 hours for some languages) are clustered, but older articles remain linked to the cluster as long as new articles arrive. For each cluster, automatically extracted meta-information such as named entities and quotations are displayed. Continuously updated graphs show the ten currently largest clusters and their development over time. By clicking on any of the clusters, users can see the list of all articles and click on each article to read the entire text on the website where it was originally found. For fourteen languages, an automatically pre-generated translation into English is available. For event types with relevance to health, safety and security, NewsBrief also displays automatically extracted event information (eight languages only), including the event type, location and time of the event, number and type of victims (dead, injured, infected), and – where this was mentioned – the perpetrator (the person or group inflicting the damage). The limitation of the event types is due to the user groups, which are mostly concerned with providing support in case of disasters, epidemics, etc. NewsBrief offers subscriptions for automatic updates per category by email, for institutional users also via SMS. BlogBrief provides the same functionality as NewsBrief, but instead of news, it processes English language blogs by bloggers who have been hand-selected due to their importance or impact (e.g. politicians and journalists). MedISys is rather similar to NewsBrief, except that all its content categories are related to issues that are relevant for Public Health monitoring. Its news categories include all major communicable diseases and other Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear (CBRN) dangers, symptoms, as well as subjects of scientific or societal value such as vaccinations and genetically modified organisms. NewsExplorer provides a more long-term view of the news (in 21 languages only) and it provides a cross-lingual functionality. Rather than displaying and grouping the current news, NewsExplorer clusters the news of a whole calendar day and displays the clusters ordered by size. For each cluster, hyperlinks lead users to the equivalent news clusters in any of the other twenty languages (where applicable) and to historically related news. NewsExplorer also includes hundreds of thousands of entity pages (persons, organisations and more), where historically gathered information on each entity is aggregated and displayed, including name variants, titles, clusters and quotes where the entity was mentioned, quotes issued by that person, other entities frequently mentioned together with this entity, and more (see Figure 2). NewsDesk is a tool for human moderation. It allows media monitoring professionals to view and select the automatically pre-processed news data and to easily create readily formatted in-house newsletters. EMM Apps for mobile devices such as iOS and Android phones and tablets first became publicly and freely available in 2013 (See Figure 3). Due to the personal nature of such devices, it became first possible to display customised starting pages for each user. For the iOS EMM App alone, about 26,000 downloads were recorded up to May 2015. This customisable version of EMM became very popular so that this functionality was implemented in a new web version of EMM, called MyNews (see below). The EMM App uses a whole new concept and way to interact with EMM Metadata, referred to as Channels. A channel is a stream of EMM articles that all share the same metadata: Channels can be (a) any News Category, (b) the Top 20 Stories in a particular language, (c) a Country/Category combination, (d) an entity recognised by EMM or (e) a search in the full-text index. Users can create such channels for themselves and they can group channels into sets, allowing them to browse freely between channels in any of these sets. When users open a channel, they get access to all the articles that are present in the channel at the time, plus the other metadata that EMM has identified and associated to that channel. Users can of course also browse the attached meta-data, turn them into new channels and pin them to the current set. Crisis management tools and products have been found to be challenging to design and produce due to the complexity of dynamic customisable data-sets defined by each individual user. The main problems in designing such tools are ambiguity, multi-platform support, data representation and other pitfalls commonly seen in mobile technology development. We adhere to a model-based methodology focusing on core functionality and logical interactions with the data-set, user-centric design and data visualisation while supporting other development activities including a requirement analysis for a wide set of devices and operating systems, verification and validation. The result of the development cycle is a layout structure in which a wide scale of EMM crisis management tools has been developed. There are many digital solutions aiming to support humanitarian and emergency response tools by means of open source information gathering and text analysis. A strong trend among those tools is the ability to detect and analyse vast amounts of data, highlighting important developments relevant to each user and use. Many solutions are already operational today, the majority of these solutions requires the user to open a webpage a few times every day to get updated. Other solutions are relying on communicating with external servers, which is expensive and demanding in maintenance. They additionally usually require user authentication, which can compromise privacy and security. Our own solution allows custom notifications based on changes in the specific data set the user has defined. When a logical threshold is activated the system displays a notification directly on the user's mobile device. By merging our notifications with the core system notification system of the mobile device, we alert the user only when it is appropriate. For example, notification will wait silently when the user is asleep and will schedule the notifications to be presented a few minutes after the user has started using the device. This is being done without any user intervention or pre-settings. This novel solution differentiates itself from most notification solutions in the fact that it does not rely on any server side technology. The application itself calculates when and how notifications are presented to the user based on an internal logic crossed with background fetching of the current total data set. MyNews is the first customisable web interface to the news items supplied by the EMM engine designed for desktop browsers. It only became available in 2015. It requires logging in and is only available in-house, i.e. it is not accessible to the wider public. MyNews is highly customisable, since it allows users to define their own specific view by selecting the topics they are most interested in. This is achieved – similarly to the EMM mobile apps – by allowing users to tune news channels focused on very specific topics. They can create as many channels as they like, and they can organise them into sets (see Figure 4). There are many different ways to create new channels, which increases greatly the flexibility of the tool, combining as a union or as an intersection of article selections based on (a) text language, (b) news categories, (c) entities, (d) news from a certain country or (e) news about a certain country, (f) top stories (i.e. the biggest clusters of news talking about the same event) or (g) freely chosen search words. When visualising the contents of any of the channels, the meta-data relating specifically to this selection of news is displayed visually (see Figure 5). The Big Screen App, available since 2014, offers a view of EMM that is visible on large screens in central locations at user organisations. It shows a revolving and continuously updated view of what is happening around the world, targeted to the respective user communities, using text, maps and graphs. Citizens and Science (CAS) is a project that aims to gauge the relative importance of reporting on Science & Technology (S&T) in traditional and social media. It does this by comparing the reporting volume from a number of European Nations and the USA of items that correspond to a number of predefined S&T categories. The sources of these items are taken from the traditional online news media, public posts from FaceBook and tweets from Twitter. CAS allows investigating the relative dominance of certain themes across different media (traditional vs. social), languages and countries and it can help find empirical evidence of biased reporting (see Figure 6; more detail in Section 3.2). Details on ingested news, sources, numbers, geographical distribution Event extraction Multilinguality in EMM Multilinguality is an extremely important feature in this news monitoring application. Covering so many languages is not only important because the European Union consists of 28 Member States with 24 official EU languages. The coverage of news in 70 different languages is also due to the insight that news reporting is complementary across different countries and languages, both regarding the contents and the opinions expressed in the media. By gathering and analysing different languages, EMM reduces any national or regional bias and it increases the coverage of events and of opinions. While major world events such as large-scale disasters, major sports events, wars and meetings of world leaders are usually also reported in English, there is ample evidence that only a minority of the smaller events is reported on in the press outside the country where the event happens. Many EMM users have specialised interests such as the monitoring of events that may have negative effects on Public Health (e.g. disease outbreaks, reports on food poisoning, lack of access to medicines) or on the stability or welfare of a country (e.g. clashes between ethnic groups, accidents, crime). An analysis has shown that the vast majority of such events is not translated or reported abroad (Piskorski et al. 2011 – PROVIDE DETAILED NUMBERS). The links between related clusters across different languages in NewsExplorer show that only some of the news items in each country or language have an equivalent in other languages while the majority of news clusters talk about subjects of national interest. Figure 7, taken from the live EMM news cluster world map, also gives evidence of the uneven distribution of language reporting for locations on the globe: News mentioning locations in Latin America are mostly reported in Spanish and Portuguese; there is little news on Russia and China that is not written in Russian or Chinese, respectively, etc. Only by combining the world news in all different languages do we get a fuller picture of what is happening . Trend observation and distribution statistics in EMM In this section, we want to give some concrete examples of trend monitoring, as well as of bird's views of large amounts of media data giving insights in the relative distribution of news contents. The selection of examples shown here is based on wanting to present different visualisation principles or types, but it is naturally also driven by the interests of EMM users. Since EMM monitors in near-real time (time stamp) large amounts of media reports from around the world and it keeps track of the information (e.g. news provenance, news source, publication language, URL, media type, time of publication, etc.) and it additionally extracts categories and features (e.g. subject domain; number of related articles; names of persons, organisations and locations; sentiment; combinations of features; average values, etc.), it is in principle possible to produce and visualise statistics on any feature or feature combination. This can be done for a specific point in time (most EMM users are interested in now), it can be done for any moment back in time, it is possible to compare current values to average values, and it is possible to perform a time series analysis, i.e. it is possible to show any change over time. Note, however, that, while all such meta-data extracted by EMM can be stored, the original full text of the news has to be deleted after the analysis, for copyright reasons. Users will thus be able to see the meta data and a snippet of the news text (title and the first few words), but if they want to see the full text, they have to follow the hyperlink provided. Whether or not the full text is still accessible then depends on the news source. In the following sub-sections, we will present some types of trend observations and visual presentations of distribution statistics. Bar graphs and pie charts The simplest and probably clearest way of presenting static data is achieved using bar graphs and pie charts. Figure 5 shows three different bar charts to visualise different aspects for the same selection of news documents (provenance of the news, countries mentioned in the articles, and subject domains/entities referred to). These charts give the reader an overview of the whole collection of documents and it thus helps them evaluate and categorise the contents before reading them in detail. Figure 7b shows the language distribution of a multilingual set of European news articles talking on the subject of Science & Technology and comparing it with the language distribution in all articles covering the same time period. It is immediately visible that English and Polish language articles (left) are over-proportionally talking about S&T, while German and French S&T articles are under-represented, compared to the average. Maps visualising geographical distributions Map views are rather popular and intuitive. Figure 5 shows an aggregated map view (number of articles per continent/country/region, depending on the zoom level) while Figure 7 shows all news clusters (or those in a selection of languages). Many types of map data are available, allowing to combine any EMM information with third-party information, as seen in Figure 8 . Any map data in EMM is hyperlinked to the underlying news articles together with the extracted meta-information so that users can verify the contents and read the underlying news sources. Trend graphs Trend graphs show a simple correlation between at least two variables, of which one is time. Typically, they take the shape of line graphs or bar graphs where one axis represents time. Figure 1 shows the size (number of news articles) of the ten largest English language news clusters and their development over the past 12 hours, with a ten-minute resolution (update frequency). The interactive graph clearly shows which stories are most discussed. By hovering with the mouse over any of the points, the most typical news article header of that moment in time is shown so that users can get informed of the development of that story. The system decides on the most typical article header statistically by selecting the medoid, i.e. the document that is closest to the centroid of the vector. By clicking on any of the curves, a new page will open showing the articles that are part of that cluster plus all meta-information available to the system. This graph thus shows ten trend lines in one graph, for the sake of comparison. Similarly, Figure 6 visualises the numbers of news articles and of Social Media postings over time on four science areas. The graph shows longer-term developments. The chosen resolution is one day. For each of the four science areas, two trend curves are displayed to facilitate the visual understanding of the relative long-term development. Such graphs can be rather revealing. For instance, Figure 9 compares Science & Technology reporting in Europe and in the US. For better comparison, the numbers have been normalised: the x-axis shows the percentage of S&T articles compared to all articles, instead of absolute numbers. This graph reveals that the intensity of reporting on S&T in Europe lags behind that observed in US-American media (0.5% of all articles in all languages in the EU vs. 2.8% in the USA report about S&T). Comparing only English language articles in predominantly English-speaking countries (UK and Ireland in Europe; graph not shown here) with the English language articles in the USA, the difference is smaller, but it still notable (1.5% of articles in the UK and in Ireland vs. 3.2% in the USA). To put these numbers into perspective: the reporting on the reference categories Conflict, Ecology, Society and Sports, considering only the English language, was respectively 2.56%, 0.14%, 0.59% and 5.46% for the USA and 1.93%, 0.09%, 0.45% and 6.63% for the EU. This means that the reporting on S&T issues does not fall far behind the reporting on Sports in the USA, but in Europe reporting on Sports is 4 times more than on S&T issues. Note that, in EMM, sports articles are additionally only taken from general news streams because EMM does not scan sports pages of news sites. Looking in detail at a specific topic such as Space, we observe that there is a very strong correlation between the peaks, but the volumes are much smaller in the UK and Ireland, compared to the USA (See Figure 9). Other than a weak correlation between product announcements in the media and on twitter, we have not observed a clear media-driven discussion on the social media, i.e. we have not been able to establish any correlation between media reports and the user-driven content. Such data is a good starting point for the work of social scientists, who can then search for an interpretation and for explanations. Economists and politicians may then think of possible remedies (if needed and wanted). Figure 10 shows the interactive long-term news story timeline produced in EMM-NewsExplorer. The graph shows the number of news articles per day in the daily news clusters about the same event or subject. By hovering over any of the bars, the news cluster title is displayed so that users can explore what happened that day. By clicking on that day, the users are taken to the page with information on that day's news cluster in order to read the articles, see the related meta-information and follow hyperlinks to related reports in other languages. The graph allows exploring developments over longer periods of time and refreshing one's memory on what happened when. Figure 11 shows the development of positive or negative tonality (or sentiment) measured in English and French news articles, using a one-week resolution. Early warning graphs Figure 8 visualises results on the most recent events of a certain type, allowing stakeholders to become aware of the latest developments, to deepen their understanding of what happened (by reading the related news articles) and to take action, if needed. Another type of early warning is achieved with statistical means, as shown at the top of Figure 10, taken from EMM's Medical Information System MedISys. The graph called daily alert statistics shows the currently biggest threats world-wide, with decreasing relevance from left to right (the red threats are the ones with the highest alert levels). MedISys counts the number of articles in the last 24 hours for any country-threat combination (e.g. tuberculosis and Poland) and compares it to the two-week average count for this same combination. This ratio is then normalised by the number of articles for different days of the week (there are less articles on the weekend). The alert statistics graph then shows the results of all calculations, ranked by the value of this ratio . Note that the ratio is entirely independent of the absolute numbers as it rather measures the unexpectedness. Each country-threat combination is shown in two columns: the left one (light blue) shows the observed number of articles while the right one (red, yellow or blue) shows the expected two-week average. An important feature of this graph and of MedISys/EMM as a whole is that this alert is language-independent. The same categories for countries and for threats exist for (almost) all EMM languages, meaning that the articles may be found in one language only (e.g. Polish or Arabic), which often is different from the languages spoken by the MedISys user. The graph is interactive: Users can click on any of the bars to jump to a new page where all relevant articles for this country-threat combination are displayed, together with a heat map and a trend line showing the development over the past 14 days. The Spain-legionellosis threat combination in Figure 10 no longer is a top threat as it had already been reported on for four days. Further graph types used in EMM Figure 11 shows a node graph visualising co-occurrence relations between people. For each person, the 100 most associated entities (persons or organisations) are displayed. The subset of common entities is highlighted in red. The graph is interactive: by clicking on any of the entity nodes, they jump to a page with the news mentioning that entity and displaying all automatically extracted meta-information (e.g. Figure 2), or to the Wikipedia page for that entity. Further entities can be added to the same graph. EMM-NewsExplorer produces the correlation data by counting which entities are mentioned together with which other entities in the same news items. In order to suppress media VIPs such as the US president from the purely frequency-based correlation lists (called 'related entities' in NewsExplorer), a weighting formula is used that brings those entities to the top that are mostly mentioned together with this person and not so much with other persons. The data, referred to in NewsExplorer as 'associated entities', is produced on the basis of mention co-occurrence in the news in 21 different languages, i.e. it is less biased by the reporting language than data produced by a monolingual media monitoring system. EMM recognises direct speech quotations in the news in about twenty different languages and keeps track of who issued the quotation and who is mentioned inside the quotation. Figure 12 shows a quotation network indicating who mentions whom (arrows). Persons most referred to are automatically placed closer to the centre of the graph. During the 2007 presidential elections in France, it was observed that Nicolas Sarkozy, who was the winner of the elections, was consistently more central than his opponent Ségolène Royal. Quotation networks are no longer used in EMM. The same applies to topic maps, which display the most prominent subject matters referred to in a document collection. The topics are grouped into islands of relatedness (using a method known as Kohonen Maps). The more prominent a group of topics is in the collection, the higher the mountains on the island, with peaks being snow-covered. Summary and conclusions, pitfalls Computers have the ability to sieve through large volumes of data in little time and the technologies required for Automated Content Analysis (ACA) have matured to a level where automatically produced results can be useful for the human analyst. We have argued that a man-machine collaboration for the analysis of large volumes of media reports will produce best results because people and computers have complementary strengths. We have presented the main functionality of the European Commission's family of Europe Media Monitor (EMM) applications, which currently gathers an average of 220,000 online news articles per day from about 5,000 online news sources in seventy languages (and also from social media postings about certain themes), categorises the news into about 2,000 different categories, groups related articles, extracts various types of information from them, links related articles over time and across languages and presents the analysis results in a variety of ways to the human end user. Moderation tools support the users in viewing the data, in selecting and amending it and in producing in-house newsletters for the information-seeking decision takers. Monitoring not only English or some widely spoken languages is important in order to avoid bias and also because the news is complementary across languages, both for contents and for the sentiment contained therein. Automatic tools that process and analyse documents turn unstructured information into a structured format that can easily be processed by machines and that also provides useful data for the human user. This results in a data collection, where for each article, we know the news source, the country of origin, the language, the timestamp of the publication, the news categories, the persons, organisations and locations mentioned therein, related articles within the same and across different languages, quotations by and about persons. Additionally, we have data about trends, i.e. whether news related to the same event or subject are increasing or decreasing in numbers over time, and there is some information on sentiment/tonality. This structured collection makes it in principle possible to produce any statistics and to establish any trends related to these types of information. For selected subjects and feature combinations, the JRC regularly publishes its analysis, allowing EMM users to have a deeper insight into the publications on subject areas of their interest. In this article, we presented a range of different types of analyses and visualisations in order to give an overview of distributions and trends observed during large-scale media analysis. Such an extraction and aggregation of data is not usually the final objective, but it normally is the starting point for an intellectual human analysis. Analysts can get inspired by the data, questions may arise, suspicions may get confirmed or contradicted. Used carefully, we believe that the analyses produced by EMM or similar systems can be very useful because they may be used as an inspiration and as empirical evidence for any argument human analysts may want to make. However, we find it extremely important that users be aware of the limitations and of possible pitfalls when using such data, be it from EMM or from other automatic systems: First of all, media monitoring is not reality monitoring. What the media say is not necessarily factually true and media attention towards certain subjects usually differs from the real-life distribution of facts or events, giving media consumers a biased view. Media reporting is heavily influenced by the political or geographical viewpoint of the news source. It is therefore useful to analyse a large, well-balanced set of media sources coming from many different countries world-wide. EMM aims to reach such a balance, but sources are also added on request of users, it is not always known what political standpoints newspapers have, and not all news sources are freely accessible. For this reason, EMM displays the list of media sources so that users can form their own opinion. Any analysis, be it automatic or man-made, is error-prone. This is even true for basic functionalities such as the recognition of person names in documents and the categorisation of texts according to subject domains. Machines might make simple mistakes easily spottable by human analysts, such as categorising an article as being about the outbreak of communicable diseases when category-defining words such as tuberculosis are found in articles discussing a new song produced by a famous music producer, which is easily spottable by a person. On the other hand, machines are better at going through very large document collections and they are very consistent in their categorisation while people suffer from inconsistency and they tend to generalise on the basis of the small document collection they have read. For these reasons, it is crucial that any summaries, trend visualisations or other analyses can be verified by the human analysts. Users should be able to verify the data by drilling down, e.g. viewing the original text data in the case of peaks or unexpected developments, and especially to get an intuitive confidence measure by viewing a number of cases that lead to conclusions. Most of EMM's graphs are interactive and allow viewing the underlying data. It would be useful if system providers additionally offered confidence values regarding the accuracy of their analyses. For EMM, most specialised applications on individual information extraction tools include such tool evaluation results and an error analysis (e.g. XXX-REF). However, the tools can behave very differently depending on the text type and the language, making the availability of drill-down functionality indispensable. End users should be careful with accuracy statistics given by system providers. Especially commercial vendors (but not only) are good at presenting their systems in a very positive light. For instance, our experience has shown that, especially in the field of sentiment analysis (opinion mining, tonality), high accuracy is difficult to achieve even when the statistical accuracy measurement Precision and Recall are high. Overall Precision (accuracy for the system's predictions) may for instance indeed be high when considering predictions for positive, negative and neutral sentiment, but this might simply be because the majority class (e.g. neutral) is very large and the system is good at spotting this. Accuracy statistics may also have been produced on an easy-to-analyse dataset while the data at hand may be harder to analyse. Sentiment, for instance, may be easier to detect on product review pages on vending sites such as Amazon than on the news because journalists tend to want to give the impression of neutrality. Machine learning approaches to text analysis are particularly promising because computers are good at optimising evidence and because machine learning tools are cheap to produce, compared to man-made rules. However, the danger is that the automatically learnt rules are applied to texts that are different from the training data as comparable data rarely exists. Manually produced rules might be easier to tune and to adapt. Again, statistics on the performance of automatic tools should be considered with care. Within EMM, machine learning is used to learn vocabulary and recognition patterns, but these are then usually manually verified and generalised (e.g. Zavarella et al. 2010; Tanev & Magnini 2008). To summarise: we firmly believe that Automated Content Analysis works when it is used with care and when its strengths and limits are known. Computers and people have different strengths which – in combination – can be very powerful as they combine large-scale evidence gathering with the intelligence of human judgement. References Atkinson M, Keim D, Schaefer M, Franz W, Leitner-Fischer F, Zintgraf F. (2010). DYNEVI - DYnamic News Entity VIsualization. In: J.Kohlhammer, D.Keim (eds). Proceedings of the International Symposium on Visual Analytics Science and Technology. Golsar (Germany): The Eurographics Association. pp. 69-74 . 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Proceedings of the Workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2007) held at RANLP'2007, pp. 25-32. Borovets, Bulgaria, 26 September 2007. Sean P. O'Brien (2002). Anticipating the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. An Early Warning Approach to Conflict and Instability Analysis. Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 46 No. 6, December 2002, pp. 791-811 Steinberger Ralf & Bruno Pouliquen (2009). Cross-lingual Named Entity Recognition. In: Satoshi Sekine & Elisabete Ranchhod (eds.): Named Entities - Recognition, Classification and Use, Benjamins Current Topics, Volume 19, pp. 137-164. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 978-90-272-8922 3. ( Steinberger Ralf (2012). A survey of methods to ease the development of highly multilingual Text Mining applications. Language Resources and Evaluation Journal, Springer, Volume 46, Issue 2, pp. 155-176 (DOI 10.1007/s10579-011-9165-9). Steinberger Ralf, Bruno Pouliquen & Erik van der Goot (2009). An Introduction to the Europe Media Monitor Family of Applications. In: Fredric Gey, Noriko Kando & Jussi Karlgren (eds.): Information Access in a Multilingual World - Proceedings of the SIGIR 2009 Workshop (SIGIR-CLIR'2009), pp. 1-8. Boston, USA. 23 July 2009. Steinberger Ralf, Flavio Fuart, Erik van der Goot, Clive Best, Peter von Etter & Roman Yangarber (2008). Text Mining from the Web for Medical Intelligence. In: Fogelman-Soulié Françoise, Domenico Perrotta, Jakub Piskorski & Ralf Steinberger (eds.): Mining Massive Data Sets for Security. pp. 295-310. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Tanev Hristo & Bernardo Magnini (2008). Weakly supervised approaches for ontology population. In: Paul Buitelaar & Philipp Cimiano (eds.): Ontology learning and population: Bridging the Gap between Text and Knowledge. IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications, Volume 167. Tanev Hristo & Josef Steinberger (2013). Semi-automatic acquisition of lexical resources and grammars for event extraction in Bulgarian and Czech. Proceedings of the 4th Biennial International Workshop on Balto-Slavic Natural Language Processing, held at ACL'2013, pp. 110-118. Tanev Hristo (2007). Unsupervised Learning of Social Networks from a Multiple-Source News Corpus. Proceedings of the Workshop Multi-source Multilingual Information Extraction and Summarization (MMIES'2007) held at RANLP'2007, pp. 33-40. Borovets, Bulgaria, 26 September 2007. Tanev Hristo, Bruno Pouliquen, Vanni Zavarella & Ralf Steinberger (2010). Automatic Expansion of a Social Network Using Sentiment Analysis. In: Nasrullah Memon, Jennifer Jie Xu, David Hicks & Hsinchun Chen (eds). Annals of Information Systems, Volume 12. Special Issue on Data Mining for Social Network Data, pp. 9-29. Springer Science and Business Media (DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-6287-4_2). Tanev Hristo, Jakub Piskorski & Martin Atkinson (2008). Real-time News Event Extraction for Global Crisis Monitoring. In V. Sugumaran, M. Spiliopoulou, E. Kapetanios (editors) Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Applications of Natural Language to Information Systems (NLDB 2008 ), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Cool. 5039, 24-27 June, London, UK. Tanev Hristo, Maud Ehrmann, Jakub Piskorski & Vanni Zavarella (2012). Enhancing Event Descriptions through Twitter Mining. In: AAAI Publications, Sixth International AAAI Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, pp 587-590. Dublin, June 2012. Tanev Hristo, Vanni Zavarella, Jens Linge, Mijail Kabadjov, Jakub Piskorski, Martin Atkinson & Ralf Steinberger (2009). Exploiting Machine Learning Techniques to Build an Event Extraction System for Portuguese and Spanish. In: linguaMÁTICA Journal:2, pp. 55-66. Available at: . Turchi Marco, Martin Atkinson, Alastair Wilcox, Brett Crawley, Stefano Bucci, Ralf Steinberger & Erik van der Goot (2012). ONTS: "OPTIMA" News Translation System. Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (EACL), pp. 25–30, Avignon, France, April 23 - 27 2012. Van der Goot Erik, Hristo Tanev & Jens Linge (2013). Combining twitter and media reports on public health events in MedISys. Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on World Wide Web companion, pp. 703-718. International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee, 2013. Zavarella Vanni, Hristo Tanev, Jens Linge, Jakub Piskorski, Martin Atkinson & Ralf Steinberger (2010). Exploiting Multilingual Grammars and Machine Learning Techniques to Build an Event Extraction System for Portuguese. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Processing of Portuguese Language (PROPOR'2010), Porto Alegre, Brazil, 27-30 April 2010. Springer Lecture Notes for Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 6001, pp. 21-24. Springer. Observing Trends in Automated Multilingual Media Analysis Authors: Ralf, Aldo, Alexandra, Guillaume, Hristo, Martin, Michele, Yaniv, Erik European Commission – Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra (VA), Italy e-mail: Ralf.Steinberger@jrc.ec.europa.eu ( corresponding author )
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"BRAIN-DEATH" IS KIDNAP...MEDICAL TERRORISM/MURDER BEGINS WITH YOUR OWN PERSONAL CARE PHYSICIAN (PCP)...ARREST TRUMP FOR FEMICIDE...TRUMP HEADS UP FEMICIDE RING OF 93 "FEDERAL" PROSECUTORS...RITA REVOLUTION...93 "FEDERAL" PROSECUTORS ARE THE ROOT OF ALL TERROR...CNN FUCKS UP...MEDICAL KIDNAP/GENOCIDE (REAL TERROR) IN THE U.S. SINCE 1963...THE BRADY BUNCH...ARREST SCOTT W BRADY FOR HARBORING MEDICAL TERRORISTS OF WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA...HIDDEN HOSPITAL HOLOCAUST OF AMERICA...ARREST AHN DOCTOR DEBORRA KIM ZAISER (PER THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE DEATH PENALTY)...IRS KIDNAP BY "BRAIN-DEATH"...TYRANNY IS DEADLY IN THE USA...END THE REAL TERROR, SCOTT W BRADY ("FEDERAL" PROSECUTOR)...PITTSBURGH''S ED JITNEY SAYS "DON''T BE BRAIN-DEAD"...EMILY MARBURGER (MAYOR OF BELLEVUE 15202), ARREST DR KIM ZAISER...911 IN A NUTSHELL...93 U.S. FEDERAL PROSECUTORS PROVIDE US WITH HARVARD''S HIDDEN HOLOCAUST OF AMERICA... The Magic of Hyperventilation G.M. Woerlee, 20052018 An incident occurring during the first few weeks I started my career in anesthesia made a deep impression upon me. It was the beginning of 1977, and I had just started an anesthesiology residency in the Fremantle Hospital in Western Australia. Everything was new and unfamiliar. I asked the anesthesiologist standing next to me, why the patient who was undergoing an operation under general anesthesia was sweating so profusely. His reaction surprised me, and was one I never forgot. He grabbed the anesthetic chart, began fanning the patient and himself, and remarked: Warm isnt it? It was not warm in the operating theater. The patient was simply inadequately anesthetized using the then popular Liverpool technique of anesthesia. The Liverpool technique of anesthesia was first described by Thomas Cecil Gray during 1952. It consists of the now standard method of using separate drugs to provide analgesia, muscle relaxation, and unconsciousness, while mechanically ventilating the patients with a respirator to prevent hypoxia (Gray 1952). Subsequent studies revealed that anesthetic drug dosages could be further reduced by mechanically hyperventilating patients under general anesthesia (Dundee 1952, McAleavy 1961). This latter effect is but one of the several fascinating effects of hyperventilation on the human body. In fact, hyperventilation exerts so many effects upon the body relevant to anesthesia and the functioning of the brain, that it deserves a separate discussion. So what is hyperventilation? But first, what is the role of carbon dioxide in the body? Role of carbon dioxide in the body Carbon dioxide is a byproduct of the energy-generating chemical reactions occurring within the cells of the body. Carbon dioxide produced by these chemical reactions within the cells of the body diffuses into blood which transports it into the lungs where it is eliminated from the body in exhaled air. But carbon dioxide is not just an inert waste product. It is also a vital component in the maintenance of the chemical environment of the body, because it also regulates the acidity of blood, as well as other fluids outside and inside each cell of the body. Regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the tissues of the body is extremely important. The machinery of the body is driven by myriad complex chemical reactions, and the sum total of these chemical reactions result in optimally healthy body function at a certain levels of acidity and alkalinity inside and outside the cells of the body. Acidity and alkalinity of fluids is expressed in terms of the pH, a scale varying from 0 to 14. A pH = 0 is maximally acid, a pH = 7 designates neutrality, being neither acid nor alkaline, while a pH =14 is maximally alkaline. A fluid is acid if the pH is less than 7, and is alkaline if the pH is greater than 7. Blood is slightly alkaline with a pH = 7.4, while the insides of cells are slightly acid with a pH = 6.9. Carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts reversibly with water (H2O) to form carbonic acid (H2CO3). But carbonic acid is unstable at body temperature and is usually in the ionized state, forming hydrogen ion (H+), and bicarbonate ion (HCO3-) as in the chemical equation below. CO2 + H2CO3 ⇔ H+ + HCO3- At any given partial pressure of carbon dioxide within the tissues of the body, a balance exists between carbon dioxide and the bicarbonate concentration. This balance between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate ion determines the pH in blood and other tissues of the body. The Henderson-Hasselbach equation used to calculate the pH in blood shows this relationship in mathematical form. pH = 6.1 + log[HCO3-] (0.03 PCO2) The normal partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood is about 40 mmHg, and the normal bicarbonate concentration is about 24 millimoles per liter. Put these figures into the Henderson-Hasselbach equation above, and you get the pH of arterial blood which is 7.4. One more fact is needed to fully understand the effects of hyperventilation. This is the amount of bicarbonate in the body. As mentioned above, the concentration of bicarbonate in blood is 24 millimoles per liter. This is also true for all the fluids in between the cells of the body. Inside the cells of most tissues, the bicarbonate concentration is about 8 millimoles per liter. This means there is a lot of bicarbonate in the body. It takes time before such a large mass of bicarbonate ion decreases, or increases in size as a result of changes in blood carbon dioxide concentration. And it is this large mass of bicarbonate that lies at the origin of the effects of hyperventilation. So what is hyperventilation? What is hyperventilation? In practical terms, all carbon dioxide is eliminated from the body as a gas in exhaled air. When the volumes of air breathed into and out of the lungs increases above what is normal, more carbon dioxide than normal is eliminated from the body. This lowers the pressure of carbon dioxide within the body, whereby carbonic acid changes back to into water and carbon dioxide, eventually resulting in a new equilibrium between bicarbonate ion and carbon dioxide. CO2 + H2O ← H2CO3 ← H+ + HCO3- But this spontaneous chemical reaction whereby carbonic acid returns to water and carbon dioxide, is not as rapid as the speed with which carbon dioxide is removed from the body by hyperventilation. So when body carbon dioxide pressure is suddenly lowered relative to the bicarbonate concentration, the pH increases above normal because the bicarbonate concentration does not decrease as rapidly. The condition where pH of the body is increased above normal is called alkalosis, and all the body fluids and cells become more alkaline than normal. This effect lies at the basis of the mental effects of hyperventilation. So what are the mental effects of hyperventilation? Thresholds and mental effects of hyperventilation During the last two years of World War 2 (1939-1945), Seymour Kety and Carl Schmidt performed hyperventilation experiments upon conscientious objectors (Kety 1946). Military applications were part of the reason for these experiments. Their reasoning was that sometimes airplane crew flying at great height above Germany, might sometimes depend upon hyperventilation to prolong the period of useful consciousness, such as when oxygen delivery systems failed at high altitude, or when forced to abandon high flying aircraft after being hit by enemy fire. Regardless of these considerations, these experiments provided invaluable information regarding the manifestations of sudden onset of hyperventilation in normal young people, as well as the levels of carbon dioxide at which these manifestations occur. Kety and Schmidt found that clouding of consciousness and unconsciousness became increasingly likely when the carbon dioxide pressure fell below 30 mmHg (Kety 1946). This threshold was subsequently confirmed by Rafferty in 1992, who also found that all people developed neurological symptoms due to hyperventilation at a carbon dioxide pressure of 20 mmHg (Rafferty 1992). Mental effects of hyperventilation are very mixed. People with hyperventilation commonly describe symptoms such as disturbed mentation, impaired concentration, poor memory, and hallucinations. Feelings of depersonalization are also common, where hyperventilating persons describe sensations of unreality, or feeling everything is confused and dream-like. Visual experiences such as blurred vision, tunnel vision, flashing lights, and seeing double also occur (Evans 2005, Lum 1987, Perkin 1986). Extreme hyperventilation causes loss of consciousness in 31% of people with hyperventilation disorder (Perkin 1986), is occasionally observed during experimental hyperventilation (Kety 1946), and in some pregnant women hyperventilating due to labor pains (Burden 1994). But this is not all. Hyperventilation can sometimes even cause brain death. Death due to hyperventilation in the intensive care Even though hyperventilation is usually regarded as a mild problem, it can also cause brain death. But how? Some people with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), develop respiratory failure as a result of lung infections. Respiratory failure means their lungs malfunction so severely that insufficient oxygen is absorbed into their blood to sustain life, and their diseased lungs are unable to eliminate all the carbon dioxide produced by their bodies. These people usually die if this situation is not corrected. So they are often admitted into an intensive care unit where they undergo mechanical ventilation of their lungs. Mechanical ventilation is more efficient than normal respiration in these circumstances. It rapidly removes excess carbon dioxide from their bodies, ensures that sufficient oxygen enters their bodies, enabling these people to survive a period of temporarily worsened lung malfunction. This type of therapy has been available in many Western countries since the early 1960''s. And it was during the 1960''s that several reports were published of patients with severe COPD, who were admitted to an intensive care, underwent mechanical ventilation, and shortly afterwards developed unmanageable epileptic convulsions, severe brain damage, and even brain death (Kilburn 1966, Rotheram 1964). Relative hyperventilation was the cause of this dramatically tragic result of what is normally a life-saving therapy (Kilburn 1966, Rotheram 1964). Fortunately this occurs very rarely. Nonetheless, it does occur. So how can such tragedies occur? Hyperventilation-induced cerebral hypoxia Changes in body function caused by hyperventilation explain these deaths, as well as explaining the mental and visual manifestations of hyperventilation. As I explained earlier in this chapter, the acidity and alkalinity of bodily fluids is determined by the relative difference between the concentration of bicarbonate and the pressure of carbon dioxide as expressed by the Henderson-Hasselbach equation earlier this chapter. For the situation in arterial blood, the normal PCO2 = 40 mmHg, and the [HCO3-] = 24 millimoles, this means that the bicarbonate / carbon dioxide ratio is about 0.6. If the ratio is larger than 0.6, a fluid or tissue will be alkaline because this means there is less carbon dioxide due to hyperventilation. And when the ratio is less than 0.6, this means the fluid or tissue is acid. Chronic obstructive airways disease and hyperventilation Now people with severe chronic obstructive airways disease often have a higher than normal carbon dioxide concentration in their blood, simply because they cannot breathe deeply and rapidly enough to remove all the waste carbon dioxide from their bodies. And because the carbon dioxide concentration is higher than normal, this drives the chemical equilibrium to the right such that more carbonic acid is made. CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 → H+ + HCO3- The carbonic acid dissociates into hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion. Eventually the relative concentrations of bicarbonate ion and the pressure of carbon dioxide are such that the ratio of 0.6 is achieved, and the pH once again equals 7.4. This is not something theoretical, but is a standard clinical truth seen in such persons and taught to medical students throughout the world. Here is an example. Consider the values for pH, carbon dioxide pressure, and bicarbonate concentration reported by Walmsley during 1985 in a man with severe chronic obstructive airways disease: pH = 7.42, PCO2 = 87 mmHg, [HCO3-] = 55 millimoles (Walmsley 1985). The bicarbonate / carbon dioxide ratio here = 55 / 87 = 0.63 = approximately normal. This is a classic example of how right-shifting of the chemical equilibrium increases the bicarbonate concentration, so normalizing the pH of this man''s blood and body. Now just imagine this man was admitted to the intensive care with respiratory failure, where he was treated with mechanical ventilation of his lungs. Imagine that overenthusiastic physicians adjusted the mechanical ventilator such that his arterial carbon dioxide pressure was rapidly lowered to the normal level of 40 mmHg. Because carbon dioxide is more rapidly eliminated from the body than the bicarbonate concentration changes, the resulting bicarbonate / carbon dioxide ratio would be = 55 / 40 = 1.38, which indicates his blood would suddenly become very alkaline. If we calculate the exact pH, the resulting pH in his arterial blood would = 7.76. This means his blood would very rapidly become very alkaline indeed. This effect is true hyperventilation, because the change of carbon dioxide pressure is relative to the original carbon dioxide pressure in an abnormal equilibrium state. Such changes can profoundly affect the functioning of the body. But are these changes in body function important? And do these changes induce significant changes in body function? Cerebral blood flow and hyperventilation The flow of blood through the brain is called the cerebral blood flow. The normal flow of blood through the adult human brain is about 50 milliliters blood per 100 gm brain tissue per minute (50 ml/100 gm/min). During 1954, a medical scientist called Frank Finnerty determined the levels of cerebral blood flow at which cerebral hypoxia occurs in conscious people (Finnerty 1954). This experiment was performed according to the ethical standards of the day, using measurement techniques that are still the golden standards for the measurements he performed. Nowadays, most medical ethical committees would refuse permission to perform this experiment, so this was one of those enormously valuable, but unrepeatable experiments providing invaluable information about a fundamental property of the functioning of the human brain. The experiment was basically simple. He used a drug to lower the blood pressure of the experimental persons until symptoms of cerebral hypoxia occurred. Manifestations of cerebral hypoxia were defined as sighing, yawning, staring, and confusion. He found that the average level of cerebral blood flow at which cerebral hypoxia began to manifest was 31.5 ml/100 gm/min (Finnerty 1954). But this figure is an average, which means one half of all people developed manifestations of cerebral hypoxia at higher levels of cerebral blood flow, the other half at lower levels. So when you look at a graph of the distribution of levels of cerebral blood flow at which cerebral hypoxia occurred in this experiment, you see that significant numbers of people developed manifestations of cerebral hypoxia at cerebral blood flow at levels of even 40 ml/100 gm/min. The reverse is also true. About 10% of people are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels of 20-25 ml/100 gm/min, and about 5% are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels as low as 15-20 ml/100 gm/min (see Figure 5). Figure 5: Percentage distribution of cerebral blood flows at which symptoms of cerebral hypoxia without loss of consciousness occur in people of all age groups. Symptoms of cerebral hypoxia occur at an average cerebral blood flow of 31.5 ml/100 gm/min. The distribution of measurements around this average reveals that somewhat more than 10% of people are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels of 20-25 ml/100 gm/min, and about 5% are still conscious without any cerebral hypoxic symptoms at blood flow levels as low as 15-20 ml/100 gm/min (Finnerty 1954) (Figure � Woerlee). Human studies performed since the 1940''s reveal that hyperventilation reduces the cerebral blood flow by causing constriction [narrowing] of the arteries supplying the brain with blood (Pierce 1962, Raichle 1972, Wollman 1965, Wollman 1968a). Seymour Kety devised the first accurate system for measuring the cerebral blood flow which is still the golden standard against which other techniques for measuring cerebral blood flow are compared. His articles are still as current and valuable as when they were published during the 1940''s. He found that cerebral blood flow is directly related to the carbon dioxide pressure in the blood, and inversely related to the pH of the blood flowing through the arteries going to the brain (Kety 1946, Kety 1948). In other words, the lower the carbon dioxide pressure in the blood, the lower the cerebral blood flow. The studies of Kety clearly demonstrated that when hyperventilation caused the arterial carbon dioxide to drop below 30 mmHg, that the cerebral blood flow dropped below 40 ml/100 gm/min (Kety 1946), a cerebral blood flow threshold below which increasing numbers of people develop manifestations of cerebral hypoxia (Figure 6). And as mentioned earlier, all people develop neurological manifestations due to hyperventilation below an arterial carbon dioxide pressure of 20 mmHg (Rafferty 1992, and Figure 6). Figure 6: The effect of hyperventilation on the cerebral blood flow. The relationship between the carbon dioxide pressure in arterial blood and the cerebral blood flow in humans is as shown in this graph (Kety 1946, Kety 1948, Wollman 1965, Wollman 1968a). Extreme levels of hyperventilation, where the carbon dioxide pressure drops below 25-30 mmHg cause the cerebral blood flow to drop below 40 ml/100 gm/min, a level below which increasingly more people develop manifestations of cerebral hypoxia (Finnerty 1954) (Figure � Woerlee). Such low levels of arterial carbon dioxide pressure also cause cerebral blood flow to drop to levels at which cerebral hypoxia occurs (Figure 5). But are the cerebral manifestations of hyperventilation due to cerebral hypoxia? Binding of oxygen with hemoglobin provides further evidence that hyperventilation may well cause brain tissue hypoxia. Binding of oxygen to hemoglobin Blood is not a wondrous fluid with magical properties. Instead blood is a transport fluid. It transports oxygen, electrolytes, proteins, hormones, fats and sugars to tissues, and removes waste products of metabolism, hormones, products of metabolisms, etc away from tissues. Oxygen is transported by blood from the lungs where it enters the body. However oxygen is very poorly soluble in blood, and blood contains negligible amounts of dissolved oxygen. Practically all oxygen in blood is chemically bound to hemoglobin inside red blood cells. But the chemical binding of oxygen with hemoglobin is directly affected by the acidity and alkalinity of blood (i.e. the pH of blood). Hyperventilation causes loss of carbon dioxide from the body, causing the pH of blood to increase and become more alkaline. When blood is more alkaline, hemoglobin binds more tightly with oxygen. Oxygen bound to hemoglobin within red blood cells does nothing, because binding of oxygen to hemoglobin within red blood cells is no more than the body''s method of transporting oxygen to the capillaries within the tissues of the body. Within the capillaries of the tissues of the body, the chemical bond between oxygen and hemoglobin is weak enough to allow oxygen to leave the blood and diffuse into the cells surrounding the capillaries, so providing oxygen for the vital, energy-generating chemical processes within the cells forming the tissues of the body. But when hyperventilation causes oxygen to bind more tightly to hemoglobin, less oxygen is released to diffuse into the tissues surrounding the capillaries. The oxyhemoglobin saturation curve demonstrates this effect, showing that hemoglobin binds oxygen more tightly during hyperventilation (Figure 7). This is why hyperventilation can cause less oxygen to enter the tissues of the body from the capillaries, so resulting in hypoxia of the cells outside the blood vessels, even though the blood contains more than sufficient oxygen. Figure 7: Oxyhemoglobin saturation curve showing how the binding of hemoglobin with oxygen changes during hyperventilation. For example, if the oxygen pressure is 40 mmHg, the pH and everything else is normal, then hemoglobin is about 75% saturated. But during extreme hyperventilation when the PCO2 = 20 mmHg, the chemical binding of hemoglobin with oxygen is much stronger, and hemoglobin is almost 90% saturated at an oxygen pressure of 40 mmHg. (Figure � Woerlee). Hyperventilation causes cerebral hypoxia But does hyperventilation cause cerebral hypoxia? Hyperventilation has profound effects on the transport and delivery of oxygen to the tissues of the body. Hyperventilation reduces the cerebral blood flow, and to make matters worse, hyperventilation also causes oxygen to bind more tightly with hemoglobin. Both factors combine to reduce the availability of oxygen to the tissues of the brain, and can even cause cerebral hypoxia. Animal studies reveal that extreme hyperventilation does indeed cause cerebral hypoxia (Clausen 2004, Sugioka 1960). The tragic fatal effects of relative hyperventilation in humans with severe chronic obstructive airway disease, also reveals that hyperventilation in humans can result in cerebral hypoxia severe enough to cause actual brain damage and brain death (Kilburn 1966, Rotheram 1964). Furthermore, hyperventilation has also been implicated as one of the potential causes of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Hyperventilation-induced frontal lobe failure This last remark brings us to the effects of hyperventilation on conscious mental function. These were discussed earlier in this chapter and consist of manifestations such as: disturbed mentation, impaired concentration, poor memory, and hallucinations. Feelings of depersonalization are also common, as hyperventilating persons often describe sensations of unreality, or feeling everything is confused and dream-like. Many of these conscious mental experiences and manifestations are similar to those of cerebral hypoxia (see Chapter 4). And during extreme degrees of hyperventilation, the degree of cerebral hypoxia may be sufficient to cause loss of consciousness. But is this true for lesser degrees of hyperventilation? Figure 8: The basic regions / lobes of the surface, (or cortex) of the brain. (Figure � Woerlee). The effects of hyperventilation upon the human brain have been studied intensively for many years. As long ago as the 1940''s, hyperventilation was known to cause high amplitude, low frequency delta waves [waves with a frequency of 1-4 Hertz] to manifest in the electroencephalograph of the frontal lobes of the brains of conscious persons (Davis 1942, Meyer 1960, Stoddart 1967, Worp 1991). However, the appearance of delta waves is unrelated to the degree of lowering of arterial carbon dioxide pressure, or the pH increase due to hyperventilation, but is directly related to the occurrence of cerebral hypoxia induced by hyperventilation (Gotoh 1965). Hyperventilation does not only reduce the total cerebral blood flow, but also changes the distribution of blood flow within the brain. Modern studies reveal that blood flow to the frontal, occipital, and parieto-occipital cortex (see Figure 8), as well as the hippocampus is reduced relative to other areas of the brain within seconds to minutes of commencing hyperventilation (Naganawa 2002, Posse 1997). These relative changes in blood flow and electroencephalogram reflect reduced activity in these regions of the brain. The frontal lobes of the brain are required for cognitive functions such as memory, experience of time, directed attention, reflective consciousness, and the idea of self (Dietrich 2003). So hyperventilation induced cognitive changes such as disturbed mentation, impaired concentration, and poor memory, are readily explained by reduced frontal cortical function - nicely termed transient hypofrontality (Dietrich 2003). The occipital cortex performs primary and secondary visual processing, while the parieto-occipital cortex integrates body sensory information into the body image (Blanke 2005, Maravita 2003). Reduced function in these regions of the brain certainly explains other experiences occurring during hyperventilation, such as visual hallucinations, feelings of depersonalization, or feeling that everything is confused and dream-like. All these things mean hyperventilation can temporarily induce profound changes in brain function and the resulting conscious mental function. These effects even form the basis for a particular form of psychotherapy during which patients perform prolonged hyperventilation - a therapy called Holotropic Breathwork (Rhinwine 2007). As a simple and blunt anesthesiologist, I am unable to make any serious assessment of this form of psychotherapy, but this use of the conscious mental effects of hyperventilation is certainly interesting. Drowning and hyperventilation Most swimmers know that a short period of hyperventilation prior to diving allows them to extend the period they can spend underwater. But this not a safe technique, because sometimes people who hyperventilate prior to diving lose consciousness and drown while underwater (Craig 1976). Part of the reason why this technique works is the fact that breathing is mainly regulated by the pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood. Increased carbon dioxide pressures in arterial blood stimulates breathing, and generates a desire to breathe. Decreased carbon dioxide pressure in blood causes breathing to slow, reducing the urge to breathe, sometimes entirely removing the urge to breathe (Meah 1994). Arterial blood oxygen pressures measured in divers forced to surface due to the necessity to take a breath after prolonged dives preceded by hyperventilation, are sometimes low enough to cause loss of motor control (Lindholm 2006), and sometimes even low enough to cause loss of consciousness in some people (Craig 1961, Lindholm 2006). Loss of consciousness due to hypoxia is insidious, and is preceded by changes in mental state whereby affected people experience loss of insight, together with feelings of wellbeing (page 300 in Liere 1963). This explains why many people do not even realize they are about to lose consciousness due to hypoxia. This is the reason why some people who hyperventilate prior to an underwater dive, sometimes lose consciousness due to cerebral hypoxia before feeling the necessity to surface and breathe. And once they lose consciousness while underwater, they subsequently drown if not rescued (Craig 1976). However, anesthesiologists regard hyperventilation as a useful technique. Hyperventilation during general anesthesia Anesthesiologists often exploit the various properties of hyperventilation during general anesthesia. For example: During neurosurgical operations on the brain, anesthesiologists often apply hyperventilation to cause constriction of the blood vessels of the brain. This reduces the volume of blood inside blood vessels within the substance of the brain, so reducing the volume of the brain. Constriction of blood vessels also reduces bleeding. The combination of both effects results in better operating conditions for the neurosurgeon. Hyperventilation below an arterial carbon dioxide pressure of 30 mmHg reduces the level of consciousness, and sometimes even induces loss of consciousness. One consequence of this is a reduction of drug dosages required for general anesthesia. Hyperventilation is sometimes used at the end of operations to reduce the level of consciousness, as well as to prolong and intensify the actions of residual concentrations of anesthetic drugs. This last point is fascinating. How can hyperventilation intensify and prolong the actions of anesthetic drugs? The answer lies in the chemical nature of anesthetic drugs. Most drugs and most organic compounds are either weak acids or weak bases. Anesthetic drugs are no different. In fact, except for thiopental, all anesthetic drugs are bases. Now a base interacts with water molecules to form an equilibrium between an ionized form and a non-ionized form. Just look at this chemical equilibrium where H2O is water, and B is the base molecule or drug. When such a weak base dissolves in water, it interacts with water to acquire a hydrogen ion (H+), resulting in a free negatively charged hydroxyl ion (OH) in the following manner. B + H2O ⇔ BH+ + OH- For example, morphine is just such a weak base, so the interaction with water is just the same, and forms an equilibrium as below where the proportions ionized and unionized morphine are constant at each pH level. Morphine + H2O ⇔ MorphineH+ + OH- Morphine is a weak base. So when blood becomes more acid, (i.e. the pH decreases), a greater proportion of morphine exists in the ionized form. On the other hand, when blood becomes more alkaline and the pH increases, a smaller proportion of morphine exists in the ionized form. The same is true for all other anesthetic drugs except for thiopental. This may sound like a chemical subtlety of little practical consequence, but the concept of ionization of drugs used in anesthesia has important practical consequences. Anesthetic drugs do not cause sleep by acting upon blood cells or blood vessels: anesthetic drugs do not cause muscle paralysis by acting on blood cells or blood vessels: and anesthetic drugs do not relieve pain by acting upon blood cells or blood vessels. Instead, anesthetic drugs cause all these effects by acting upon nerve cells which are located outside and around blood vessels. And anesthetic drugs must somehow diffuse out of the blood vessels transporting them to get to the nerve cells outside. Brain capillaries only permit the passage of non-ionized drug molecules into the substance of the brain, and many anesthesiologists exploit this latter fact to prolong the effects of general anesthesia under some circumstances. One of these circumstances is the period near the end of an operation. At the end of an operation, a patient must be quickly aroused and transported out of the operating theater to the recovery room, so that the next patient can be brought into the operating theater to undergo an operation. So towards the end of an operation, anesthesiologists always try to lower the concentrations of drugs used for general anesthesia so that the patients will awaken more rapidly. They use measurements as well as clinical experience to estimate whether their patients will remain under general anesthesia sufficiently long for the surgeon to finish before they awaken. This is where anesthesia becomes an art form akin to cooking or music. Unfortunately some patients begin to react to the pain of surgery at this time. This leaves the anesthesiologist with three choices of action: Deepen the general anesthetic to the same level as during the middle of the operation. But this means that the time to awakening at the end of the operation will be longer than normal, resulting in a very slow operating program, from which one or more patients may have to be cancelled due to lack of time. Administration of repeated small doses of an anesthetic drug such as thiopental or propofol, sometimes together with an opiate. This is often a good choice, because patients usually awaken quickly after this technique, provided the surgeon does not take his time closing the wounds. Regrettably, some surgeons do take their time, ignoring anesthesiologists telling them to hurry. Hyperventilate the patient until the surgeon is finished. This is a practical and commonly used technique when combined with small doses of thiopental or propofol. Hyperventilation, not only reduces the level of consciousness, but also increases the proportion of non-ionized opiates already present in blood. This means more of these opiates can enter the brain, resulting in higher brain concentrations of opiates such as morphine (Nishitateno 1979), sufentanil (Matteo 1992), and fentanyl (Ainslie 1979). The same effect is also true for all other anesthetic drugs, except for thiopental. This relative increase in non-ionized concentrations of weakly basic drugs is one of the reasons why hyperventilation potentiates the effects of most anesthetic drugs. Final remarks on hyperventilation This brief discussion of the properties and consequences of hyperventilation reveal it to be almost magical in the extent of the extensive changes it induces in body and mental function. And the most magical aspect of hyperventilation, is how something as simple as breathing deeply and quickly, can induce such profound effects upon the functioning of the body, as well as the functioning of the conscious mind. Hyperventilation is still applied during some types of surgery performed under general anesthesia, but when injudiciously applied is detrimental, yet when applied appropiately is a useful addition to the anesthesiological amamentarium. EMILY MARBURGER (MAYOR OF BELLEVUE 15202) NEEDS TO END THE MEDICAL HOLOCAUST IN "OUR TOWN"... ORGAN PRINTING: THE STEM CELL CONUNDRUM INTRODUCTION: ORGAN PRINTING: METHODS AND PRESENTATION Advances in bioprinting, have brought along with them many great aspects that can improve the quality of life of many people, including the ability to create new tissues and even new organs for people who have been injured or sick. Bioprinting is an innovation in biomedical and tissue engineering in which biological tissues such as skin and organs are printed from a three-dimensional bioprinter. Using live cells as the material to be printed with [1]. However, at this point in time, the development has reached an ethical crossroad in the process of creating fully formed three-dimensional working organs. While working in the organ printing department of a research facility for tissue engineering, the suggestion of the incorporation of human embryonic stem cells into the process of growing cells and printing organs. The integration of human embryonic stem cells into the cultures dramatically increases the yield of cells, which can be used to print organs; however, there is no dependent source of human embryonic stem cells that would not cause for an ethical dilemma within both the company and the public. One of the main sources of embryonic stem cells that are used in research nowadays is the collection of cells from abortion [2]. An agreement is made with clinics throughout the US to hand over excess stem cells and artificially inseminated eggs to our company to be cultured and grown, in order to create an abundance of human embryonic stem cells that could be used for printing organs. With the introduction of stems cells, the research rates would increase exponentially and, after the initial testing period, in which fully printed organs were tested in animals, the finished products would be put on the market. When asked about the source of the cells used, I have been instructed to let it be known that human embryonic stem cells are used, however it is not allowed to let it known that these stem cells are coming from the abortions being performed throughout the United States, because of the amount of controversy that it would cause would most likely shut down the entire operation. Looking at this situation from the perspective of a biomedical engineer, who is bound by the code of ethics for both the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE) and the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES), it would be a difficult decision to make because of the conflicting aspects of the situation. Having the ability to print organs from scratch is an invaluable technique to have, and it could help endless amounts of people; however, each person who is receiving one of the organs deserves to know the true origin of the cells that are being put into their body. I, personally, would agree with the use of human embryonic stem cells in the printing of organs, but I would not agree to this situation because it contains far too many violations of the both codes of ethics and overall is a dishonest situation. USE OF HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS Printing an organ is an extremely complex process that requires much more than just living cells and a 3-D bio printer [3]. Three-dimensional printing is the process in which a 3-D printer lays a type of material in multiple layers of a two dimensional cross section to form a three dimensional object [4]. When an organ is printed, the cells must be positioned on top of each other in a certain way to allow them to fuse together into a working organ [5]. With the introduction of human embryonic stem cells into the process, not only would the cells be better suited for the task at hand, more cells would also be able to be cultured from the stem cells at a faster rate [6]. Many controversial theories have arisen in the general public about the origin of the cells to be used for organ printing. The most prevalent of the theories is the use of the human embryonic stem cells, which come from abortions, in order to grow the cells used to print organs [2]. Though this may not seem immoral, considering these cells are not being put to use in any other way, one of the main concerns was the idea of this being incentive for institutes to increase the number of abortions they perform; however, in this situation, that is not an issue because of the wide range of locations across the United States from which these cells can be gained. According to Dr. Courtney Farrell, author of the article Stem Cell Research, the use of human embryonic stem cells is widely disapproved of in the general public of because of the theory that life begins at the moment of conception [6]. This creates a dynamic between the fetus and the person getting the organ because that would be valuing one life over another, which is the root of the problem for many of the people who are currently opposed to the situation in this instance. The situation is then exacerbated by the fact that there is the possibility that abortions are beginning to take place for the sole purpose of gaining human embryonic stem cells, which would not be a step in the positive direction. Looking at the situation from an engineering point of view, according to one of the fundamental canons of the code of ethics for engineers from the National Society of Professional Engineers, an engineer must always view a situation in which the safety, health and welfare of the public is held above all other aspects [7]. The introduction of human embryonic stem cells greatly increases the chance that an organ would be successfully printed, which would be considerate of the health and welfare of the general public; however, if the cells are being cultured in a suspicious manner, that could possibly be dangerous to the health and safety of the public, then as an engineer, I cannot support this process because it is a direct violation of the code of ethics. Nonetheless, if the use of embryonic stem cells were to increase the chance that organs would be able to be printed, then from an engineers point of view, those cells should be used. Each day, 115,000 people are in need of a lifesaving organ transplant, in the United States, but are unable to get them because of lack of access [8]. On average, 18 people die, each day, due to lack of available organs for transplant, and the need for organs is rising each day. According to the statistics at DonateLife.net, in 2012 there were 14,013 organ donors resulting in 28,052 organ transplants [9]. The need for organs is vastly outracing the amount of organs and organ donors; therefore, organ printing would be a good investment of the time and resources, at least to close the gap between the amount of people who need organs and the amount of organs that are available. Withholding the ability to print organs because of the religious beliefs of the few who are opposed to the use of stem cells would not be abiding by the code of ethics for engineers. It would be in the interest of the health and welfare of the public to incorporate human embryonic stem cells into the process of organ printing because of the potential amount of lives it would be able to save through the three-dimensional printing of organs. ANIMAL TESTING Once organ printing is fully developed, and some of the prototypes are put into practice, many fear that the use of animals for testing will become a problem. Animal testing has become a normal process in the research process of todays society, yet it is still heavily debated and protested by many people around the world [2]. Again, looking at it from an engineering perspective, in terms of the code of ethics from the National Society of Professional Engineers, the health and welfare of the public must be held paramount over other aspects; however, as stated in the code of ethics for biomedical engineers, as put forth by the Biomedical Engineering Society, a biomedical engineer must Comply fully with legal, ethical, institutional, governmental, and other applicable research guidelines, respecting the rights of and exercising the responsibilities to colleagues, human and animal subjects and the scientific and general public [10]. Animals have rights also, and they deserve to be treated a certain way, even if they are being used for scientific research. There is a certain standard of living that is would be considered as respecting the rights of an animal. Therefore, if the conditions and the treatment of the animals were unacceptable during the time of the testing, I would not be able to support that process because it would be against the Biomedical engineering research obligations. But in this situation, it is easy enough to ensure the correct treatment of the animals in which the organs are being tested so that would not be a valid reason for the initial testing of the organs to be halted. Organ printing is a technology that has the potential to change the world by saving many innocent lives. I am not advocating for animal testing when it comes to testing the organs produced by organ printing, but if this technology truly has the potential to make such a big difference, then it is plausible to use a certain amount of animal testing in a controlled environment and manner if it is necessary. PRESENTATION OF INFORMATION The methods of the research facility to obtain their findings and discoveries are sound; however the way in which they chose to present it is somewhat questionable. They want to present their discoveries to the market as three-dimensional printed organs containing human embryonic stem cells, but they are tentative to reveal the origins of those cells as being the results of abortions, out of fear that it would not go over well with the public. Selectively withholding information about their product would create a very bad situation for many people, especially those who were extremely opposed to the idea of using human embryonic stem cells. Not only is that dishonest and dangerous for the people who are getting the printed organs made from stem cells, but it is also a violation of the code of ethics for both the Biomedical Engineering Society and the National Society of Professional Engineers. The code of ethics for the Biomedical engineering society clearly states that all biomedical engineers involved in health care activities shall regard responsibility toward and rights of patients, including those of confidentiality and privacy, as their primary concern meaning, in this situation, that the confidentiality between patient and the person giving them the organ, that could potentially save their life, should extend to telling them the full truth about the origins of the cells that will soon be in their body in the form of a three-dimensionally printed organ [10]. Such dishonesty between the company and the patient is unacceptable. Also, according canons of the code of ethics put forth by the National Society of Professional Engineers, engineers are to avoid deceptive acts [7]. Omitting such a large part of the information on something that is going to become an integral part of another person is definitely a deceptive act, because it doesnt allow the consumer to make an informed decision on whether or not they want it. An engineer is commissioned to create the technologies that are in the best interest of the health and welfare of the public. If the people choose not to use the technologies for personal reasons then that is not the jurisdiction of the engineer. If a technology is chosen based on a false or not completely true pretense, then that is not in the best interest of the public in any way. The code of ethics then goes on to say, Engineers shall avoid the use of statements containing a material misrepresentation of fact or omitting a material fact, which reiterates the aforementioned point [7]. It is an utter violation of the engineering code of ethics to omit such an important fact, especially when lives could be at stake because of it. CONCLUSION Organ printing shows promise as a new innovative technology, that has the potential to help countless numbers of people; however, there are some who are opposed to the idea of organ printing, and rally for the stopping of research into the topic. However, in this scenario, in which a certain type of human embryonic stem cells are being added to the organs without the knowledge of the people who are accepting these organs, organ printing has shown itself to be a very ethically charged scenario. It is very important to consider the ethical side of any situation, especially in situations concerning the innocent lives of patients, because codes of ethics for engineers were made to protect the general public from the dangers of the field. It is completely unethical according to both codes of ethics for all engineers and more specifically biomedical engineers. The logical solution to this scenario would be to discontinue research and progress until the research facility found a better way to present their methods to the public. Even though the technology for printing organs has the potential to help many people, it would be counteractive to deceive the public into using something they may not want to use. Susan Lindauer (born July 17, 1963) is an American antiwar activist and former U.S. Congressional staffer who was charged with "acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign government" and violating U.S. financial sanctions during the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq. She was incarcerated in 2005 and released the next year after two judges ruled her mentally unfit to stand trial. The government dropped the prosecution in 2009. In 2010, Lindauer published a book about her experiences. Since 2011 Lindauer has appeared frequently on television and in print as a U.S. government critic. Contents [hide] 1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Interest in the Middle East 4 Arrest, incarceration and release 5 Book and subsequent claims 6 Television Personality and U.S. government critic 7 References 8 External links Early life and education[edit] Lindauer is the daughter of John Howard Lindauer II, a newspaper publisher and former Republican nominee for Governor of Alaska. Her mother, Jackie Lindauer, died of cancer in 1992. In 1995, her father married Dorothy Oremus, a Chicago attorney.[1] Lindauer attended East Anchorage High School in Anchorage, Alaska, where she was an honor student and was in school plays.[2] She graduated from Smith College in 1985 and then earned a master''s degree in public policy from the London School of Economics.[3] Career[edit] Lindauer began in journalism working as a temporary reporter at the Seattle Post-Intelligencer in 1987, and as an editorial writer at The Everett Herald in Everett, Washington until 1989. She later worked as a reporter and researcher at U.S. News & World Report in 1990 and 1991.[1][2][4][5] Lindauer worked as a Congressional staffer for Representative Peter DeFazio (D-OR, 1993) and then Representative Ron Wyden (D-OR, 1994) before joining the office of Senator Carol Moseley Braun (D-IL), where she worked as a press secretary and speech writer.[1][4] She served as Press Secretary for Representative Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) from March 11, 2002 to May 14, 2002.[6][7] Interest in the Middle East[edit] In November 1993, a friend of Lindauer''s father introduced her to former Vietnam combat pilot Paul Hoven, at a restaurant next to the Heritage Foundation in Virginia. She began socialising in an informal circle of conservatives interested in counterterrorism, including Capitol Hill staff and intelligence community members. These included Dr. Richard Fuisz[3] and senior Congressional staffer Kelly O''Meara.[8] At the time of Lindauer''s first meeting with Fuisz, theories of the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in 1988 were divided between blaming the Libyan government under Moammar Gaddafi and the Syrian Ahmed Jabril. Lindauer said that Fuisz had shared with her a theory that did not hold Libya to blame. Lindauer and Fuisz said they met an average of once per week from 1994 to 2001, and Lindauer has described Fuisz as "my contact with the CIA." In 2000, the Sunday Herald in Scotland reported that Fuisz had been an operative for the CIA in Damascus during the 1980s. Fuisz did not confirm or deny this, saying he was not permitted to speak about it.[3][9] Lindauer said she began making visits to the Libyan mission at the United Nations (UN) in 1995[4] and with Iraqis at the UN in 1996.[3] In 2000, she told Middle East Intelligence Bulletin that she had been subject to surveillance, threats, and was attacked after meeting Libyan officials in 1995 to discuss what she had learned about the Flight 103 bombing.[4][10] On November 26, 2000, then President-elect George W. Bush appointed Lindauer''s second cousin,[11][12] Andrew Card, as White House Chief of Staff upon his inauguration. Card had previously served as Deputy Chief of Staff and Secretary of Transportation for George H. W. Bush, and had been selected by George W. Bush to run the 2000 Republican National Convention.[13] Starting in 2000, Lindauer delivered multiple letters to Card, leaving them on the doorstep of his home in Northern Virginia. In her letters, she urged Card to intercede with President George W. Bush not to invade Iraq, and offered to act as a back channel in negotiations.[3] Over approximately two years, Lindauer wrote Card a total of eleven letters, the last on January 6, 2003, two months before the invasion of Iraq.[14] Card later told the FBI that Lindauer had tried to contact him several times, but according to a statement by White House spokesman Scott McClellan, Card did not recall seeing or talking to Lindauer after the January 2001 inauguration.[11] In a 2008 hearing, one of Lindauer''s associates testified that she had mentioned an imminent attack on Manhattan with airplanes in 2001.[8] Lindauer, in her book, claims that she was asked by Fuisz to ask the Iraqi diplomats if they knew about an imminent attack. According to Lindauer, pre-9/11 information was part of her work with Fuisz. Fuisz''s interactions with Lindauer ended in 2001, i.e. he had a falling out with Lindauer after the September 11th attacks in 2001, no longer welcoming her to his office. He said that before the attacks she was "Arabist, but Arabist from the standpoint of trying to lift sanctions, so that children would do better, and trying to get medicines into countries -- principally I''m talking about Iraq and Libya." Lindauer described her falling out with Fuisz in a 2009 interview, saying that it had been in regard to the approach taken in reacting to the possibility of an imminent attack.[15] He said that after September 11, "Susan, in her discussions, went from benign, in my opinion, to malignant... These discussions changed and now involved a very strong seditious bent."[3] Arrest, incarceration and release[edit] On March 11, 2004, Lindauer was arrested in Takoma Park, Maryland by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).[3][16][17] She was taken to the FBI office in Baltimore. Outside of this office, she told WBAL-TV: "I''m an antiwar activist and I''m innocent. I did more to stop terrorism in this country than anybody else. I have done good things for this country. I worked to get weapons inspectors back to Iraq when everybody else said it was impossible."[18][19] Lindauer was indicted by a grand jury for "acting as an unregistered agent of a foreign government",[20] an accusation usually made against foreign spies.[21][22] For this reason, the media wrote much about her being accused of spying.[23] Lindauer stated she was charged (and held in detention) under the USA PATRIOT Act.[24] The indictment against Lindauer alleged that she accepted US$10,000 from the Iraqi Intelligence Service in 2002.[3][20] Lindauer denied receiving the money, but confirmed taking a trip to Baghdad.[3] Lindauer was also accused of meeting with an FBI agent posing as a Libyan, with whom she spoke about the "need for plans and foreign resources to support resistance groups operating in Iraq."[6] Lindauer said she went to the meeting because of her interest in filing a war crimes suit against the U.S. and U.K. governments.[3] Pursuant to Lindauer''s arrest, Congresswoman Lofgren released a statement saying she was "shocked" by the arrest, that she had no evidence of illicit activities by Lindauer, and that she would cooperate with the investigation.[6][7] Robert Precht, an Assistant Dean of the University of Michigan Law School, said the charges were "weak" and that Lindauer was more likely a "misguided peacenik".[25] Lindauer was released on bond on March 13, 2004 to attend an arraignment the following week.[26] Sanford Talkin of New York was appointed by the court as her lawyer.[27] Lindauer claimed she was conducting peace negotiations with representatives of several Muslim countries (including Iraq, Libya, Malaysia, and Yemen) in New York. According to transcripts Lindauer presented to the New York Times in 2004, these included meetings with Iraqi Muthanna al-Hanooti, a peace activist later accused of spying. Lindauer also said that the U.S. intelligence community was aware of these meetings and was monitoring her.[3][27] President George W. Bush listens to remarks by Mukasey after announcing his nomination to be Attorney General. In 2005, Lindauer was incarcerated at Carswell Air Force Base in Fort Worth, Texas, for psychological evaluation. She was then moved to the Metropolitan Correctional Center in Manhattan.[28] In 2006, she was released after judge Michael B. Mukasey ruled that Lindauer was unfit to stand trial.[29][28] He noted that the severity of Lindauer''s mental illness, which he described as a "lengthy delusional history", weakened the prosecution''s case. In his decision he wrote, "Lindauer ... could not act successfully as an agent of the Iraqi government without in some way influencing normal people .... There is no indication that Lindauer ever came close to influencing anyone, or could have. The indictment charges only what it describes as an unsuccessful attempt to influence an unnamed government official, and the record shows that even lay people recognize that she is seriously disturbed."[28] During Lindauer''s incarceration she refused antipsychotic medication which the United States Department of Justice claimed would render her competent to stand trial. Judge Mukasey would not allow her to be forcibly medicated, as requested by the prosecution.[30][31][32][33] At a hearing in June 2008, Lindauer told reporters that she had been a CIA asset[34] and said she had "been hung out to dry and scapegoated".[34] In 2008, Justice Loretta A. Preska of the Federal District Court in New York City reaffirmed that Lindauer was mentally unfit to stand trial, despite Lindauer''s insistence to the contrary.[1][35] Preska ruled that Lindauer''s belief in her connection to the intelligence community was evidence of her insanity.[36] Testifying before Loretta Preska, the New York Times reported that Lindauer, "... angrily contested an accusation in her indictment that she had illegally lunched with Iraqi intelligence operatives."[37] On January 16, 2009, the government decided to not continue with the prosecution saying, "prosecuting Lindauer would no longer be in the interests of justice."[29][38] Book and subsequent claims[edit] In 2010, Lindauer self-published a book about her experience titled Extreme Prejudice: The Terrifying Story of the Patriot Act and the Cover-Ups of 9/11 and Iraq.[39] Lindauer wrote that for a number of years she had worked for the CIA and DIA undertaking communications with the Iraqi government and serving as a back-channel in U.S. government negotiations. In October 2012 she denied in an e-mail being the author of the Markovian Parallax Denigrate Usenet postings of August 5, 1996. The meaning of the cryptic posts, if any, remains a mystery.[40] Television Personality and U.S. government critic[edit] Since 2011, Lindauer has repeatedly appeared on Russia Today news, in television and in print where she is presented as an expert on Libya,[41][42] Iraq and Yemen[43] also as a commentator on U.S. government operations.[44] Lindauer''s story was profiled on the English-language Iranian television show The Autograph[45][46] on Press TV-Iran in 2011 premed.cash organscam.com 911kite 911kites 911kite.com 911kites.com ... PITTBIRD 911 KITES GO 2001 FEET ALTITUDE...JOIN THE RITA REVOLUTION (RITAREVOLUTION)... Teen accuses Mayo Clinic of medical kidnapping POSTED 11:35 AM, AUGUST 13, 2018, BY CNN WIRE FACEBOOK952 TWITTER GOOGLE LINKEDIN PINTEREST EMAIL In a jaw-dropping moment caught on video, an 18-year-old high school senior rushes to escape from the hospital that saved her life and then, she says, held her captive. At the entrance to the world-renowned Mayo Clinic, the young womans stepfather helps her out of a wheelchair and into the family car. Staff members come running toward him, yelling No! No! One of them grabs the young womans arm. Get your hands off my daughter! her stepfather yells. The car speeds away, the stepfather and the patient inside, her mother at the wheel. Mayo security calls 911. We have had a patient abduction, the security officer tells police, according to a transcript of the call. A cautionary tale The patients name is Alyssa Gilderhus. She and her family say she wasnt abducted from the Mayo Clinic in February 2017; rather, she escaped. They say the hospital was keeping her there against her will that Mayo medically kidnapped her. Unhappy with the care she was receiving at Mayo, they say, they repeatedly asked for her to be transferred to another hospital. They say Mayo refused. According to police, Mayo officials had a different plan for Alyssa: They had asked the county for assistance in gaining guardianship of Alyssa, who was an adult. A spokeswoman for the Mayo Clinic said hospital officials would be willing to answer CNNs questions if Alyssa signed a privacy release form giving them permission to discuss her case publicly with CNN. The spokeswoman, Ginger Plumbo, supplied that form to CNN. Alyssa signed the form, but Plumbo declined to answer CNNs questions on the record. Instead, she provided a statement, which said in part, We will not address these questionable allegations or publicly share the facts of this complex situation, because we do not believe its in the best interest of the patient and the family. Our internal review determined that the care teams actions were true to Mayo Clinics primary value that the patients needs come first. We acted in a manner that honored that value for this patient and that also took into account the safety and well-being of the team caring for the patient. Read the Mayo Clinics entire statement to CNN. This story is based on interviews with Alyssa and members of her family, a family friend, law enforcement officials and a former member of a Mayo Clinic board, as well as documents including law enforcement records and Alyssas medical records. By everyones account, this is an unfortunate and devastating story about a bitter clash that went out of control a clash between a Minnesota farm family and one of the worlds most revered hospitals. Its confusing to me why this went off the rails so horribly, said Richard Saver, a professor at the University of North Carolina School of Law, who at CNNs request reviewed medical and legal documents that the family and law enforcement officials provided to CNN. Art Caplan, head of the Division of Medical Ethics at the New York University School of Medicine, also reviewed the documents, and he agrees. This should never have happened, he said. This is a cautionary tale. A Christmas Day aneurysm The relationship between Alyssas family and the Mayo Clinic started off well. On Christmas morning 2016, Alyssa settled in with a mug of hot chocolate to open her gifts. She was surrounded by her large family: her mother, Amber Engebretson, a stay-at-home mom; Duane Engebretson, her stepfather since she was 4 years old, who manages a construction company and the familys farms; and her five younger siblings, then 18 months to 11 years old. They live in Sherburn, Minnesota, population just over 1,000 people, about 150 miles southwest of Minneapolis, on a farm with sheep, cows, horses and pigs. Alyssa was thrilled with her first Christmas present: a pair of cowboy boots emblazoned with the emblem of the Future Farmers of America, her favorite club. Then she went to the bathroom. Her parents heard screaming. Mom, I need you! Alyssa yelled as she lay curled up on the floor, vomiting. It was immediately obvious this was much more than just a stomach bug. Her left side was very weak, and she couldnt hear out of her left ear. You could see looking at her that she was petrified, her stepfather said. He called an ambulance. A local hospital determined that Alyssa, whod always been healthy, had a ruptured brain aneurysm: A blood vessel inside her brain had suddenly and unexpectedly burst. Surgeons explained that her life was on the line. They drilled a hole in her skull to relieve the pressure on her brain. A nurse gave her parents a bag of Alyssas hair, which had been shaved off for the operation. Some people liked to have it, she said. Amber and Duane cried as they considered that this bag of hair their daughters long, beautiful hair might be all they had left if she died. They begged to have her sent to the Mayo Clinic. The main campus for the world-renowned medical center was 85 miles away in Rochester, Minnesota. Theyre the best. People come from all over the world to go to Mayo, said Alyssas mother, Amber Engebretson, who worked as a vehicle inspector for the Minnesota State Patrol before staying home to care for her family. But Alyssa couldnt get to Mayo immediately. There was an ice storm. Ambulances couldnt drive, and helicopters couldnt fly. The weather eventually broke, and about 7 p.m. about nine hours after the aneurysm Alyssa finally arrived by ambulance at Mayo headquarters in Rochester. On Christmas night, surgeons gave her a 2% chance of living, her parents said. Doctors wrote in her medical record that her prognosis was grim. Her parents reached out on Facebook for prayers. They called their daughter the #Christmasmiraclegirl. Alyssa lived up to that name. She survived, thanks to four brain surgeries over the next month. Her doctors were ecstatic. They were like, shes not supposed to be here. She beat the odds, her stepfather said. Mayo neurosurgeons saved her life, added her mother. Well be grateful to them forever. On January 30, Alyssa was transferred from the neurology unit to the rehabilitation unit. It should have been a happy turning point. But thats when the troubles began. Tensions flare Although all had gone smoothly on the neurology floor, the family got into conflicts with the rehab staff almost immediately. First, doctors there wanted to take Alyssa off oxycodone, a powerful opioid painkiller that the neurology doctors had prescribed for pain after surgery. Her most recent surgery the fourth in one month had been just a few days before. Shed lay in bed with tears coming out of her eyes because she was in so much pain, her stepfather said. Many medical authorities, including the Mayo Clinics website, say opioids are critical for post-surgical pain management. A week after Alyssa arrived on the rehabilitation floor, her mother shared her feelings on Facebook. [Alyssas] and my frustration level was high and it seems that they just dont listen sometimes, Amber wrote on February 7. More disputes arose. Her parents say their daughters breathing tube was the wrong size, and they had to pester doctors to get it corrected. They also say the family not doctors discovered that she had a bladder infection. They say a social worker discussed private financial information within earshot of visiting friends and relatives. Her parents asked for the social worker and a doctor to be replaced. We just need someone who will at least listen to us and hear us, Amber wrote on her Facebook page on February 20. Alyssas parents say that at their request, they had a meeting with her care team on February 21. I had two whiteboards filled up with questions left unanswered, tests left undone, and every other question we could think of, Amber wrote on her Facebook page that day. Amber says that at one point during that meeting, she told the staff she felt like they dont give a f***, later apologizing for her language. She also asked for a second doctor to stop taking care of their daughter. We took no crap and laid it all on the line. Because seriously what do we have to lose at this point, Amber wrote on Facebook that night. Mayo kicks Mom out On February 22, the day after that meeting, Amber got into a disagreement with a nursing aide and asked to have her removed from her daughters care team. She was the fourth staffer the family had asked to be replaced in just three weeks. That afternoon, Amber says, she was scheduled to have a meeting with the social worker the same one shed asked to leave her daughters care. Amber had requested the meeting, and she says that as she approached the office at the appointed time, a man shed never seen was standing in the office doorway. She said he saw her coming and went into the office and shut the door. Amber listened through the door. She says that as she suspected, the man and the social worker were talking about her family. I proceeded to open the door and say, Since youre talking about my family, I think its only appropriate that I would be here also, to be included in the conversation, she remembers. She says the man puffed out his chest and stepped toward her, and she took a backward step into the hall. The man, who Amber later learned was a physician, demanded that she leave. She says the man told her, I run this whole rehab unit. Do you understand me? Amber describes the doctor as intensely aggressive. She replied to him, she says, with similar aggression and frustration: I need to talk to you. Do you understand me? The doctor walked away. CNN reached out to this doctor and other staff members involved in Alyssas care but did not receive responses. About an hour later, Alyssas parents say, the same doctor, the social worker and a nurse approached the family. They were accompanied by three security guards. [The doctor] said to me, You are not allowed to participate in Alyssas care. You are not allowed on Mayo property. You will be escorted off the premises right now, Amber remembers. Amber and Duane say they asked why Amber was being kicked out but did not receive an answer. Later, a social worker would tell police that Amber interrupted a meeting because Amber was upset over the care Alyssa was receiving. Due to that incident, Amber was escorted off of [Mayo] property. According to Alyssas parents, the doctor told Duane that he could stay but that he would not be allowed to have any involvement in his stepdaughters care. The couple say they asked the doctor whether they could speak with a patient advocate. He said, There is no patient advocate, and walked away, Amber said. When asked about Ambers dismissal from the hospital, Mayo spokeswoman Plumbo sent CNN a statement. Our care teams act in the best interests of our patients. As a general practice, this includes sharing information with family members and facilitating family visits and interactions with patients and their care providers when the patient is in our care. However, in situations where care may be compromised or the safety and security of our staff are potentially at risk, the family members ability to be present in the hospital may be restricted. Plumbo did not elaborate on whether or how Amber compromised her daughters care or placed staff at risk. We would never compromise her care, Amber said. Shes our daughter. We love her. She also says she never put staff members at risk. We would never do that ever, she said. On February 23, the day after Amber was kicked out, she went on Facebook. PRAYER WARRIORS UNITE!!!! We need your help. Please READ THIS AND SHARE THIS POST in hopes it reaches the people or person who can help us, she wrote. I HAVE BEEN TOLD I AM NOT ALLOWED IN ALYSSAS ROOM AND NO ONE IS ALLOWED TO HAVE ANY SAY OR PARTICIPATE IN HER [CARE]. I AM NOT ALLOWED TO SEE HER!! We have been given no reason why, no paperwork, and no explanations, she continued. I never imagined something like this could happen in our world and a very hard situation already has been made even harder!! The response from one Facebook user led the family to conclude that they needed to get Alyssa out of Mayo, and fast. Basically a prisoner at Mayo Alyssa, who was legally an adult during her entire hospitalization, says that around this time, she started asking doctors and nurses to transfer her to another facility. She says she never received a response. They were cruel to me, Alyssa said, adding that she wanted to get out of Mayo as bad as possible. On February 23, three weeks into her daughters stay in rehab, Amber complained on Facebook, tagging Mayo. They refuse to let her go. We cannot transfer [Alyssa] out or get her discharged, she wrote. No one has any say in [Alyssas care] and she is basically a prisoner of Mayo. Alyssas stepfather and grandmother say they also asked to have her transferred out of Mayo. I asked two to three times a day, and it would go nowhere, Duane said. Duane said, This is ridiculous. We dont want her here; Alyssa doesnt want to be here; she doesnt feel safe here, her grandmother Aimee Olson remembers. But there was no response. Duane says he tried to talk to a senior doctor on the rehab staff about a transfer. It was the same doctor who had asked his wife to leave the hospital. He said I have nothing to say to you. This is a legal problem, Duane remembers. I even asked him, can I speak to your supervisor, your boss, and his exact words were I run this whole floor, and [he] turned around and walked out of the room, and that was it. Duane says he called the Mayo Patient Experience office and in a 45-minute phone call described the familys grievances. He said the patient experience specialist told him he would be back in touch after getting Mayos side of the story. Olson, Alyssas grandmother and Ambers mother, said she also tried to speak with the senior doctor but was told he wasnt available. She was truly being held captive, Olson said. I would never believe a hospital could do that never in my wildest dreams. The family and a friend say they were instructed by Mayo staff not to talk to Alyssa about her mother. Two nurses were assigned to be with Alyssa, and they kept careful watch, according to visitors. It was like they were watching every move you made, said Joy Schmitt, Alyssas boyfriends mother, who visited frequently after Amber was asked to leave the hospital. They were taking over our daughter On February 21, the day before her mother was kicked out of the hospital, a Mayo psychiatrist examined Alyssa and found that she lacked the capacity to make her own medical decisions, according to a summary of her care that her doctors wrote after she left Mayo. Around this time, a hospital social worker went to adult protection services in two counties to try to get those authorities to get guardianship over Alyssa, according to the police. If they had succeeded, she would have become a ward of the state. Alyssa and her family say that they werent told any of this as it was happening but that around this time, they started to feel that Mayo was isolating Alyssa. On February 26, staffers confiscated Alyssas cell phone, laptop and tablet after finding that shed made a video for her mother, according to Alyssa and her family. They say Alyssas visitors were also banned from bringing their devices into the hospital. The same day, Mayo staffers said no one would be allowed to stay overnight with Alyssa, according to Duane and Ambers sister, April Chance, who attended a meeting with Alyssas care team. Duane says he asked the staff to reconsider. He said his stepdaughter had never spent the night alone in the hospital. But he says they refused. The doctors said they were doing this for Alyssas own benefit, Duane said. The family says the doctors also told them that visitors would no longer be allowed to attend Alyssas treatment sessions, such as physical and occupational therapy. I said, Were her cheerleaders. We cheer her on, her aunt remembers. And they said No, youre impeding her care. She said the staff didnt elaborate on how they were impeding her care. They were restricting us little by little from even being with Alyssa. They were taking over our daughter, Duane said. Mayo also pushed back Alyssas discharge date, which was supposed to be February 27. Meanwhile, her mothers following was growing on Facebook, with many users posting angry messages that tagged Mayo. One woman sent Amber links to stories about a teenager named Justina Pelletier. Articles in The Boston Globe and elsewhere described how in 2013, Pelletier, then 14 years old, was placed in state custody for nearly 16 months after Boston Childrens Hospital accused her parents of interfering in her care. She spent much of that time in a psychiatric ward. Amber says she spoke on the phone with Justinas parents, Linda and Lou Pelletier. She says they warned her there would be signs that the hospital was seeking guardianship for their daughter. They would keep a tight watch over her and limit her communications with her family. Through their lawyer, John T. Martin, the Pelletiers confirmed that they had conversations with Amber. A spokeswoman for Boston Childrens Hospital told CNN that the hospital is committed to the best interest of our patients health and well-being and declined to discuss the specifics of the case. Amber sent a text to the woman whod sent her the news articles. OMG I am SICK. This is what is happening, Amber wrote. It rings lots and lots of bells. Omg I am so scared. A Mayo board member steps in Alyssas parents reached out to a friend of a friend for help: Mark Gaalswyk, who at the time was a member of the board of directors for the Mayo Clinic Health System in Fairmont, Minnesota. Gaalswyk emailed a Mayo Clinic vice president. He informed her of the situation and explained that CNN had contacted the family. Could you please please do what you can to get your arms around the [situation] immediately?! he wrote. Please get to the bottom of this quickly before it blows up even more. But Gaalswyks pull wasnt enough. He says Mayo treated Alyssa terribly. Im probably the most pro-Mayo person who has walked the face of this earth, said Gaalswyk, who left the board January 1. But this was a mess. He said he thinks Amber probably used words she shouldnt have with hospital staff. Im not saying that Amber is 100 percent in the right, he added, but I know what Mayo did is not OK at all. In its statement to CNN, the Mayo spokeswoman said that Mayo Clinic is committed to the safety and wellbeing of all the patients we treat. Feeling like they were running out of options, Alyssas parents then enlisted the help of Karie Rego, an attorney and patient advocate theyd met on Facebook. On February 27, Rego spoke on the phone with Joshua Murphy, Mayos chief legal officer, and faxed him a letter urging Mayo to transfer Alyssa to another facility. Given what has happened here, an expedited transfer this coming week would be best for everyone, she wrote. Rego says an attorney in Murphys office called her later. She says that he told her he couldnt speak with her and that she never heard anything more from Mayos legal department. That night, Alyssas parents thought about Justina Pelletier and the 16 months she spent in state custody. They went online and printed a form for Alyssa to sign, saying she was leaving the hospital against medical advice. But her parents didnt know how they would get her out. Two nurses were assigned to keep watch over her at all times. They started to hatch a plan to get her out of Mayo the very next day... RITAREVOLUTION.com IS THE RITA REVOLUTION!