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Book Cheap Holidays, Flights, Hotels & City Breaks | lastminute.com™ Plan your next trip with the official lastminute.com website. We offer amazing late travel deals. Huge savings on Hotels, Flights, Holidays, City Breaks, Cars, Theatre Tickets & Spa. Book online now & save!
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azcentral.com and The Arizona Republic: Phoenix and Arizona local news, sports and entertainment azcentral.com is the digital home of The Arizona Republic newspaper, with breaking news and in-depth coverage of sports, things to do, travel and opinions.
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National Rail Enquiries - Official source for UK train times and timetables The gateway to Britain''s National Rail network. A portal into UK rail travel including train company information and promotions; train times; fares enquiries; ticket purchase and train running information
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Travel Agents & Tour Operators for Nordics & Northern Europe : Nordic Visitor Nordic Visitor. Scandinavian Holidays, travel packages, vacation to the Scandinavia region and all Nordic Countries with arctic excursions tours to the North. Deals and breaks with Nordic Visitor.
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Moxie Sozo | Design + Advertising + Interactive Agency Moxie Sozo is a design, advertising and interactive Agency. We create, evolve & grow Brands. we specialize in unique, original & creative solutions.
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AsiaRoom | One search for hotels and homes in Asia AsiaRoom offers one search for hotels and homes in Asia. Guests can book last minute rooms or late rooms booking.
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Our Wanders: The Adventure Travel Blog Wander around the world with us! Read our travel stories and tips and get the most out of your travels!
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The Queen Mary™ - One-Of-A-Kind Long Beach Experience, Tours, Events, Dining & more... Experience The Queen Mary – A Historic Long Beach Hotel featuring Art Deco Staterooms, Tours, Events. We hope you enjoy your stay aboard the Queen Mary and take advantage of all the wonderful sites. The Queen Mary’s creation and launch was nothing if not extraordinary and her story is rich with history, elegance and grandeur.
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Kundu Special >> Best tour and travel agency in Kolkata Kundu Special is best tour and travel agency in kolkata,trusted since 1932.It conducts holiday packages and hotel booking,air and railway booking etc.
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Ridobiko | Bike on rent Ridobiko is India''s fastest growing online rental motorbike platform and offering motorbike on rent at cheapest cost. Book a bike on rent in Delhi, Chandigarh, Rishikesh, Dharamshala, Nainital, Kullu, Manali, Shimla, Udaipur, Jaipur, Ujjain, Ahmedabad, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Mount Abu, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Srinagar, Bhopal, Siliguri, Gangtok, Dehradun, Roorkee with Ridobiko online and explore the world on two-wheeler.
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Camels & Chocolate Camels & Chocolate is the award-winning blog and professional portfolio of travel writer and journalist Kristin Luna.
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TAY Projesi / TAY Project - Türkiye Arkeolojik Yerleşmeleri Projesi / The Archaeological Settlements of Turkey TAY Projesi,Türkiye Arkeolojik Yerleşmeleri Projesi. Türkiye Arkeolojik Yerleşmeleri - TAY Projesi, dünya kültür emanetlerinin önemli bir parçası olan Türkiye kültür varlıklarının bulgularının, kronolojik bir envanterinin çıkartılması ve bu bilginin uluslararası platformda paylaşılması amacına yönelik olarak tasarlanmıştır. İlk kez bu projeyle, Türkiye arkeolojik yerleşmeleri, höyükler, tümülüsler, anıtlar, mezarlıklar, ören yerleri, yerleşme yerleşme, höyük höyük, tümülüs tümülüs belgelenmektedir. Türkiye kültür emanetlerinin, öncelikle, elektronik olarak korunmaya alınması. Basılı ve elektronik ortamda yayınlanması ve bu emanetlerin dünyaya açılması. Türkiye''nin, sistemli biçimde ve yeni teknolojiler kullanılarak taranması, mevcut bilgilerin doğrulanması, yeni yerlerin belgelenmesi. Anadolu ve Trakya toprakları üzerindeki, gerek doğa, gerekse insan eliyle yoğun olarak süren tarihi eser tahribatının izlenmesi ve kamuoyunun uyarılması.
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Global Travel Media Welcome to Global Travel Media, a free news service, which allows travel sellers to have the world’s tourism news at their fingertips.
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How Was Your Day Chronicles of a late 20s PR friendly gal about town. Fashion, design, decor, food, travel, creating, and style are covered. I also like to do product reviews and giveaways.
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The Musicwood Documentary Musicwood is a modern twist on a classic story. Famous guitar-makers travel to a primeval forest to negotiate with Native American loggers before it''s too late.
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Food Retailing or Food Entertainment – Main Course, BBQ Grilling, Chocolate, Cooking Supplies, Coffee, Cooking Tips, Crockpot Recipes, Desserts, Home Brewing, Low Calorie.
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Doctors Urgent Care & Family Medicine - WELCOME The doctors urgent care Centre and family medicine in Scarborough, Ontario was opened in 2012 with the mission of serving the community for excellent health care to fill the demand for patients who would need the attention of a family doctors, specific specialist and urgent care needs.
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karen O''Shaughnessy Karen O’Shaughnessy lives in Los Cabos, Mexico and has lived and travelled in Latin America since the late 1960’s; thus having a special window into the cultures. She was given a Brownie camera at the age of 10 and in 1972 bought her first SLR camera. The books of Minor White and Ansel Adams plus the images of Edward Weston and Henri Cartier- Bresson were some of her inspirations. She was fortunate to have studied with Ansel Adams and Ruth Bernard in the 1980’s and has continued to take workshops to hone her craft. Her work has evolved from black and white images printed in her darkroom to transparencies and then on to digital. Now, she is processing raw images in several digital software programs and is making mixed media prints using digital images and also oil paint on canvas. Her images have been in numerous Equestrian and Travel publications in Mexico, the United States, and England and she has shown her work in Art Expo New York and Art Expo Las Vegas as well as several galleries in Mexico and the United States. In April of 2011, one of her images was among the selected entries in a juried contemporary photographic competition held by the Darkroom Gallery, Essex Junction, Vermont.
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Your UK Train Journey Planner - National Rail Enquiries The official UK train Journey Planner, with information on Season tickets, Discount fares, Special offers, Timetables, Live departure boards and Travel tools.
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The Tomato Knife | My Vegetarian Paris Until last week, I thought I knew what a croissant was. Anyone who has lived in France knows that late spring is full of jours fériés, that is, bank holidays.
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Visit Downtown Edmonds | Edmonds Downtown Alliance The heart of downtown Edmonds. Featuring the most comprehensive listing of dining, shopping, services and upcoming events.
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Isle of Iona accommodation | cheap Iona hotel rooms | Iona bed and breakfast | cheap Iona B and B deals Book accommodation, short breaks and leisure breaks on the Isle of Iona at Finlay Ross Iona, excellent bed and breakfast and guest house accommodation on Iona offering cheap Iona accommodation deals and offers
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Melissaratos Studios | Kefalonia studios - Home Dear visitor welcome to Argostoli - kefalonia island,Melissaratos Studios offering great accommodation for your summer Vacations
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Sancerres at Sunset | Travel. Home. Repeat. Solo travel is daring, liberating, rejuvenating. It feels a little bit naughty, like getting away with something. You go when you want to go, where you want to go. You eat when you want to eat, what you want to eat. You can sleep when you want, and get up when you want, and you get the whole bed. You can stay at a luxury hotel or a campground; it's your choice. You get to indulge your own interests, no matter how nerdy, or boring, or eclectic someone else might think them. If you want to plan your trip around seeing a historic museum, a national park, and a baseball game, you can. You don't have to convince anyone why they matter, and you don't have to compromise. You can't live this way all time, and it wouldn't be good for you anyway. It's better to have people in your life, people you want to put first. But every once in a while, it's good to get away from others, so you can restore yourself. It's rare, and that's what makes it special. This post contains affiliate links. For more information, click here. Road trips are adventurous, raw, and so intriguing they've inspired movies from It Happened One Night to Thelma & Louise. You have flexibility. You stop when there's something interesting to see or do, or when you just want a break. You stay in one place as long as you want, and you move on to the next one whenever you want. You don't have a plane to catch, and you don't have to be molested to get on board. Your car is your cocoon; you can load it with whatever you're going to want. But the trip isn't about the car; it's about you and the road and where the road takes you and where you choose to follow it, eyes wide and mind open and heart full of excitement. And when you put solo travel and road trip together, it's magic. It's a rare and nurturing oasis of freedom in our over-regulated, over-scheduled, over-intrusive, over-judgmental modern world. It's life on your terms. And good magic needs a lot of behind-the-scenes planning and preparation. After five fabulous weeks alone on the road, here's my comprehensive list of Solo Road-Trip Essentials 1) A Loose Plan Freedom and flexibility are the glory of the solo road trip. You don't want to over-plan. But you have to have some idea of where you want to go and what you want to do. Make a short list of your top things to do. Mine included: Southfork Ranch in Texas and a Salem Red Sox game in Virginia, as well as the Everything Food Conference in Utah. I also wanted to go to all five of the contiguous states I hadn't already visited (North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Idaho, and Oregon). Rough draft your route. You can do this online or on a paper map or both. Plot your to-see points, and trace a route that covers them. Use it to gauge how long it should take to drive from point to point and to plan stops on the way. But remember: it's just a rough plan; adjust it continually as you go along. At the end of every driving day, after I checked in to my hotel room and cleaned out the car, I got online to figure out where to stop next and what I'd like to see on the way--a small museum, a historic site, a local park. I made reservations if it looked like rooms were filling up, but the best driving days were the ones when I knew I could go until I wanted to stop. Decide how much you want to drive daily and weekly. I settled on roughly six hours per day, five days per week. I thought this would be a fairly light schedule, especially after years of driving from northern Virginia to my parents' home outside Boston. I've seen some travel bloggers write about driving 12 hours in a day, and great for them if that's what they like. But for me, the point of the journey was the journey, and I wanted to spend more time exploring out of the car than in it. I also knew that I'd have daily and weekly blogging responsibilities, that I like wearing frequently washed clothes, and that God gave us a weekly day of rest for a reason. As it turned out, even this light and flexible schedule became pretty tiring after five weeks, and I started slowing down by the time I made it back to the southeast. Write up a nightly to-do list. When you're road tired, and possibly hungry, you don't want to keep asking yourself, "What do I need to remember to do next?" Make a fool-proof list. Mine included: Unload and tidy up car. Charge electronics.Research next stop; make reservations. Jot down notes for upcoming blog posts. Edit photographs.Check in on social media: Instagram, facebook, twitter, PinterestRespond to email. Outline a basic daily schedule. You can make day to day changes when they're called for, but having a schedule will help you stay on track. Mine looked like this: A Day in the Life of a Travel Blogger on the Road 5:15am: Alarm goes off. Hit snooze. Visualize day ahead.5:24: Alarm goes off again. Get up. Make coffee. Do crunches.5:30ish: Over coffee, go online and make sure nothing catastrophic happened overnight, e.g. the blog didn't get hacked, Trump didn't tweet the nuclear codes, etc.5:55: Don exercise clothes and go outside or to hotel gym to work out.7ish: Shower and dress for the day. Comfy casual clothes for driving. No make-up, just eye cream with sunscreen, tinted moisturizer with sunscreen, lip balm with sunscreen, curled lashes, and body lotion with sunscreen. Keep concealer, powder foundation, red lipstick, and 3-in-1 blush, highlighter, and lip tint at the ready just in case.7:45ish: Protein breakfast, no simple carbs. Grab an apple for lunch.8:15ish: Pack, load car, swap out CDs. Check out of hotel. (Even though most hotels email a receipt, I always ask for a print-out at the desk and look it over before I leave, just in case.) 8:45ish: Hit the road. Stop along the way at an interesting site or two. Eat the apple for lunch.4-5pm: Check in at next hotel. Complete task list.6ish: Dinner. Usually a low-carb charcuterie plate in the room, occasionally a juicy burger from room service, out to a local Mexican place if in the southwest.7ish: Play at casino, read, watch TV.9: Skin care: oil-based cleanser, creamy cleanser, toner, serum, eye cream, neck cream, moisturizer, body lotion. Bed. Prepare for departure. An organized approach to a few simple tasks will help make your departure much smoother. Set up a packing station a few days ahead of time. The earlier you can gather up the things you'll be taking, the less stressed you'll be as departure day nears. I used my small den for this, so that the growing piles wouldn't drive me crazy. Pay your bills. Set up automatic payments. Don't forget: housing--mortgage, rent, condo feesinsurance--health, home, autocredit cardsutilities (Suspend your cable unless you'll want to access it from the road.) Clean thoroughly. You don't want to return to an untidy home (and you don't want any multi-legged squatters moving in while you're away). I set aside a full day for this. Plan for a short first day of driving. Leaving can be the most stressful part of a trip. Give your extra self time to double-check that you've packed the prescriptions and turned off all the appliances (you can even snap pictures of them if you'll want the reassurance). Make a one-night reservation at an inexpensive highway hotel; just make sure it's far enough away that you won't be tempted to turn home to get that one last thing you wish you'd packed. Prepare to come home. This is part of preparing to leave, so that it won't haunt you near the end of the journey. I brought along a re-entry folder, for some paperwork regarding things I'd need to handle upon my return. Toward the end of the trip, I also planned for a short last day of driving, so that if there were any problems at home, I'd have time and energy to cope with them. I reserved what I hoped would be a luxury hotel room for my last few days on the road, so that I'd be coming home feeling rested and so that the last stretch of the trip wouldn't seem like more of a downer than necessary. Be flexible. You know that plan I had to see five new states? I only got to three of them before I decided that the last two would just be too much for this trip. On the other hand, I visited lots of places that I would never have planned ahead, just because they looked intriguing, from the Museum of Space History in New Mexico to the Grand Ole Opry in Nashville. Go with the road and go with your gut. 2) A Priority on Safety You matter. Your safety matters. Take it seriously. Have your car checked out before you leave. I did this a few weeks early so there'd be time for any necessary repairs. Bring: A navigation system. Make sure your maps are updated.A road atlas. Electronics fail. Books don't. Have a back-up.Coolant, oil, and jumper cables. A road safety kit.A First-Aid kit.A Swiss Army knife. Membership in an auto club.A spare key.Any needed medications. I always travel with Extra-Strength Tylenol for headaches, Advil for muscle aches, and Claritin for allergies. (I'm happy to report that I didn't need the Tylenol.)Your Passport and of course your driver's license, registration, and proof of insurance. Establish your safety rules. It's easy to make wrong decisions in the moment when you don't have firm rules in place. Mine were: Never let the gas tank go below 1/2 west of the Mississippi or 1/4 east.No hiking alone in large parks. Marked trails in small parks were okay. No alcohol until the car is parked for the night. I also had a soft rule of only one glass of wine per night, which I bent twice for craft cocktails. But most nights, the only thing I drank was water. No stopping on the shoulder for photographs, no matter how beautiful the scenery. Stop only at designated overlooks and turn-outs. You might notice a few places in my narratives with metaphoric descriptions of landscapes and no pictures to match; that's why. 3) Lodging that Suits Your Style Lots of travellers are comfortable at hostels and campgrounds. If you're one of them, you might want to skip this part. I prefer luxury hotels, but they're not practical for one-night stops along the road. For road trips, I like a combination of casino, casual-convenient, and extended-stay hotels. Casino Hotels Casino hotels are a great option for women travelling alone, because: They're safe. There are cameras and security personnel everywhere. In casino towns, you can even walk alone at night, because they're all lit up, and there are lots of cops around. They're inexpensive. They're not in business to make money on the rooms, so you can usually stay for cheap or even for free. They usually have reasonably priced or even complementary valet parking. The big ones have rewards credit cards without annual fees, making them a better bet than most travel credit cards, and you also earn points redeemable as cash with their player's cards. There's always something to do. There are restaurants and bars, spas and pools, and of course table games and slot machines. These casino brands have hotels in multiple locations: Caesars Caesars has properties all over the country. Along with its namesake, its brands include Horseshoe, Harrah's, Bally's, and others. Its properties range from luxury to well-at-least-it's-comped. The two nicest hotels where I stayed on my recent road trip were Caesars properties. Its rewards program is Caesars Rewards. MGM MGM is another large network, with properties concentrated in Las Vegas and then scattered primarily through the South and the mid-Atlantic. Most have unique names. They range from luxury to mid-scale. Its rewards program is MLife. Boyd Boyd Gaming has 18 midscale properties in Nevada, the South, and the midwest. Most have unique names. Its rewards program is B Connected. El Dorado El Dorado has 26 midscale properties in the South, the West, and the midwest. Along with its namesake, its affiliated brands include Tropicana, Isle, Lady Luck, and others, with independent rewards programs. As of this writing, El Dorado has announced plans to acquire Caesars next year. Casual-Convenient Hotels These properties tend to be easily accessible from the road. They're often called limited-service hotels, because they lack upscale amenities like spas and bars, valet service, and shopping esplanades. But they do have what long-term road trippers want: big open parking lots, gyms, breakfast in the morning and cookies at night and coffee and tea all day, and usually microwaves and refrigerators in the rooms. My go-to brand has long been Hampton by Hilton, because they're ubiquitous and reliably clean and comfortable and reasonably priced. Hilton's rewards program is HHonors. I did have one nice stay at the Country Inn & Suites by Radisson in Northwood, Iowa. Two big plusses for this brand are cookies all day and a wonderful lending library system whereby road trippers can take a book at one property and return it at the next. Radisson's frequent-travel program is Radisson Rewards. Extended-Stay Hotels For longer stops, I prefer extended-stay hotels. Like their casual-convenient counterparts, they offer complimentary breakfast in the morning and sometimes receptions in the evening. The rooms have fully equipped kitchens with real dishes and glassware, things you miss after weeks on the road. My favorite brand is Residence Inn by Marriott. They're reliably clean and reasonably priced. The gyms and laundry rooms are large and well equipped. The televisions are Netflix-ready for use with your own account. They have a complimentary same-day grocery-shopping service. And there's microwave popcorn in the kitchen, which I never have at home, but can't resist when I'm curling up with a Netflix flick after a long day of driving or writing or laundry or all three. Marriott's rewards program is Bonvoy. 4) Food In my vision for the trip, I thought I'd be alternately dining at local haunts and having happy-hour bites with my single glass of wine at hotel bars. In reality, more often than not, I made myself a small charcuterie board in the hotel room, washed down with water, after I'd finished the tasks on my to-do list. Here's my list of groceries to pack: bottled water half-and-halfcured meats tunacheesesdips cruditesberriesplastic platesplastic cutlerypaper napkinsZiploc bags (more than you think you'll need)a small bottle of dish detergentcold packs 5) A Wardrobe for All Seasons Be prepared for all kinds of weather. After five weeks ranging from hot sun to wet snow (including both in Salt Lake City), here's what I wish I'd packed: Footwear comfortable pumpsversatile, comfy sandalsslip-on sneakershiking bootsrunning shoes flip-flopsslippers8 pr cushy gym socks4 pr ankle socks4 pr thick slouch socks2 pr hose/tights Basics I love Talbots for inexpensive basics that are easy to notch up with the right accessories. 1 comfortable skirt1 pr comfortable cotton pants1 pr designer jeans1 pr mom jeans2 pr cropped pants or Capris3 pr modest shorts4 long-sleeved tops8 short-sleeved tops Dresses 2 day-to-evening dresses3 casual dresses, including at least one that can double as a swim cover-up Outerwear 2 cardigans1 blazer1 windbreaker1 pr winter gloves Hats 3-4 wide-brimmed hats2-3 baseball caps1 warm knit hat Accessories 3 scarves3 belts: wide, medium, thin Activewear 2 pr gym shorts1 pr sweats1 modest bathing suit1 bikini Sleepwear 1 comfy cotton nightgown1 pr cozy pajamas 1 modest silk robe Jewelry I hate worrying about losing my jewelry when I travel, so I bring only a few good pieces that I can wear together: 1 pr comfortable earrings1 simple necklace3 rings3 bracelets1 brooch Laundry Supplies lg mesh laundry bagdetergentbleach podsdryer sheets 6) Bags and Baggage 1 sm. crossbody1 med. crossbody1 lg tote1 duffel bag, for 2-3 days worth of clothes1 lg suitcase, for clothes not presently needed1 picnic basket1 sm. soft-sided cooler that fits inside the picnic basket1 laptop bag1 camera bag packing cubes: Not only do they keep your suitcase organized, but they also help you keep tidy in hotel rooms that inexplicably don't have dressers with drawers. a collapsible wagon: If you take one piece of advice from this whole long post, take this one. I bought my little blue wagon to carry wine-and-cheese picnics to outdoor concerts and the beach. I use it more to lug groceries up to my 11th-storey condo. But it was a lifesaver not only for loading and unloading the car but also for carting the wash to and from hotel laundry rooms. 7) A Fitness Plan You have to be intentional about fitness or it will be too easy to blow off. I resolved before I left to spend an hour exercising every morning before I hit the road, unless I knew I'd be doing significant movement during the day. Most days I either used a treadmill in the hotel gym or went for a long walk in the fresh air. I also did ten crunches every morning while the coffee was brewing and lifted weights once or twice each week. I brought along my favorite work-out DVDs, yoga mat, hand weights, ankle weights, and resistance bands--and didn't take them out of the car once. The good news: I hit my 10,000-step goal every day, and usually far exceeded it, according to my fitbit, and I lost eight pounds. The bad news: It wasn't enough; I lost muscle tone because I didn't do enough strength training. If I'd known then what I know now, here's what I'd do: every morning: 10 crunches and five burpees5-6 times/week: 3-4 miles jogging or brisk walking3-4 times/week: strength training when possible: climb stairs 8) Money Rewards Credit Cards There are a lot of rewards credit cards out there, and it's worth selecting a few that will help maximize what you can reap back from your travels (and put toward your next journey!). Here's the balance that worked for me: 2 cards that pay an unlimited blanket rate of at least 1.5 percent (a go-to card and a back-up). Citibank's Double Cash card pays 1 percent back when you make purchases and 1 percent when you pay your bill; it has no annual fee. 1-2 casino branded cards. Caesars offers a Visa with benefits that include Caesars Rewards Platinum status (the lowest elite tier) for $5,000 in annual spending. It has no annual fee, and even low rollers can get nice rooms comped with it. If your credit is good enough, you may qualify for a Visa Signature, with its additional travel perks, like room upgrades and late check-out. 2-3 cards that pay at least 4 percent cash back for some of your major road-trip expenses. The Discover it Card offers a blanket 1 percent cash back on most items, and 5 percent on quarterly categories, like restaurants and gas stations, on up to $1,500 in purchases. It has no annual fee and will double all the cash back you earn during your first year. Cash Some people don't feel comfortable with a lot of cash; some people only feel comfortable with a lot of cash. Bring the amount you feel comfortable with. Just make sure to carry enough $5s and $1s for tips. And bring quarters for laundry; most hotels can sell you a roll, but I wouldn't count on it. Don't forget your ATM card(s). 9) Electronics and Entertainment Your list will depend somewhat on your personal preferences, but here are my road-trip must-haves: phone and chargers: I like my iPhone SE because it's small but has a good camera.earbuds: I save the ones they give out on planes and use them to catch up with the morning news while I exercise. laptop and charger: The only laptop I want to take on the road is my MacBook Air, because it's thin and light.cameras, chargers, cables, tripod: My big camera is a Nikon D3100 DSLR, which I often use with this tripod. I use my Sony DSC-W70 when lugging a DSLR is impractical; it's lightweight and takes good videos. a variety of things to listen to: I brought around 100 CDs, from classical to Christian (which was great for singing along in praise of God's creation), and swapped them out in the mornings before I hit the road, and I still got bored with them. I would add educational CDs from the Teaching Company and some Rosetta Stone to polish up one of my rusty languages. There are also podcasts and audio books, if you enjoy them. reading material: I like to bring a lot of magazines when I travel, because I can leave them for someone else to enjoy and lighten my load as I go. On the other hand, I usually limit myself to one book, because they're heavy. journal(s)/notebook(s): It's easy to forget things on the road, whether it's how your heart soared seeing a family of deer scamper through the Black Hills or the tour hours at Southfork Ranch. Write them down. I love these notebooks. 10) The Right Mind-Set A solo road trip is a wonderful opportunity, but it can be physically and emotionally grueling. Driving hours a day for weeks is tiring, and there's no one to take the wheel when you want a break. Things will go wrong. You may get lost. I took an hour-long detour through the Mojave Desert in California because I overshot my turn to Laughlin, Nevada. You may get scared. I've developed a weird phobia of overpasses that are so high I can't see the ground. You may get lonely. I missed my late mother, with whom I took my previous cross-country road trips, and I cried from Arizona to New Mexico. You have to set your mind to accept these kinds of things before you go. You have to allow yourself to feel emotional swings without being overwhelmed by them. You have to believe that the rewards are worth the risks. (And if you can't, that's okay, and it's better to realize it; long-term solo road tripping is not for everybody, and there are lots of other ways to travel.) I never questioned. No matter how sad or scared I became, I loved being on the road, and being on my own. And I slept better than I have in years.
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Spinn Cafe & Tours, 風轉咖啡館 & 旅遊, สปินน์ คาเฟ่ & ทัวร์ Meals from breakfast through late supper, travel information with a focus on cycling, and bicycle parts for sale.
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VillaconMundial | La Voz de Villa Consuelo The speedy evolution connected with rock audio Rock Popular music & it has the Rapid Advancement Introduction Songs has been having man since dawn of your energy. Every conquer or appear can getting be considered in the form of form of songs. Dating back towards early fella music happens to be something as simple as the comforting sound to a waterfall or possibly a tree unsteadiness with the the wind or a wild animal performing through a natrual enviroment. Today music is so diversified and so engrained in our everyday life that almost every youngster or young adults & also an adult contains a vast set of songs that they can might take note of on their audio players. There are various varied branches of favorite songs existing at this time. These companies have now enlarged to involve everything from the tribal music to most things that comes out of any synthesizer. And even although look for music in a great many forms at present, I'm absolutely sure the idealists would refuse with what the youth of today call great music. Now-a-days it seems typically the search is actually on for that "in music". Music that is making anyone feel good at this time and which is discarded inside a heartbeat the moment something a great deal better comes along. Precisely what is it which includes made ordinary music visit so stable all these several years? The reason why We have chosen Rock music intended for my class paper issue is that, I truly am really passionate about this kind of genre of music. Coarse Music or perhaps Rock as it is so called will be vastly often neglected by individuals, most of who simply correlate it using negative stereotypes like drug addiction, alcohol dependency facts, violence, sexual abuse, demonic control along with vices. An individual cannot responsibility people for having these types of misconceptions about Rock considering that over the years most of the famous Natural stone artists have come to be referred to mainly for their own drug dependancy and other stupendous behaviour under the influence of alcohol and toxic chemicals. However it is vital to understand that certain must independent the artisan from his particular music not pass pointless judgment on the music just based on the vices of the specialit. Another misunderstanding is that natural stone is only percussion and guitar, when that could be only individuals face involving Rock. The good news is host involving other tools that are important elements to really are fun music as one, other than basically guitar and percussion. Coarse Music -- History & Origins I may now always like to begin with the History of Stone music. Just where did it start? What are their roots? Ways has it developed along the ages? What is the circumstance at present? There are several views as to where the Rock style got right up and planning. And many think Rock originated in the west with the daybreak of Coarse & Spin by Elvis Presley. Even so that is not the case. All this started off during the post-war urbanization of The united states. The popular tunes of the overdue 1940s bundled country new music, folk audio, the reds, rhythm as well as blues (known as R& B), jazz music and ancient music. Generally rock songs hails from a combination of various popular music styles at that time in the country of North america. Rock popular music started off in the late 1940s when folks wanted to go out on their own from the gradual beat punk music along with the slow electrified blues audio to a with more speed beat & rhythm brimming tune at that time. The rock sound will be believed to possess primarily came with the any guitar. It is believed that the active guitar tracks used in yellows music appeared to be soon mixing up in with other forms of music like folk, classical music, folk popular music and other preferred forms of audio existing good. All this generated the beginning of Natural stone music to be a separate sort of favorite songs which previously came to be called Rock a few Roll towards the early 1950's. Around that point i. electronic. the delayed 1940's to early 1950's Rhythm in addition to Blues (R& B) artists mainly targeted on the dark audience. Even so later onwards musicians started playing for one multi-racial customers. These music artists and bands also themed the modern forms or even blends about music toward this customers. Later on the fast overcom blends regarding R& B and the troubles etc came into existence coined since 'Rock d Roll'. "It is assumed that for 1951 within a town with Cleveland, Oh in STATES a artist by the name of Joe Freed has been said to have began playing a new form of R& B audio for a multi-racial audience & is regarded an have 1st used the term 'Rock 'N' Roll' to indicate his songs. " Supply: Icons involving Rock instructions Scott Schinder with Andy Schwartz & Encyclopaedia Britannica - Rock Music. Really are fun Music tutorial Evolution Rock and roll music can be believed to be those types of genres of music containing evolved really rapidly during the last 50 for you to 60 many years. Its high-speed evolution is witnessed mostly over the last 50 years. It all initiated with good old Rock a few Roll in the exact 1950's. That later advanced in the 1960's which was thought of as a Golden Era for Rock audio. Rock required a totally diverse turn along with the British invasion of ordinary by the Beatles. This was soon after followed by what exactly came to be often known as Surf tunes in America that had been a mix of typically the catchy really are fun n rotate n often the hip in addition to happening Beatles music. The exact Beatles new music also led to a new type of music that is called because the hippy plus psychedelic really are fun music. In the 1970's which will came to be identified as the memorable years advanced different different rock popular music such as Tough Rock, A-hole Rock & also Put Rock. The very 1980's viewed a change within the band members' hair styles. That era at the same time was recognized for what was named as curly hair bands. That included varieties rock which include punk stone & funk rock. That led to the exact evolution about Heavy Metal. Groups used to wear well leather dirt bike pants and carried insane extended hairdos. Typically the 1990's exhibited a completely completely new and outrageous evolution of rock. Them gave more recent forms of natural stone such as Grunge Rock & Alternative Ordinary. It presented the revolutionary any guitar distortion & feedback. Most genres with the 1950's onwards till the very 1999's continue to be well known right now. Most of the bandz in people eras are nevertheless popular right now. Many of today's bands still play all the styles of rock music. A few of them even get remakes of them songs implementing modern day kinds and instruments. The afterward half of 2000 also witness something that very well came to be often known as fusion favorite songs. It anxious bringing together conventional music (Western or Indian) and blending it in with modern day natural stone music. This unique style right now is very popular specially in our country among all of our Indian youngsters that have combined the Native indian classical instruments very properly with assets like the any guitar, keyboard, carambolage, etc . The particular 1950's The actual 1950's afforded rise to the Youth culture. It suffering problems like racial tensions & the advent of the main Cold War. This earliest saw typically the advent of Really are fun n Move with fantastic artists including Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Rich, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Dark areas, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley & often the Comets, Gene Vincent, the Everly Friends, and Carl Perkins, among the many others. These were considered to be the first wave associated with Rock some remarkable Rollers. Good ole' in its initially stage has been described as simply just blues by electric guitar audio attached to them. In its purest form, Really are fun & Move was as basic as about three chords, a solid yet insistent guitar to come back beat, together with a catchy tune. Early natural stone & spin was sucked from sources mainly including pinks, R& H, and nation, but also gospel, traditional put, jazz, together with folk. Those genres were definitely combined together in a straightforward, blues-based melody structure which has been fast, danceable, and catchy. Rockabilly come about in the mid1950's. It is only a mix of rock 'n roll, country audio, blues, along with a little spruce too. Obtained a fundamental audio genre belonging to the 50's. The actual father's and also founders with Rock some remarkable Roll emerged t be known as Costs Haley, Elvis Presley, Bit of Richard & Chuck Maqui berry. Their audio revolutionized the music industry and later it was gave strategy to new varieties of rock song in the many decades to follow. Within today's situations their tunes is still favored. Rockabilly appeared to be popularized by means of white singers like Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins & Jerry Lee Lewis who typically concentrated on the country sources of the music. The Popular visits recorded around that time was "That's Okay (Mama)" - Elvis Presley, "Heartbreak Hotel" - Elvis Presley, "Rock Around the Clock" - Charge Haley & the Comets, "Folsom Living hell Blues" -- Johnny Funds, "Blue Suede Shoes" tutorial Carl Kendrick. Another popular form of Rock n Are collected the 1950's was called the 'Doo Wop'. It emphasized on multi-part vocal harmonies and insignificant backing words of the melody & helped with lumination instrumentation. It is origins were being African American vocal groups similar to the Inkspots & the Mill Brothers. Famous bands on this form of songs were The actual Orioles, Often the Ravens and The Clovers, the fact that used a substantial element of traditional gospel new music in their songs. The great hits included "The Great Pretender" - The actual Platters, "Yakety Yak" - The Coasters & "Yes Sir, That's my Baby" - The exact Clovers coupled with many others. Down the road during the 1950's Elvis Presley came to be named the California king of Rock n Function. Even today he has still commemorated as 'The King'. The actual decline about Rock a few Roll has been witnessed in the early 1960's with the dying of popular musicians including Buddy Holy and Richie Valens inside of a plane wreck; the travel of Elvis Presley in the army, the actual retirement about Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions regarding Jerry Lee Lewis and Place Berry and also the breaking of your payola scandal. All of the preceding incidents provided a sexual enjoyment that the good ole' era provides come to a stop. However during its diminish rock in the roll observed a feminine area with an intro to probiotics benefits of love ballads targeted to a female audience & the surge of female groups for example the Crystals and then the Shirelles. The many events the fact that occurred in the very 1950's at some point led to what precisely came to be generally known as Surf Popular music, Garage Ordinary & the main Twist dancing craze. Risk major celebration that was successful in the 1960's was those of the climb of Language Rock in Roll while using emergence with the Beatles which had been greatly affected by the America's 1950's Rock and roll n Roll. The 1960's The 1960's witnessed a lot of events that adheres to that of the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Showdown, Surf Popular music, Hippie customs, The Bay area Scene, The Music of Protests & typically the birth with Heavy Metal. Also Rock some remarkable Roll in the particular 1960's had 4 development or elements. These sections are the following: Part As i - Often the Beatles & The British isles Invasion Element II - Motown New music Part 3 - Typical Rock: The exact Sounds on the 1960's Section IV aid Message New music Before 1963 i letusdothehomework.com/. at the. 1961 onwards America noticed the rise of Ocean Music some sort of Rock and Roll. This particular music has been pioneered by way of Duane Eddy, Link Wray, and The Efforts that put in distinctive "wet" reverb design & speedy alternate choosing to the popular music. One of the well-known hits has been "Let's Visit Trippin" in 1961 and this announced the ocean music trend. The in history favourite string quartet of this years is The Beach Boys. Area I - The Beatles & Often the British Incursion During this decades i. y. post 1963 America and the rest of the universe witnessed just what exactly came to be well-known only simply because 'The English Invasion'. While in the 1960's the most well find out and globally renowned band with the British offensive was the one and only Beatles. Often the Beatles till today are believed to be to be the in history success stories of the 1960's. The reason the Beatles are considered the most effective and most powerful rock groups of all time would be the because they had taken what Elvis and other Good ole' n Move artists established in the 1950's and metamorphosed it towards a whole new distinct thing. That's why this years is known as a bed that gave birth and labor to a modern of Ordinary. The Beatlemania had began with its first of all single hurt song throughout 1962 "Love Me Do" in Great Britain. Along with the Rock a few Roll of your 1950's the very Beatles widely popularized new genre of good ole' music including ranging from folks rock that will psychedelic appear. The Beatles were thus influential through the 1960's this their modern ideals had been considered to be cultural & societal revolutions. Several other great visitors of the Beatles include "I Wanna Store Your Hand" which offered 2 . 6th million copies in the United States in barely two weeks. The particular Beatles came out with many visitors during this years such as "She Loves You", "Please Please Me", and so forth Other growing bands within this era enclosed The Dork Clark Five, The Kinks & Typically the Rolling Stones. The In business Stones finest hit during this period was "Honky Tonk Woman" Part II - Motown Music Motown was a Detroit based track record company this was founded through Berry Gordy who was some one-time flow line worker within Ford Motor. It became essentially the most successful dark-colored owned history company by means of 1963. Motown had many vocal communities, songwriters & musicians. The background music recorded appeared to be known for her "tight orchestrations and catchy lyrics". The music was according to the injustice to the black locality during the Municipal War. The exact Motown greats were The particular Temptations, The actual Four Passes, Martha Reeves & typically the Vandellas as well as Diana Ross & Typically the Supremes. Area III -- Classic Really are fun: The Tones of the 1960's This era witnessed the fact that was known as the Hippe tradition. Their significant chant seemed to be 'Make Enjoy Not War'. Peace has been their actual theme. The Beatles is amongst the famous groups that transitioned during this period in terms of their own look along with music. Various other artist installed to everyday living were Jefferson Airplane, Elegance Slick, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, The Doors, Steppenwolf, Clair & Garfunkel, Mamas and also the Pappas and also Lovin Spoonful. The famous show of this age was The Woodstock. This was some sort of concert regarding promoting contentment, love & brotherhood. Artists like Jimi Hendrix shook up the conjunction. Part IV - Note Music A good number of themes in rock and roll on this era addressed love and even relationships removed wrong. It all followed the war on Vietnam & the variety of protests getting undertaken. The music was a trial to magnify upon the government actions occurring at this time like the civilizado rights exercise, the expanding unrest above the war around Vietnam, along with the rise about feminism. The main "message" inside song aimed at peace. Quite a few songs gained substantial airplay and became "anthems" at concert events, rallies, in addition to demonstrations. The main Message thru Folk Tunes & Often the Message by Rock Tunes The most well known artists to emerge from the particular folk custom include Joe Dylan, Nancy Baez, Phil Ochs, and also the trio identified as Peter, Paul holmes, and Betty. In 1965, a strong artist, Barry McGuire strong ! the charts with a song that resembled the escalating turmoil on the globe. Other favorite hippy and even psychedelic artists such as White Floyd, The actual Who, The very Rolling Gemstones, The Yardbirds, the Happier Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, and others did start to rule the earth. These bands provided rise on the counterculture exercise, trendsetters, by their drug caused lyrics together with hypnotic tunes. Other genres of ordinary began to come out such as progressive rock and that is experimenting with many other instruments except for guitar, muskie and pieces. This was prominent by Pinkish Floyd. Men or women rock ended up being popularized by just Bob Dylan and Janis Joplin. Typically the 1960's inevitably gave your pregnancy to heavy metal and rock which is a thicker, heavy, and highly amplified genre involving rock primarily popularized through Black Sabbath. The world had been just now starting out witness the particular tremendous electrical power & impact rock seriously had about society. The particular 1970's From the 1970's the Vietnam World war had was concluded, the protests stopped & people begun to settle down. Along with that, the background music too performed settle down. The whole world witnessed often the split on the Beatles & also often the death regarding John Lennon. The 70's rock audio brought various cultures and even audiences more together than you ever have. Rock music began to part out straight into new races like Tough Rock, Heavy metal and rock & Punk Rock. Directed Zeppelin became extremely popular using its perfect mix of Hard Coarse & Sorrow music how they could phone call its own. In that era bands and artists and painters such as Brian Bowie, Indeed, The Eagles, and California king became very influential. Concerning the late 70's the world furthermore witnessed often the rise of Punk Rock and roll. The starting up fathers connected with punk had been The Ramones. They blended thoroughly anarchism along with teenage wrath with rock 'n roll and this came to be known as Punk Rock. Various other bands for example the Sex Pistols and The Clash helped popularize and redefine punk rock. This new, highly effective and forceful genre about music affected many groups of the future. The exact 1980's Thereafter came typically the 1980's. Good ole' Music improved itself in a manner that everyone was going to be part of the very upcoming field. The music required a different switch, more in relation to punk coarse, new tide, heartland really are fun and choice rock. The majority of people would consider the 80's as interesting features of big hairdos and androgyny. The gay and lesbian activists required to inside of a big simply by this several years. People begun embracing one other sex and everybody had coloring in almost everything they did or possibly wore. The inspired often the rock popular music scene dramatically. The eighties saw from enthusiasm to neon pinkish socks, damaged by adult males. Creativity was expressed which means that greatly within the 1980's and also artists put on their identity with golden technologies. The 1980's music picture is probably considered as amongst the strangest moments in the advancement of stone music. Music artists were carrying out everything, a variety of00 bubblegum appear, sentimental always ballads to be able to thumping utility beats and perhaps the hardest good ole' metal. This particular decade pretty much saw it. Artist including Bruce Springsteen, Guns as well as Roses, Viajan Halen, AC/DC, Aerosmith, Flat iron Maiden, Metallica, Bon Jovi, and Motley Crue can best end up being remembered for his or her power ballads and excellent guitar solos. A new type of music called like 'New wave' also blossomed from dick, funk, and even disco. It turned out made well-known by music artists such as Estrella, The B-52's, Talking Head, and Blondie. Indie coarse or Renewable rock currently well known begun to emerge in the late 1980's with artists for instance U2, R. E. Meters., The Cure, The main Smiths, and Sonic Youngster were very fashionable with young people. Punk moreover became more popular with rings such as Dark colored Flag and then the Dead Kennedys. This was at the same time the time for producers. They are importance matured and musicians took our own a good the manufacturer could take most of their records for the market. Subsequently came often the advent of possessing soundtracks with movies. File companies had any idea the economics in placing song inside a movie, the response was basically tremendous. Regardless of variety, the background music is the eighties was a huge hit, this still is. In addition to that's considering that the music mention the imagination of the people, it all made zero apologies, you can identify with the slow ballad by Phil Collins within the afternoon and set up their particular black leather-based jacket, rocking to In terms of iron Maiden by means of night time, everyone dint need to apologize that will anyone. Flexibility of manifestation, experimenting along with lyrics grew to be an integral part of the main eighties. Which is precisely the good reason that the eighties they say can not ever die. The actual 1990's The early to mid 90's was basically known as typically the era connected with grunge along with alternative rock. Nirvana was known as the most common grunge wedding band of the 90's. Grunge song can be described as dusty guitar, robust guitar riffs with distortion and opinions. It contains dark words of the tune and attributed teenage worry. Popular grunge and choice bands ended up Pearl Jam, Nirvana, Jane's Addiction in addition to Alice around Chains. A very iconic scene was associated with the occurence of female artists. Women were becoming much less dependent on men, and fewer oriented on the way to having a family-based future. These folks were daughters of girls who fought for same rights they usually expressed it- in the form of terms and information. The paper, Billboard contributed to the financial success within the music marketplace. It altered the way it ranked available girls and albums of music artists by tallying actual income at retailers instead of with the industry-manipulated word of mouth marketing. Rock unexpectedly beat pop in terms for sales, and "minority" genre such as state and hip-hop began to enter the charts. That led the industry to invest a lot more in these fraction genres. The 1990's demonstrated that music appeared to be for the crowd and that the concept behind popular music was to see the artist as one, his construction, his team, his lyrics, his image, his songs video spectacular personality. Anyone had their favorite type of favorite songs and a favourite genre, popular artist together with a favorite cd. You couldn't help it- there were plenty of choices by this time. 2000 aid Present Alternate choice rock even now is one of the famous and largest genre associated with rock songs. Emo, is known as a new sub-contract genre for rock which consists of extreme emotional words of the tune with serious punk root. It was widely popularized by rings like Through First for you to Last, Often the Used, Brand New and softer bands for example Dashboard Confessional and Brilliant Eyes that may also be identified as indie. The word "indie" literally stands for unbiased and is the term for bands that are part of a private record tag. However , at this time indie includes a whole new that means. Indie serves as a mainly up until now hidden and better version of other rock. Well-liked indie bands and artists include Passing away Cab meant for Cutie, The very Strokes, Elliott Smith, The Decemberists, The particular Arcade Fire, The Misiva Service & a few many others. Heavy metal has now reached a really new degree. Sub-genres regarding heavy metal just like black combination, death stainlesss steel and thrash metal which is certainly very deafening, aggressive and fast approached the industry. Preferred hardcore metal bands include Slipknot, Because i Lay Coloring, Korn, Indicacion Jean and also Cannibal Depouille. Alternative stone has now grow to be an all effort hit utilizing bands that include Incubus, Pink Hot Chili Peppers, Chevelle, Coldplay, and also the Foo Mma fighters. Pop ordinary is another common genre. It is rock combined with a more general approach together with popular song lyrics. Pop rock bands can include Fall Out Youngster, All-American Rejects, Ashlee Simpson, Avril Lavigne, and others. One other form of favorite songs that came in relation to was the hiphop rock. People symbolized the actual fusion with the raw, streets music and also hard natural stone pelting sounds. It was a fast hit along with the fans with both the categorie. Examples of these kinds of were Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Religious beliefs no More, Rage Against the Machines, etc Really are fun Music inside the Indian Predicament Rock favorite songs caught about in Asia during the the middle of 70's. From the hearing reports of my dad and his friends in small time bands actively playing the good oldies like Elvis Presley, The actual Carpenters, Typically the Beatles, The particular Shadows, Joe Dylan and various other artists their guitars. Just read was many these types of small online communities which were predominantly Catholics which played the many dance volumes mainly for marriage ceremonies & the Christmas flow. These were the main jive & the turn numbers that others used to love to dance in order to back in the day. In regards towards the 80's artists like Directed Zeppelin, Ominous Straits & Jethro Tull became noiseless popular. People used to order these music cassettes in addition to listen to these kinds of music particular audio cassette players & Sony Walkman. That nonetheless was a quite a while ago. Points soon transformed with the Gulf of mexico War for 1991 opening the entrance to medium in The indian subcontinent. MTV was initially one of the options that were beamed, along with CNN. Apart from Put music what exactly caught at quickly had been rock. Nevertheless as an viewers, the amounts in Asia were yet minimal. It previously was only bands like Outl Leppard, Note Jovi and also U2 that will caught the fancy of a lot of people. For a large extent, rock began and concluded with Profound Purple's Interstate Star. The love for rock only designed name-dropping and wanting to tone fashionably edgy. All that adjusted quickly converted to from the calendar year 2000 onwards. Hard rock and roll quickly snagged on in conjunction with its in the us Heavy Metal and is also literally worshipped in many technological innovation colleges across India. Numerous groups are formed in a number of areas where the exact rock landscape is still lively. These include Goa, Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune & Delhi. A lot of popular India bands come from these kind of areas and still have composed rather famous bites that are well recognized to the Indian native Rockers. Many engineering educational facilities still shell out tribute for you to Rock by hosting Natural stone shows in which fans from various parts from the country hasty to gather head bang with harmony. The earliest rock band with India to get famous seemed to be Indus Creed. Famous Native american rock rings of today comprise of bands for example Zero, Pentagram, Parikrama, These individuals Clones plus various some. One taking place rock displays of Mumbai used to be often the Independence Really are fun gig on Rang Bhavan popularly often known as I-Rock which used to be jam-packed and packed as it was seriously popular and had rings playing with all over the country. Away from late very good of i-rock has deceased down because of the change in time and venue due to specific restrictions. Some other new genre of rock music containing probably advanced in The land of india is Fusion rock that involves blending Of india classical equipment with that on the electric guitar, key pad & accus. This is whatever is definitely springing up in the country together with rock melodies in Hindi rather than English language and even in Hinglish. I even now feel that you can find very poor liberalization for Coarse music in your country but since time goes by by elements will definitely are considered getting better. You evident simply to Channel V's 'Launch Pad' that arises every year the fact that hunts to search for the Countries most well liked and ideal Rock band. Alongside Channel Sixth v, MTV even offers started one thing called seeing that Rock with Desi Beats that hunts for fusion rock groups of the region and popularizes the best. One other evident undeniable fact that rock tunes is reeling in up easily was the release of the dvd 'Rock On' directed by just & with Farhan Akhtar. Conclusion For that reason I ardently believe that Natural stone music which consists of legendary Past can never perish out. It will probably always be a component of culture and may always be find out as truley what shapes customs & firmly affects world. It is lastly meant for customers to understand that Stone is just with regards to the music and also the passion this drives inside youth. It should not be stereotyped with drug abuse alcoholism & other bassesse. For this to happen this gives lingual braces the people that need to change their valuable ways along with it is essential in the famous performers to set a example as they owe the idea to their lovers as much as that they owe it to the new music. Another important element is that although opportunities near your vicinity for Coarse music have become low & it is extremely hard to become significant, society need to encourage the kids that have a desire for this new music.
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SSS Online Portal | History of Bangladesh is full of power shifts, disasters, conflicts and victory. Though Bangladesh is a small country in Asia, historically it is very important. She has seen important rises and falls in history. The earliest history is a little vague. The political life of ancient Bangladesh can be found in the Greek and Latin History. In 326 BCE, when Alexander the Great invaded India, he withdrew from his conquered place as he anticipated a counter attack from the Bengal region. The Bengal region was then ruled by some valiant rulers. Bengal region was ruled by the Hindu kings. The Muslims first invaded the area in 13th Century. They seized control and established their independent rule. They ruled for nearly two hundred years without any major foreign invasion. But in 15th Century, the traders from different countries of Europe started coming to Bengal region. The Portuguese, Dutch, French and British came one by one into this region. The main reason of the European traders for coming to this region was to make money from the local market. They wanted to spread their influence in the field of trade and economy in South Asia. Though the traders had economic motives when they arrived, soon they took interest in the local politics. In 1757, the last Muslim leader of Bengal region was defeated by the British. The British started ruling the Bengal region. They imposed their rule upon the people of that region. They controlled West Bengal for approximately two hundred years. The British people had to leave India and Bengal region for strong pressure from the local intellectuals and ordinary people. Near the end of the Second World War, the size of the British Empire got reduced. The empire was breaking down. Though Gandhi and Viceroy Lord Mountbattan both tried to unite the Hindus and Muslims, the Muslims felt insecure. They were worried because they thought they will be neglected in India as this is a region dominated by the Hindus. Due to the situation, Lord Mountbattan decided to divide the subcontinent in 1947. Two countries were born instead of one. One is India and another is Pakistan. According to the partition agreement, India would be a Hindu state and Pakistan would be a Muslim state. Pakistan was divided into two parts: East Pakistan (Bengal) and West Pakistan (Punjab). Even after the partition, there were conflicts between the Hindus and Muslims. So, finally Muslims left India and moved to Pakistan. The Hindus left Pakistan and moved to India. Though there were disparity between the history, culture, lifestyle, language and customs of the two parts of Pakistan, they were united on the basis of shared belief in Muslim religion. But problems arose soon when the rulers started distinguishing the people of West Pakistan from the East Pakistan. The disparity in all sectors made the people of East Pakistan angry. The discontent grew due to the unfair policies and partial treatment of the people of East Pakistan by the government. When Urdu was imposed upon the people of East Pakistan, they revolted. Many people die for the language. The language movement brought the courage among the people of Bangladesh and they dreamt of freeing the land from the invasion of Pakistan. Finally, in 1971, after a bloody war of 9 months, Bangladesh became independent. Bangladesh Travel Guide – Three Cities to Visit With air travel becoming ever more affordable regardless of destination, scheduling a trip to exotic locations like Bangladesh is becoming the norm rather than the exception in today's travel culture. Likewise, the expansive reach of the internet now allows any traveler to check a prospective tourist destination in advance so much so that one can now plan a trip entirely on a mobile phone mobile internet device. Such advancements in travel and tourism have simplified the process so much that all one needs to do is decide exactly where to go and everything else is taken cared of from there. From insurance quotes to itinerary booking, any traveler is now safe in the hands of advance travel planning. For this reason, it comes down to deciding which three cities in, say Bangladesh, is well worth the visit for any traveler looking to relax, unwind, and see the world. You can find many article source references on the subject but for ease and convenience, we are listing down the three cities in Bangladesh that is well worth anyone's time. Dhaka. The capital and largest city in Bangladesh, Dhaka is a melting pot of the old and the new. Dhaka is also an ideal springboard for further incursions into other parts of the country. It features the most extensive list of local tourism agencies which will do all things for you short of sending a "Good Night SMS." Dhaka is also an excellent venue for getting all the necessary supplies in case you plan on spending a night or two in many of the more exotic destinations that grant access to wildlife, camping, hiking, and other outdoor adventures. Instead of spending your time reading phen375 reviews, perhaps you'd lose more weight if you spend time in Dhaka and other Bangladeshi locations. Not only are you seeing the world, but you are also doing your body a favor as well. Sundarbans. Located in the southern part of Bangladesh, Sundarbans is home to some of the most recognizable natural attractions anywhere in the world. This is a prime location for beautiful forests, the biggest mangrove growth in the world, and expansive delta swamps. Are you looking for an alternative to the Africa Safari? Sundarbans ably fits the bill. While you may not be able to buy premium Kratom here, you get everything else in the name of a crazy and wild adventure and for any nature lover, that's a trip that is well worth the attraction. Kuakata. Far away from the commercialized beaches in many other Asian locations, Kuakata in Bangladesh offers reclusive beach locations that make you feel like you are in paradise. The beaches here are strategically located to give you a stunning view of both the sunrise and the sunset. Bring your labrador retriever with you and it may feel like home away from home. Online public relations information allows you to scout your trip ahead of time. If you want more information on Bangladesh prior to scheduling a trip, do your homework and look up all the necessary information. Past that, you will not regret booking a trip to Bangladesh. Easily one of the most romantic getaways on Earth, you'll find all the comfort, relaxation and quiet that you need in Bangladesh, in the company of animals, the stunning beach and an expansive blue sky. You'll probably ask yourself why you did not come sooner. The History of Bangladesh Compared to its more popular neighbors Indian, Pakistan and Burma, the history of Bangladesh is not as well known. However, this does not mean that the history of this small country in South Asia is anything less dramatic or interesting. Like dreamweaver templates, the history of Bangladesh presents its own set of challenges and subplots that are intriguing to any student of world history but importantly to those who have taken a keen interest at this country. Bangladesh did not become a formal sovereign state until 1971 but even before this, it already had a rich culture that was well documented in the region. This is because the thriving religions of Hinduism and Buddhism all had their roots somewhere in the region where Bangladesh is located. As such, the land on which modern-day Bangladesh has stood has been a stirring witness to rise and fall of many civilizations in the area. No amount of anti wrinkle cream can hide the fact that Bangladesh has laid witness to countless wars for various purposes from the early Gupta and Harsha Empires of the 3rd to 6th centuries CE to the last war that led to its independence. The long history of Bangladesh paved the way to the occupation of the British in the 19th century. The change in governing authority was more like a drug detox for the people of Bangladesh who had to get accustomed to a new set of political, religious and economic policies. It was never a melaleuca experience; rather it was a time of serious struggle for the people who had to adjust to foreign influences for the very first time. Still, this also marks the period where the people of Bangladesh were formally introduced to the benefits coming from the West particularly in the area of education and medical aid. Formal independence for Bangladesh was gained following the war in 1971. This was after Bangladesh was originally considered as East Pakistan. While the country remained under Indian influences for the next few years, Bangladesh began to be freely ruled by people from within the country. This marked a period of steady progress where Bangladesh opened itself to modernization, and economic growth via capitalism. With the introduction of modern advantages like online mba for students, the growth of it jobs, and even technological benefits like home alarm systems, Bangladesh is slowly but surely introducing itself into the world. Still, the history of Bangladesh continues to evolve today as the country fights to overcome serious social, political and economic issues in the 21st century. Its economy enjoys a solid BB- rating which is higher than that of Pakistan and neighbor Sri Lanka but it also continues to suffer from rampant perceptions of corruption and crime. As Bangladesh forges ahead, there is no doubt it will be present in many an ebook reader detailing its ascent into the world stage. Only time will tell if Bangladesh makes the leap from being a developing country into a development one. That is something that the government and its people must work hard at achieving in order to be able to provide a bright future for the future generations of Bangladeshi citizens. The Three Must See Cities in Bangladesh If you are all for travel and tourism to exotic destinations particularly those in the Southeast Asian region, then there are three must-see cities in Bangladesh that you need to visit to complete your whirlwind tour of The Far East. While the name of these cities are fairly hard to remember or might cause you to cheat at scrabble, there are plenty of reasons – mainly religious and cultural – that make Bangladesh and its cities a definite stopover during a trip in the region. Here are the three must-see cities in Bangladesh and what you should expect when you drop by these unique tourism destinations. Dhaka. The capital of Bangladesh, its primary attraction has to be its mind-boggling "collection" of rickshaw transports. By conservative estimates, there are roughly 400,000 rickshaws running around Dhaka on any given day and you do not need a masters of accounting to tell you that such a number is truly astounding especially when you consider that Dhaka is not even close to being considered a major metropolitan district by global standards. Rickshaws are the lifeblood of Dhaka as a city and they bring tourists closer to the city attractions figuratively and literally speaking. Dhaka is also home to plenty of cultural attractions like the prominent national holidays on March 26 commemorating the nation's Independence, February 21 as the Language Martyr's day, and the 16th of December as Victory Day. These carry the local Buddhist and Hindu influences in the region and are excellent attractions to those interested in learning about East Asian culture. Any masters in education or even those planning RN to BSN online programs but would want to take a break before plunging to the rigors of intensive studying can certainly benefit from the refreshing atmosphere that is Dhaka, Bangladesh. Of course, we mean that in the full cultural sense of the word. Chittagong. Next to Dhaka, Bangladesh, Chittagong is the next biggest city in the country and is home to a multicultural collection of beliefs influenced by Islamic, Buddhist, and Hindu cultures primarily because of its location as a port. Chittagong is also home to the rich historical chapters that helped defined Bangladesh as the struggles opposing the conquering invaders of the Second World War had its roots here. At its very best, Chittagong is undergoing a dramatic face lift and is becoming an attractive home to many an umbrella company as the city is widely considered as one of the fastest growing metropolitan districts in the world. If you want to see a third-world city in action, or if you are planning to grow your business in East Asia, there is little doubt that Chittagong is the best place to be in as it also gives you access to neighboring territories like Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Northeast India, and even Southern China. Khulna. Rounding up the list of the three must-see cities in Bangladesh is Khulna which, not surprisingly, is the 3rd largest city in the country after Chittagong and Dhaka. Khulna is a vital location for many a masters in health administration professional as majority of the world's battles against infectious diseases are being waged here, including malaria and water-borne diseases. Still, it cannot be denied that Khulna remains to be a vital and strategic location for business and economics in the region as it is like a city with a coach hire advertisement sign as it seeks to remodel itself into a vital economic hub next to Chittagong. As Bangladesh grows, so will Khulna with all the potential that it offers. While Bangladesh is far from being one of the most recognizable cities in the world, its potential for growth is more than apparent. Consequently, it remains to be a popular destination for exotic tourism escapades or even backpacking trips for religious and spiritual discoveries. The next time you find yourself in Bangladesh, check out Dhaka, Chittagong, and Khulna for all the great attractions that it offers. With these, you can make your Bangladesh visit one that will be truly memorable for many years to come. Travel Tips While Visiting Bangladesh If you have never been to Bangladesh and you are looking for more information on the country, its citizens, the roads, the sightseeing that is worth awhile there, the best types of hotels to stay in or what precaution measures should you be taking if you are planning on going here for the summer, you should read article here and learn everything there is to know about Bangladesh and Bangladesh tourism in particular. First and foremost, you are going to have to think about the prefect time of the year when you can visit Bangladesh. Once you are done with this type of planning, you should go ahead and decide what type of transportation means should you better opt for. Taking the bus could represent an action that is going to submit you to a constant threat of terrorism is some areas of Bangladesh. Driving to this far-distant country could also prove to not be a great idea. Taking your time and doing the proper amount of research about traveling to and visiting Bangladesh should also help you understand if taking your english mastiff along is a good idea or not, especially if you are going to be travelling to cities such as Sylhet and Chittagogn Hill Tracts. There are no top dental hygienist schools awaiting for there, but rather cruel acts of terrorism that might be welcoming you on these lands. As a matter of fact, the general lines of recommendations refer to the avoidance of tourism travelling to these parts of Bangladesh, as you will also be required to go through some rather harsh formalities. The official authorities are going to be asking for a 10-day notice in regards to your travel plans in Chittagong Hill Tracts. In other words, the situation can get so delicate there, that, at times, not even the best wrinkle creams on the planet should be able to help you forget all about your terrorism-related experience. Violent street disorders, local abductions of citizens or politicians and bus or public vehicle burning activities are not uncommon here. Ordering some books using Amazon Australia and doing some heavy reading about acts of terrorism should aid you learn more about this threats of the 21th century. Plus, pick pocketing and armed robberies are also often times occurring in Bangladesh, so special attention needs to attributed to doing your shopping there. As for the road travelling itself, you also need to pay special attention to the poor road conditions and the poor quality of the roads. Speeding and aggressive overtaking of the road are going to yet pose another threat to you, so if you are thinking about going to Bangladesh in order to be a part of some mph programs, you should probably think again. Upon preparing your incursion here, you might as well think about asking some masters of social work students to tell you how to handle travelling to countries that are under the threat of terrorism. Bangladesh Breakdown Country Analysis Bangladesh The Vibrant Culture of Bangladesh When eyeing a country to visit in Asia, it helps to be acquainted with the vibrant culture of Bangladesh, a small country of 148 million people sandwiched between India and Burma. Not too long ago, the reputation of Bangladesh was such that it was a poor country reliant on agriculture, tourism, and fishery as its primary means for livelihood. However, the growth of industrial and commercial markets primarily coming from India and spilling over to Bangladesh and fueled by more research into technologies designed to push the region forward has dramatically uplifted the quality of life in Bangladesh. As such, it is now one of the more enticing destinations for tourists from all over the globe. With regard to the culture of this vibrant country, everything begins with the influence of history and religion to what has become of Bangladesh today. It is heavily influenced by the cultures from India and the Cambodian peninsula which is discussed in better detail when you click here. Bangladesh also has very strong ties to Islamic traditions from nearby Middle East and this is also an essential determinant in today's economy where company ratings can be traced to connections in the Arab peninsula. The same can be said of the music coming from Bangladesh. While the country does not produce Taylor guitars for export, you can bet that it has a long list of musical instruments that pool together the country's rich history and cultural heritage. Such instruments include the ektara, dhol, dotara and tabla and are important musical pieces in North Indian classical music. The richness of the musical genre also spills over into the dance scene as there are many folk dances, not different from those in South Africa, which are predominantly buoyed by the local tradition in the area. More importantly, the myriad of festivals and celebrations in Bangladesh are major tourist attractions the whole year around and are strong enough that the industry fuels subsequent other businesses like home remodeling companies that kick into high gear at the onset of the tourist season. Festivals like the Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha of the Islamic calendar are well received and widely sought out by foreigners more than you would expect with a free cell phone. The same can be said of colorful Hindu festivals like Kali Puja, Durga Puja, and Saraswati Puja while Buddhist festivals like the birth of Buddha are also celebrated. There is so much to see and enjoy in Bangladesh, borne on the shoulders of its rich cultural heritage. Book a trip today and see for yourself why Bangladesh is one of the most traveled destinations in Central Asia. It's a trip that will surely fill your heart with great memories and one that will open your eyes to the richness and diversity of Bengali culture. Is Bangladesh Worth Visiting? Whenever we hear of tourist destinations marketed heavily, we always end up asking ourselves whether that place is worth visiting or not in the first place. A classic case, for example, is Bangladesh where tourism ads have been revving in full gear for a while now. Those ads do not shy away from proclaiming all the good things in Bangladesh so much so that, just from reading the ads, one would surely be enticed to check out the potential travel destinations. You find yourself reading, and then shortly after, clicking the first link to people's testimonies about Bangladesh. So is it really worth visiting? Should you even bother to plan a trip to Bangladesh? The true answer is that it really depends on your goals as a tourist. Let's be honest; it's unreasonable to expect that you will find the best in First World amenities in Bangladesh. You can't expect to see first class counterparts of your Dentist Salem Oregon or Vancouver WA dentists. If you are expecting the best that the world has to offer when you visit Bangladesh, then you will be sorely disappointed. However, this does not mean that Bangladesh is the complete opposite of what you'd expect from a first class tourist destination. The capital, Dhaka, is fairly industrialized owing to the huge volume of businesses that finds its way into Bangladesh. As a result, the amenities have followed suit and international hotel brands are not setting shop in Bangladesh. On the one hand, you may not find a Domestic Violence Attorney Seattle counterpart in Bangladesh, but finding a Westin hotel or a Radisson Blu Garden Hotel is more than enough to make up for your worries. But of course, this is not why one should come to Bangladesh. For that, you would have to be interested in the culture. Bangladesh draws inspiration from the unique intersection of the Hindu and Buddhist religions resulting in one of the more unique cultural marriages in the world. Its literature, music and arts, and norms are heavily influenced by this social union. While you may not find fantasy football names here, the festivals and attractions will be more than sufficient to keep you engaged. The cities also offer a unique insight in Third World life. Bangladesh is dominated by huge populations packed in the metropolitan areas offering a unique avenue for observing the life of many who seek to make it in the big city. Between the cars, scooters, and rickshaws during the rush hour traffic, plus the added beauty of Bangladesh's many waterways, there is plenty to see and explore in the city. You can even watch people window cleaning high alongside tall skyscrapers, if only to see how the life in this progressive country relies heavily on manpower resources. Bangladesh has plenty to offer for the right person and is certainly a good place to find something new. Learn more about what Bangladesh can offer so you can personally decide if indeed, this is a country that is well worth visiting for a tourist getaway. Economic Progress in Bangladesh There seems to be a common perception from many in the Western world that most countries in Asia outside of the notables like China, Japan, Singapore, and Russiaare wallowing in continued poverty and have yet to enjoy the benefits of economic progress. Do a quick survey in Americaasking about the economic progress in Bangladesh and the long-standing perception is that the country is more than likely to have never heard of the somanabolic muscle maximizer scam and many similarly complicated ploys. All told, it is hard to picture a country as notoriously languid as Bangladesh snapping out of its funk and finally climbing the rungs of economic progress. Is this perception true or can we be any more farther from the truth? Consider the facts vetted by multiple UN agencies and recently released to pronounce Bangladesh's slow but sure arrival on the world economic stage: 6% GDP growth amidst the global economic crisis when most western countries were seeing declines 8% growth on the industrial sector 6% growth in the services department 4% growth in agriculture 90% of all annual public spending is now supported by domestic sources rather than borrowed from international agencies like the IMF and World Bank The economic progress shown by Bangladesh over the last few years has been nothing short of astounding especially when considered in the light of Bangladesh's recent economic struggles. In a relatively short period, the country has moved from basic cash advance transactions to being an attractive hub for foreign investments in South Asia. Bangladesh primarily draws on its manpower competitive advantage to funnel jobs from rising economic powers China and India so much so that in recent years, company equivalents to a Beaverton Auto Accident assistance firm are beginning to exist. A big portion of the rise in economic performance is driven by key changes to policies which have fostered a business-friendly climate well beyond your everyday plumber chester business. Specific examples include fair and speedy processing steps for local and foreign investors alike leveling the playing field and allowing outsiders to put up their business quickly and efficiently. A Scottish Trust Deed business equivalent deciding to establish a base in Bangladesh would take no more time than a local businessman putting up an agricultural company. The same can be said of legal measures to protect from nationalization, the strict enforcement of intellectual property laws, reduced duties on imports as well as subsidies on exports, and even corporate tax holidays among other things. The long road to economic independence is slowly off for Bangladesh although it is certain that more time is required before people begin to buy Kratom just because they can, rather than do it out of need. Still, any road to progress, no matter how slow, is much better than taking a few steps backward. No doubt,Bangladesh's recent economic data suggests it is trending in the right direction with more reason for continued optimism. Only time, and the vigorous implementation of more business-friendly policies, can guarantee that growth will be sustained. In the interim, there is cause for a minor celebration. In the long-term, there is certainly cause for much hope. The Flourishing Export Business in Bangladesh The People's Republic of Bangladesh is one of the flourishing countries in Asia, despite it being a flood-prone nation during the rainy season. It has quite a lot of resources that has attracted investors for import and export businesses and local trading as well, generating a positive input in supplier and client history. While farmers and crop cultivators make up the majority of the country's population, the export business in Bangladesh generally come from the supreme group of fabrics and textiles that they manufacture. They are also known to have large deposits of minerals such as limestone, hard rock and silicone sand. Even though the country has quite a lot of resources in almost every industry, especially in the agricultural side, the absence of competent technologies to harness them is one of the main reasons why their assets have yet to reach the full potential of being explored and properly utilized. They have yet to take advantage of the high-end equipments that will transform their raw materials to several things that are deemed useful to every country. Nevertheless, their current export ventures in the garment business are still a promising one for the Bangladeshis. They are also doing export on leather, paper, tea, ceramic items, to name a few, and all of which have given positive inputs in the economy. The major counterparts of Bangladesh in their imported and exported products are India, China, Japan, USA, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, South Africa, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, and other countries in Europe. Companies involved in this major activity stay in touch with suppliers and customers alike through the virtual phone service that helps them stay organized and connected with each other at all times. In doing so, they are keeping their economy in the balance by importing the goods they need and produce products for local and internal consumption, by means of export. True, Bangladesh may still be laid back in terms technology innovation, but their manpower has never failed to sustain and maintain their status in the global market. Aside from the thriving economy of Bangladesh, the country has also quite a number of natural resources to be proud of. It is primarily because of the Sundarbans, which is considered to be the world's biggest mangrove forest, where the Royal Bengal Tiger resides, among many other beautiful creatures in the wild. Shapla is the country's national flower, known to many as water lily, while Kathal, or jackfruit, is their national fruit, and of late, they have chosen their national tree to be that of a mango. With the natural beauty of the country and persistence among its citizens, Bangladesh will continue to attract new markets and globally be recognized as one of the leading exporters of prime commodities. Neighboring countries may have yet to learn more from their ways and adopt their simplicity and sincerity in approaching things. Needless to say, they have gone far with lesser modern mechanism, and will continue to achieve much more if they are given the opportunity to be explored. Is Bangladesh in Crisis? Bangladesh politics offers some great insights into what can happen when abuse of authority can corrupt an otherwise peaceful march to progress and equality. From late 2006 to 2008, Bangladesh was embroiled in a deadly and violent political crisis which claimed the lives of many people. Many a professional institute focusing on global political affairs point to the root of the whole conflict as the mismanagement of political authority when it was conferred by the Bangladeshi constitution during a period of political transition. There are basically two dominant political parties in Bangladesh; the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) and the Awami League. In late 2006, a caretaker government was formed to oversee the administration of the national election following a two-decade long political conflict. This was not Ibiza where blue horizons were seen up ahead. Instead, the Awami League questioned what it termed where unfair acts by the caretaker government designed to manipulate the results of the upcoming election. When the Awami League announced that it would boycott the upcoming election, the political crisis boiled over leading to riots and clashes which claimed the life of many political supported on both sides. The cessation of hostilities in late 2008 was made possible by the intervention of the UN and the EU in Bangladeshi political affairs. This intervention led to the creation of an interim government where the President was not elected. It only served to momentarily diffuse the tensions like lulls on movie trailers online but as long as the issues remain, the threat continues to be present and waiting for the right moment to manifest itself. Enter 2013 when the EU and UN have suspended their participation in the election monitoring process owing to claims that a credible political system for fair and equal voting does not exist. This has set the stage for what can be another deadly round of political crisis in Bangladesh. Like sciatica that only lies dormant, now is perhaps the time where it can all resurface again with even more deadly consequences. The planned 2013 elections in Bangladesh give rise to two very important issues that require attention not only by the local ruling government but also by international watchdogs with a stake in the country. These are the rise of election-related violence as parties go against each other in the pursuit of their own respective agenda, and the role of the increasingly imbalanced military which can escalate violence even further. Both elements are so serious it cannot be addressed by the metaphorical coconut oil for face approach. Something needs to be done if a new round of violence is to be prevented. So what can we expect from this political turmoil? There is no clear answer to that question, but there are sound suggestions. First, the sitting government led by Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina from the Awami League must take careful steps to assure the BNP that a fair election will occur, much like when the Awami clamored for BNP to do the same in 2008. Second, a conciliatory approach needs to be taken akin to employing a car accident attorney to objectively settle matters. Third, the military must remain non-biased on the issue, but also restrained in its quest to control the conflict. This is a goal that is far easier said than done. So is Bangladesh in crisis? It might not be, YET. Only time will tell if the parties involved can come into a peaceful resolution of their differences so they can forge a credible government which will carry Bangladesh to its future;if not, then there is little doubt that a political crisis is about to happen again. And this time, the consequences can be even deadlier. ICC Twenty20 World Cup 2014 Held In Bangladesh The best cricket players in the world recently gathered in Bangladesh to compete in the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 tournament. Organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC), the games were played from March 16 to April 6, 2014 in three cities of Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sylhet. Although this was already the 5th ICC World Twenty20 competition, it was the second consecutive time that an Asian country, Bangladesh, hosted the event. The 2012 version was held in Sri Lanka. Established in June 15, 1909, the International Cricket Council (ICC) is the international governing body of the popular sports of cricket. The ICC is headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and has 106 member countries including Bangladesh, Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Canada, and other countries. There are 10 Full Members that play official Test matches, 37 Associate Members, and 59 Affiliate Members. The ICC World Twenty20, aka ICC World T20 or World Twenty20, is an international championship of Twenty20 cricket normally held every two years. The first ever tournament was held in 2007 in South Africa and was won by India. Twenty20 cricket, commonly shortened to T20, is a form of cricket that was first played in England and Wales for professional inter-county tournaments in 2003 and administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB). Introduced to create a more lively form of cricket, a Twenty20 game can be completed in approximately three hours. Each inning lasts about 75-90 minutes with 10-20 minutes interval. Such is the worldwide popularity of the Twenty20 game that the ICC adopted the format and made it into an international competition in the form of the ICC World Twenty20 tournament. The ICC World Twenty20 is played on a group stage and knockout format. Points are awarded to teams during Round 1 and Super 10 stages. 2 points for win, 1 point for no result/tie, zero for loss. During the 2014 tournament, 16 warm-up matches were played in March 12-19, 2014. In the Group stage, teams were clustered into Group A and Group B. In the Super 10, teams were organized into Group 1 and Group 2. In the Knockout stage, four teams competed in the Semifinals until two teams remain and competed in the championship round. The following teams directly qualified for the Super 10: Australia, England, India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and West Indies. The following teams qualified for the group stage: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Ireland, Nepal, Netherlands, United Arab Emirates, and Zimbabwe. After holding thirty-five matches at three different venues, the tournament closed by declaring Sri Lanka as the champion. Virat Kohli of India was declared the Man of the Series as well as the player with the most runs of 319. Most wickets awards were given to Imran Tahir of South Africa and Ahsan Malik of Netherlands, each with 12 wickets. To learn more about wicket, visit icc-cricket.com to get more information. If you have the desire to learn cricket, then go for it, have fun, and play. Please browse through the Web pages of our portal to find out more about the SSS organisation and our objectives, and to make a donation by clicking on the Donate logo, on the right hand side of the page. About SSS Welcome to SSS!Society for Social Service (SSS) is a local non-profit, non-political, non-governmental voluntary organisation. It was established in November 1986 by the initiative of a group of development workers of Tangail district in order to promote the socio-economic condition of the underprivileged and indigent Bangladeshi people with special attention to women and children.
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| Follow us on Our Journey To Smile ! Join us to say #Enough! | Follow us on Our Journey To Smile ! Join us to say #Enough! Love Letter 1: Having Communal Fun in the Afghan Mountains so as to Stay Strong Love Letter 2: Bringing the Sun Home to Prevent Mom's Death Love Letter 3: Embracing Our Equal Place and Work on Mother Earth Love Letter 4: Humans can Help One Another, Now, and for a While More Love Letter 5: Afghan Street Kids Survive Amidst a Selfish Economy Love Letter 6: Are Unemployed Afghans Interested in Work? Love Letter 7: Nonviolent Versus Violent Peace in Afghanistan and the World Love Letter 8: In Afghanistan, Nursing Our Anger to Health Love Letter 9: From Afghanistan, the Outrageous Abolition of War Love Letter 10: Revolutionary Relationships Inaam (left), Habib (right) and I (photographer) sharing a good laugh at the Borderfree Nonviolence Community Centre in Kabul I decided to write this ninth love letter specially to Inaam, the 21st century generations of the world and the people of Okinawa because of three personal reasons. I miss having the wonderful energies of 15-year-old Inaam at the Borderfree Nonviolence Community Centre. Inaam has to polish boots in the streets of Kabul to supplement his family's income and to survive today's terrible economic system. I also wish that the vision and work of abolishing war had been "attractive" enough to keep Inaam in the Abolish War Team beyond three weeks. Inaam, born at the turn of the 21st century, deserves to live in world without war. I write to the courageous and kind Okinawans because though Japanese soldiers killed my grandfather in World War II, the people of Okinawa and Japan are healing my father through their nonviolent resistance. By Dr Hakim 20th March 2019 Dear Inaam, the 21st century generations of the world and the people of Okinawa, You're only fifteen, and I'm almost fifty. I wish I didn't hear you say to me, "Hakim, I think that war will never be abolished." Have we greedy adults made it so very difficult for you to picture a humanity without war? I know that deep down inside, you want war to disappear forever. I can see this wish on your face in the photo I took in 2015, for the Afghan Peace Volunteer's #Enough! War campaign. Inaam in 2015 (second from left) saying no to war In 1945, the UN Charter had committed "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind". I'm sorry that the UN and our human family have continued to inflict on you "untold sorrow". But I believe in you and your generation! 16-year-old Swedish student Greta Thurnberg is your peer, and she demonstrated the same wisdom you have when she said, "Today we use 100 million barrels of oil every day. There are no politics to change that. There are no rules to keep that oil in the ground, so we can't save the world by playing by the rules because the rules have to change. Everything needs to change and it has to start today." I wish Greta had said this about the obsolete and ineffective method of war too, but she didn't. There is no politician currently in office who has proposed laws to ban war. I had hoped that Bernie Sanders in the US and Jeremy Corbyn in the UK would, but they haven't. With your reason and compassion, you see through all the current peace negotiators of the Afghan conflict: beneath their emperor's clothes, you see that they are naked war executioners. When the world imagines that these peace negotiators/war executioners will negotiate for genuine peace, the world is fantasizing that the US military-christened Hellfire missiles, costing about US$58,000 each, or the extremists' opposing suicide bombing vests, costing much less, can usher heaven into Afghanistan. Even if you could cast an under-age vote in this July's scheduled Afghan Presidential elections, none of the 18 candidates will abolish war. Yes, to gain votes, they will all parrot the rhetoric that they wish to end the Afghan war, but none of them will abolish the method of war. It was only years after his political career, in 2017, that former President of USSR Mikhail Gorbachev wrote, "In modern world, wars must be outlawed, because none of the global problems we are facing can be resolved by war — not poverty, nor the environment, migration, population growth, or shortages of resources." Gorbachev understands the real political risk of humankind annihilating herself through nuclear warfare. Inaam, as a war child, you understand by experience that there are also no politics today to abolish war. Together with the Gretas and youth of the world, build the necessary new politics. You've seen how the Afghan Peace Volunteers are organized without a Director, so if the new politics needs to be one without a President, a CEO or a Prime Minister, go for it! And, don't worry about all the various mis-used and bombastic political terms. Go for nonviolent liberty, equality and fraternity. As the late French diplomat Stephane Hessel wrote about nonviolent resistance when he was 93, "Indignez vous. Time for Outrage!" Also, to practice magnanimity through life, you and I must exercise timeless patience while working our butts off. I mean, it was way back in the 1930s that British engineer Guy Stewart Callendar calculated that a doubling of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere could warm the Earth by 2 degrees Celsius. It has taken 90 years to reach today's level of climate activism, and despite this, we still have people like Trump who denies climate change. Or like with the abolition of slavery. The Qin Dynasty of China abolished slavery in 221 BC and Pope Paul III forbade slavery of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in 1537. Niger made slavery a crime only in 2003! So, the human family's struggle against slavery took more than 2000 years, and even today, modern slavery still exists, like with the child brick-layers of Afghanistan. History's gradual but seismic changes happened when different individuals and societies took decisive actions at different times and ages. We can each be those channels of change: get the scientific results of war out there, use your shrill and growing voice, demand for laws to ban war, divest from the military industrial complex, don't join the military corporations, persuade your soldier-brother to be a conscientious objector, prohibit all weapons, make military generals very unpopular just as the CUNY undergraduates did, refuse to cooperate for war like some Google and Microsoft staff did, replace every war method with a thousand nonviolent methods, turn soldiers into pacifist mediators… All these are revolutionary acts of love; you're already familiar with the Dari phrase, "Dar kaar khair pesh dasti kardan", which means "For charitable work, set your hands to work quickly!" Am I asking too much of the 15-year-old you? You see, I want so much for you to have a meaningful and gorgeous life, and to have enough friends, even with those considered "enemies". My father had considered my Japanese friend Eitaro Oka an "enemy", because Japanese soldiers who had occupied Singapore in 1942 killed his father. It was World War II. But, when Eitaro visited me in Singapore years ago, my father and mother hosted him. The first thing Eitaro said to my father was, "I want to ask you for forgiveness, for the killing of your father." My father inspired me with his reply, "You were not the one who killed my father. Please enjoy the meal, a special Singaporean dish called Hainanese Chicken Rice prepared by my wife." Eitaro (centre) with my parents in Singapore When I joined a group of Japanese peace activists in Okinawa three years ago, an elderly Japanese monk stood before officials in the local office of Japan's Ministry of Defense, and asked me for forgiveness! He pleaded against the presence of US military bases in Okinawa. This kind monk had covered his bald head with the Borderfree Blue Scarf of the Afghan Peace Volunteers! The kind monk (left, standing) and Yuichi ( centre, standing ) with other Japanese activists in an office of Okinawa's Ministry of Defense. Many young Japanese like Yuchi, Sara and Kamoshita are resisting the re-militarization of Japan. Their current Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, is regrettably addicted to military prowess, and wants to amend the Japanese constitution to enable the re-establishment of a Japanese army. Shinzo is a human being who is sold-out to money and power, and not very sound, as he has even nominated US President Trump for the Nobel Peace Prize! Yuchi (rear) and Sara (front) block a US military convoy in Okinawa Kamoshita protests in a boat ( inserted photo ) and stands in front of US military base's gate in Okinawa. Sara, Yuichi and Kamoshita ( first, second and third from right) with other activists Kamoshita and Sara had wanted to visit us in Kabul this winter, but Kamoshita emailed me, "I am sorry to late reply. I can't travel to Afghanistan this time. I couldn't persuade my family…They worry me to go." Not only are Japanese activists working to abolish war. Many ordinary Japanese are resisting the heavy killer machinery too. In fact, in a February 2019 Okinawa referendum, 72% of Okinawan voters opposed the construction of a new US military base to replace an existing one. Most Okinawans don't want US military bases on their peaceful and beautiful island. You'll also be encouraged to know that Masoma, Habib and new members of the Afghan Peace Volunteers had sent Kamoshita, Sara and Okinawans a video message of solidarity. Ordinary Japanese link hands in protest, at the gate of a US military base in Okinawa New Afghan Peace Volunteers link hands in solidarity with Okinawans, saying, "No to US military bases in Okinawa and Afghanistan!" So, dear Inaam, remember how you told me that the current education system is not teaching you anything useful? You're right. I'm sure that you can educate yourself better than the schools, especially in the knowledge, values and skills needed to build a better world. We have on many occasions talked about true education: thinking and feeling deeply, freeing ourselves from the control of money, questioning all power, changing the culture of war within us. In relational learning, we connect all the dots and love like everyone and everything in the world is related. Our lives are brief, but as long as I have opportunity, I'll walk with you. Inaam saying "#Bas! #Enough!" in 2015 Inaam ( right ) with Habib, studying for his school exam in November 2018 The courageous and kind people of Okinawa Baa mihr ( With love ) ! Hakim
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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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