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Associated Press News News from The Associated Press, the definitive source for independent journalism from every corner of the globe.
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U.S. Department of Justice Official website of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). DOJ’s mission is to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and
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ADL Logo - Website Home The mission of ADL is to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to secure justice and fair treatment to all.
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U.S. Department of Justice Official website of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). DOJ’s mission is to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and
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Hire IT People - We get IT done Hire IT Professionals for your Projects! Hire Certified and Experienced Programmers, IT Staffing, Software Developers, Project Managers, DBAs, BAs, QAs, Security Specialists and More. We deliver local Talent within few hours of your request with 100% Performance Guarantee.
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Style Wise A blog dedicated to ethical and sustainable fashion, fair trade, nonprofits, social enterprise, and social justice with an emphasis on personal style.
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Home | National Immigrant Justice Center Indiana and Chicago immigration lawyers provide legal aid for immigrants and asylum seekers, fight for fair immigration reform and an end to inhumane immigration detention.
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TheTMCA.com | Legal Developments in the World of Trademarks, Copyrights, Advertising and Beyond In the coming months, the U.S. Supreme Court is expected to issue a decision in Mission Product Holdings, Inc. v. Tempnology, LLC that may (yes, we said "may") resolve a circuit split as to whether trademark licensees can continue using trademarks after a licensor in bankruptcy rejects the license agreement under bankruptcy law. The TMCA has been following this case from the first decision by the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of New Hampshire in 2015, through the decision by the Bankruptcy Appellate Panel for the First Circuit in 2016, the First Circuit's decision in early 2018, and the Supreme Court's grant of certiorari in late 2018. Along the way, we have explained that the Bankruptcy Code gives debtors the power to "reject" executory contracts (which relieves a debtor from its contractual obligations), and that federal courts have been divided for years regarding the effect of rejection of trademark license agreements. The blame for the circuit split can be placed largely on Congress. That is because the Bankruptcy Code—which Congress drafted—contains specific provisions for the post-rejection treatment of license agreements for "intellectual property," but those do not cover trademarks, although they cover patents, copyrights, trade secrets, and mask works, among other things. When Congress implemented those protections, it noted the deliberate omission of trademarks from the statute because the issue warranted "more extensive study," which we wrote about at length in our prior posts. The Supreme Court heard oral arguments in Mission on February 20, 2019. At oral argument the Justices focused primarily on the effect of a brand owner/licensor's breach of a trademark license agreement in bankruptcy, as a debtor, as opposed to the effects of breach outside of bankruptcy. In addition, the arguments also touched on general contract law, the "negative inference" of Lubrizol Enterprises, Inc. v. Richmond Metal Finishers, Inc., 756 F.2d 1043 (4th Cir. 1985) (see our previous posts for more on this case), and relevant provisions of the Bankruptcy Code, specifically sections 365(g) and 365(n), which concern, respectively the effect of a debtors' rejection of a contract generally and rejection of an intellectual property license for intellectual property other than trademarks. So you don't have to listen to the entire oral argument, we have selected the most interesting questions and issues, which, in our opinion, provide some tea leaves for those of us following the case: Off the bat, Justice Alito asked Mission whether a debtor-licensor's cessation of quality control activities would imperil a trademark. Before Mission could answer, Justice Sotomayor asked Mission whether rejection of a trademark license revokes approval by the licensor that is a condition to the license. Mission responded that quality control obligations are imposed by trademark law, and not solely by contract, and rejection entitles a debtor-licensor to free itself only from contractual obligations. Mission added that, outside of bankruptcy, a licensor's breach of a license agreement (breach being the effect of rejection on the agreement mandated by the Bankruptcy Code) does not take away a licensee's right to use a trademark. Chief Justice Roberts asked Tempnology whether a licensee can continue using a trademark after rejection, so long as the licensee carries out quality control as the debtor-licensor did. Tempnology responded that ceasing quality control abandons a trademark, causing it to lose value and its status as a trademark (which didn't exactly answer Justice Roberts' question). Justice Breyer asked whether a person can use an abandoned mark, and Tempnology conceded one can. Several Justices pressed Tempnology for authority that a trademark licensor could unilaterally terminate a license agreement outside of bankruptcy by ceasing quality control. Tempnology relied on the general notions of trademark law, including a trademark's signification of its owner and an owner's duty to exercise control over the trademark, which did not appear to relieve the Justices concerns. Justice Sotomayor asked Tempnology, at two separate points, how the Court could limit its ruling to trademark agreements, e. rather than "any number of other contracts." Tempnology stated it was only asking the Court to adhere to precedent that the effect of rejection is that the contract is no longer enforceable, but she did not seem to be persuaded by that argument. Questions by Justices Gorsuch and Sotomayor as to whether the trademark issues are moot signaled a possibility that the Court may not reach a decision on the effect of rejection. The Justices' questions intimated that Mission may not have suffered damages, because Tempnology refused to supply Mission with goods that could bear the licensed mark prior to the rejection. Following the rejection, Mission did not use the trademark, but argued it was damaged because it was wrongly prevented by the bankruptcy court's decision from using the trademark following rejection, including on goods it could have ordered from suppliers other than Tempnology. Tempnology asserted the issues are moot because Tempnology took no action against Mission that prevented Mission from using the trademark. Given that the Court granted cert for this case, we would be surprised if the Court declined to resolve this Circuit split and instead ruled on mootness grounds. Throughout the argument, the Justices and the litigants searched for property law scenarios analogous to the rejection of a trademark license agreement by a debtor—an apartment lease, a McDonald's franchise, a photocopier lease, and an igloo lease. As to the igloo, Justice Breyer likened a licensor's quality control obligations to a promise to air condition an igloo, stating, ". . . you break your promise to air condition, no more igloo." (The amicus curiae arguing in support of Mission who received this analogy disagreed, responding that a licensee can continue using a trademark because abandonment is the only consequence of ceasing quality control and that takes some time.) These discussions—and the general struggle to find a suitable analogy—highlighted the unique nature of trademark rights as property and the Bankruptcy Code's treatment of various contract rights respecting property. The oral argument provided a glimpse of the Court's unenviable task of filling in the blanks of the Bankruptcy Code that Congress left to the Courts. While the Court is clearly concerned with reaching a result that makes sense under notions of trademark, property, contract and bankruptcy law, we are eager to see how it resolves their conflicts. Once the Court reaches a decision, you should expect to hear from us again.
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Home | National Immigrant Justice Center Indiana and Chicago immigration lawyers provide legal aid for immigrants and asylum seekers, fight for fair immigration reform and an end to inhumane immigration detention.
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Legal Piracy | Musings on Piracy issues and the Law Guides to the Law Privacy Law Part 1: The Development of a Law and the Legal Theory Part 2: Contempt of Court, Injunctions and Parliamentary Privilege Part 3: Open Justice, Anonymised-, Super- and Hyper-Injunctions Copyright Law Fair Dealing Artist's Resale Right Digital Economy Act Part 1: Introduction, the Initial Obligations Code Part 2: Technical Measures…
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Open Path We are opposed to any exclusive dogma that limits the search for truth and free inquiry, and we encourage work that eases the pain, suffering and degradation inherent in many of the structures of society, as well as work that keeps central to the Christian life fair, open, peaceful, and loving treatment of all human beings.
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Atlantic Legal Foundation – Advocates for individual liberty, free enterprise, property rights, limited government, sound science, & school choice since 1977
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Smart on Crime Smart on Crime is a project of the Center for American Progress dedicated to making public safety and criminal justice more fair, equitable, and effective.
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Penal Reform International | Promoting fair and effective criminal justice Penal Reform International develops and promotes fair, effective and proportionate responses to criminal justice problems worldwide.
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Slideshow Right Arrow The 54B District Court is to consistently provide fair and efficient justice, under the law, while maintaining respect for individual worth and diversity within the court and community.
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Social Vision We are a global digital media initiative, focused on issues related to equality and social justice, gender, race, and the economically disadvantaged.
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Water Witness International | Action, Research & Advocacy for a Fair Water Future Water Witness International (WWI) works for a world protected against pollution, droughts, floods and resource conflict, and a fair water future where everyone has access to the good quality water they need to thrive. We investigate, innovate and influence for water justice, working globally to address the root causes of poor water management.
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Graham Legal, P.A. | South Florida Foreclosure Defense Attorney Whether defending homeowners facing foreclosure or representing a personal injury victim, we ensure our clients have a fair, affordable chance at justice.
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The Prying Mantis – No Justice, No Peace – reflections on organic farming, CSA and domestic fair trade. No Justice, No Peace - reflections on organic farming, CSA and domestic fair trade.
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Benedict Center - Home Page interfaith, nonprofit criminal justice agency is to work with victims, offenders and the community to achieve a system of justice that is fair and treats every one with dignity and respect
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ADL Logo - Website Home The mission of ADL is to stop the defamation of the Jewish people and to secure justice and fair treatment to all.
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Legislationline - International norms and standards on human dimension issues Legislation and international standards relating to human rights topics. Constitution, criminal and criminal procedure codes in English and in Russian
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U.S. Department of Justice Official website of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). DOJ’s mission is to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and
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U.S. Department of Justice Official website of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). DOJ’s mission is to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and
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Fairtrade International (FLO): Fairtrade International Fairtrade International works to secure a better deal for farmers and workers. Fairtrade International sets the internationally-recognized Fairtrade Standards, provides producer support, and licenses the FAIRTRADE Mark.
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Hire IT People - We get IT done Hire IT Professionals for your Projects! Hire Certified and Experienced Programmers, IT Staffing, Software Developers, Project Managers, DBAs, BAs, QAs, Security Specialists and More. We deliver local Talent within few hours of your request with 100% Performance Guarantee.
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TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
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Administering Justice Under Law Equally To All Persons | Iowa Judicial Branch The Iowa Judicial Branch dedicates itself to providing independent and accessible forums for the fair and prompt resolutions of disputes, administering justice under law equally to all persons. Learn more at our website!
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Home | Fairtrade Foundation Fairtrade changes the way trade works through better prices, decent working conditions and a fairer deal for farmers and workers in developing countries.
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Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen - The Private Lives and Times of Some of the Most Glamorous Actresses and Starlets of the Forties, Fifties and Sixties. Glamour Girls of the Silver Screen - The Private Lives and Times of Some of the Most Glamorous Actresses and Starlets of the Forties, Fifties and Sixties.
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Fairtrade Canada Fairtrade Canada - working to make trade fair for farmers and workers. Canadian member of the world's largest and most recognized fair trade system.
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Action America - Political Commentary Action America provides libertarian conservative commentary on the Constitution and political issues of the day. We focus on tax, guns, privacy, and drugs, as well as sovereignty, terrorism, courts and more. In all cases, the original intent of the Constitution and Bill of Rights is considered. Articles are well documented, with links to source data and provide persuasive arguments that are not presented elsewhere. Our goals include abolishing the IRS and income tax, ending gun control and ending the drug war. A special section on Echelon is provided, as well as lot''s of political jokes and quotations.
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Criminal Justice Policy Foundation The Criminal Justice Policy Foundation has been working on drug policy and criminal justice reform since 1989. Prior to founding CJPF, President Eric E. Sterling served as Counsel to the Judiciary Committee of the US House of Representatives, where he wrote legislation on drug and gun control, money laundering, organized crime, and corrections.
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Delaware Community Legal Aid Society, Inc - Equal Access To Justice CLASI provides free legal services to: People with disabilities, as Delaware's Protection and Advocacy System, Older citizens (60 and over) Victims of housing discrimination, under HUD's Fair Housing Initiative Program, People living in poverty, Victims of domestic violence, Immigrant victims of crime, abuse and neglect
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CSG Justice Center | Collaborative Approaches to Public Safety The Council of State Governments Justice Center is a national nonprofit organization that serves policymakers at the local, state, and federal levels.
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Administering Justice Under Law Equally To All Persons | Iowa Judicial Branch The Iowa Judicial Branch dedicates itself to providing independent and accessible forums for the fair and prompt resolutions of disputes, administering justice under law equally to all persons. Learn more at our website!
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Liberty County Sheriff''s Office The mission of Liberty County Sheriff''s Office is to maintain social order and provide professional law enforcement services to citizens in the community, within prescribed ethical, budgetary, and constitutional constraints. This department strives to enforce the law and maintain order in a fair and impartial manner, recognizing the need for justice, and consistent appearance of justice.
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The Justice Project | Legal Help Online The Justice Project is a non-profit, non-partisan organization working to increase fairness and accuracy in the justice system.
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Pro-Bono-Lawyers.com | "Lawyers Working For The Public Good" Welcome. Pro Bono Lawyers .com is dedicated to connecting people in need with attorneys and lawyers willing to do Pro Bono lawyer work. Pro Bono Publico is Latin for "for the public good." The term is generally used to describe professional work taken on voluntarily and without payment as a public service. Pro bono service, unlike volunteering, uses the specific skill set of professionals to provide services to those in need and who are unable to afford them. Did you know the American Bar Association sets an ethical requirement that lawyers in the United States complete up to 50 hours of pro bono service each year? Although this goal isn't met by all lawyers, you can still find the help you need if you know where to look. This is the Idea behind Pro Bono Lawyers .com! Being involved with the court system is no easy matter to deal with even for those people with the means necessary to represent themselves properly. For many of us living paycheck to paycheck, paying a lawyer for a lengthy court battle seems financially crushing or for some simply impossible. Fortunately we are not alone, and there are resources available to help. Pro Bono Lawyer programs Many state bar associations put together no cost legal services for people able to prove their financial hardship or other factors including social injustice, domestic violence, chronic illness, military service, and the elderly. Their motivation comes from their commitment of a fair and equal justice system for all peoples regardless of their ability to pay. These services strengthen our democracy and the foundation of our society. Sliding Scale Legal Services Even people with modest incomes may not qualify for Pro Bono Legal services. Some states have implemented sliding scale legal help for those people that make more money than is allowed to receive pro bono services, but could still be devastated financially by the costs associated with litigation. Fees are based on the client's income and are sometimes subsidized by the state, or done out of charity. Federal Programs The US Government has also set aside funds to allow poverty stricken Americans the hand up they need to navigate the sometimes confusing world of law. These programs can help less fortunate Americans with non criminal cases like unlawful eviction, domestic violence, and military benefits. Public Defenders Have you ever heard a police officer reading an alleged criminal their rights and say "If you can't afford an attorney one will be appointed to you?" What they are referring to is a public defender. If charged with a criminal offence, anyone regardless of race, creed, or financial ability has the right to be defended by an attorney in court. Public defenders are employees of the government and are available to anyone that qualifies under the courts guidelines. Sometimes We Are Our Best Advocates Some local governments have put programs in place to help people help themselves. Calling to our local county courthouses and bar associations can unveil opportunities you may not expect. In some counties there are clinics in which you can seek the advice of attorneys, facilitators that can help with finding and filing required paperwork, and law libraries that are open to the public to name a few. The help you need may be a phone call away. Some types of cases handled by Attorneys working Pro Bono are Community Economic Development, Consumer, Child Custody, Dissolution of Marriage, Education, Elder Law, Employment, Health, Housing, Individual Rights, Juvenile, Public Benefits, Real Estate, Termination of Parental Rights, Wills, AIDS/HIV, Adoption, etc. Pro-Bono-Lawyers.com does not give legal advice, should be considered a directory, and does not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information. This site should only be one source for information on lawyers willing to work for free
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Housing Justice | Housing Justice is a research and education website from Lynn E. Szymoniak, Esq. of Palm Beach Gardens, Florida, that focuses on foreclosure fraud and securities research.
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Vancouver Peace and Justice Fair in Vancouver, WA The Vancouver Peace and Justice Fair is 9/9/2017 at Esther Short Park. Our goal is to build community among groups working for peace and social justice.
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Monroe County Office of the District Attorney – Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania Located in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, the Monroe County Office of the District Attorney is dedicated to achieving justice and protecting the safety of our community. Through the use of efficient and fair prosecutions of offenders, criminal investigations by our Detective Unit, anti-crime and quality of life initiatives, and assistance and support to victims of crime, the Monroe County Office of the District Attorney continues to strive towards a safe and crime-free Monroe County.
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Home Page - International Protection Office Department of Justice and Equality, maintaining and enhancing community security and promoting a fair society through a range of policies and high quality services.
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Reed Brothers Dodge History 1915 – 2012 | Reed Brothers Dodge is a family business history that parallels the evolution of the American automobile industry – and to do justice to a legacy that spans almost a century – we proudly present our 97-Year history. Reed Brothers Dodge is a family business history that parallels the evolution of the American automobile industry – and to do justice to a legacy that spans almost a century - we proudly present our 97-Year history.
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Josephine Kerr Davis for Superior Court Judge - Josephine For Justice As a mother, wife, lifelong member of this community, and a skilled litigator with more than 15 years of experience, Josephine Kerr Davis brings a unique, fair and compassionate perspective to the role of the judiciary. Her career both personally and professionally is committed to seeking the justice we need with the compassion and integrity we deserve.
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Home | Office of Diversity and Inclusion Ohio State is one of the largest universities in the nation. It is also home to a diverse group of the best and brightest people in the world: dedicated faculty, passionate students, and innovative researchers who make Ohio State one of the world's truly great universities.
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Resources from Justice at Stake | Brennan Center for Justice After 16 years as a leader in the fair courts field, in 2017, Justice at Stake closed its doors. This page preserves Justice at Stake's resource pages, reports, and videos.
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The Geek Show | The UK's largest independent specialist podcast network The first Saturday of May has passed, and as is traditional the 4-Panel gang take a break from their usual shenanigans to pan for gold in the river of free comic books. So what nuggets (golden or otherwise), did Andrew and the back-from-overseas Rob find? Well, there's The Avengers (also featuring The Savage Avengers), Spider-Man, Dear Justice League, My Favorite Thing Is Monsters by Emil Ferris, Lady Mechanika by Joe Benitez, H1 Ingition, Animosity Tales (featuring Mary Shelley: Monster Hunter), Spawn #1, Bloodshot (featuring Fallen World Prelude), Stranger Things (featurung Black Hammer), Interceptor #1, Grumble Vs. The Goon (featuring Hillbilly by Eric Powell), Dragongfly & Dragonfly Man (featuring Captain Ginger and Poe & The Black Cat by Hunt Emerson), Captain Canuck: Equilibrium Shift #1, Welcome To The Whedonverse (featuring Buffy The Vampire Slayer and Firefly), and the comic anthology Starburns Presents. Would it be fair to say we have a lot of issues? Tune in to The Geek Show Podcast Network for all the latest news, discussions and reviews, and follow us on Facebook, Twitter, Audioboom and MixCloud for all of our latest shows. You can also listen to all of our latest shows on the go using iTunes or by downloading the free Audioboom or MixCloud apps.
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Library of free ebooks. Lots of different categorys containing free ebooks - Homeservicekusadasi
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Iowa Personal Injury Attorneys | Galligan Law Galligan Law is a focused personal injury law firm with more than 25 years of experience seeking justice and fair compensation for Iowans from border to border. We help with trucking accidents, car accidents, medical malpractice, defective devices, nursing home negligence, and much more.
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Personal Injury Lawyers | Workers Comp | Greenville, SC | CLG Our team of attorneys, along with an experienced staff, understand how important an experienced and persistent attorney can be when it comes to seeking full and fair compensation.
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Fair Michigan | LGBTQ justice, equal rights protection based on gender, gender identity, sex, and sexual orientation. The Fair Michigan Foundation is fighting to end discrimination in Michigan and ensure everyone is treated fairly. Our vision is to create a Michigan where the…
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The Jus Semper Global Alliance Gradual Wage Equalization, Corporate Social Responsibility, jus semper, global alliance, living wages north and south initiative, tlwnsi, long-term sustainable development, sustainability, global market system, labour endowments, labor, labour, living wage, purchasing power parities, (PPP), CSR, corporations, workers, standard of living, social justice, civil society, fair, compensation, globalization, democracy, rule of law, transnationals, multinationals, sense of fairness, socio-economic, injustice, exploitation, business culture, neoliberalism, neoliberal, benefits, investment strategy, economy, paradigm, consumer, fair trade, environment, economic, social, environmental, community, jobs, employment, ILO, human rights, global, free trade, open markets, welfare, human solidarity, cheapest cost of labour, third world, first world, markets, prices, commodities, supply, demand, aggregate demand, hunger wages, foreign investment, wage gap, supply-side economics, demand-side economics, corporation 20/20, keynesian economics, welfare state, modern slave work, human development index, neo-capitalist assault, unequal exchange, universal declaration of human rights, no-growth economics, purpose of corporation, public good, alvaro de regil, corporate redesign, national contact point, socially responsible investment, people and planet, special representative of secretary general for business and human rights, business and human rights,shareholder value, sharehholderism, true democracy for the sustainability of people and planet paradigm, united nations, human rights council
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Humankind — For fair chances Our services cover areas such as drugs and alcohol, housing related support, housing, employment, training and education, health and wellbeing, children, young people and families, women, criminal justice and community and offender rehabilitation.
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The Justice Roundtable | The Progressive Voice for Justice Reform Roy L. Austin, Jr. Roy Austin is a partner with the law firm of Harris, Wiltshire & Grannis LLP. He began his career with the Criminal Section of the Civil Rights Division investigating and prosecuting hate crime and police brutality cases. In 2000, he joined Keker & Van Nest LLP, working on complex civil and white-collar criminal cases, including a successful pro-bono lawsuit aimed at preventing racial profiling by the Calif. Highway Patrol. He joined the U.S. Attorney's Office for D.C. and prosecuted domestic violence, adult and child sexual assault, human trafficking, homicide and fraud and public corruption cases. He later became Senior AUSA and Coordinator of the D.C. Human Trafficking Task Force. In January 2010, Mr. Austin was appointed Deputy Asst Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, DOJ and supervised the Criminal Section, and the Special Litigation Section's law enforcement portfolio. In March 2014, he joined the White House Domestic Policy Council as Deputy Asst to the President for the Office of Urban Affairs, Justice and Opportunity. Here, he worked with the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing, on issues of reentry, and was a member of Obama's My Brother's Keeper Task Force. Rachel Barkow Rachel Barkow is the Vice Dean and Segal Family Professor of Regulatory Law and Policy at NYU School of Law. She also serves as the Faculty Director of the Center on the Administration of Criminal Law at NYU. In June of 2013, the Senate confirmed her as a Member of the United States Sentencing Commission. Since 2010, she has also been a member of the Manhattan District Attorney's Office Conviction Integrity Policy Advisory Panel. Professor Barkow teaches courses in criminal law, administrative law, and constitutional law. In 2013, she was the recipient of the NYU Distinguished Teaching Award. The Law School awarded her its Podell Distinguished Teaching Award in 2007. After graduating from Northwestern University (B.A.'93), Barkow attended Harvard Law School ('96) where she won the Sears Prize. She served as a law clerk to Judge Laurence H. Silberman on the D.C. Circuit and Justice Antonin Scalia on the U.S. Supreme Court. Barkow was an associate at Kellogg, Huber, Hansen, Todd & Evans in Washington, D.C. Brittany Barnett Brittany K. Barnett is an attorney and social justice advocate. As the daughter of a formerly incarcerated mother, Brittany knows first hand the impact of mass incarceration is far reaching, devastating families and entire communities. She is co-founder of the Buried Alive Project, an organization that works to end life without parole sentencing handed down under federal drug laws through transformative litigation, legislation, and humanization. While working several years as a corporate attorney, Brittany was committed to pro bono representation of clients in federal prison. Her dedication to this life changing work paid off tremendously – resulting in executive clemency from President Obama for seven of her clients, as well as freedom for several additional clients through the federal court system. She is a member of the legal team that represented Alice Johnson, who was granted clemency from President Trump after serving over 21 years of a life without parole sentence. Brittany is also founder of Girls Embracing Mothers (GEM). GEM partners with women's prisons in Texas and works to lessen the impact of maternal separation by strengthening the mother-daughter relationship and equipping girls with the tools to make positive life choices. Norman Brown Norman Brown is a lifestyle coach who helps recipients of Presidential commutations returning from federal prison to acclimate to society by helping to decrease their risk of recidivism. He bridges the gap that so frequently leaves re-entry citizens vulnerable to psychological setbacks, by helping them find the resources needed to function and grow. His experience goes beyond textbook, involving training and practicality. Norman himself was rewarded clemency from President Obama after serving 24 ½ years for a non-violent crime. He had the honor of having lunch with President Obama in 2015, after being rewarded clemency. Norman has received specialized training in public speaking, lifestyle coaching, and mentoring youths as well as adults. He plays a major role in working with youth for The Dept of Rehabilitation Services, and consults with the executive staff of DYRS in effective innovative approaches with training. He has spoken at the White House and testified for the Federal and DC Government on matters around Mass Incarceration. As Deputy Project Director for Project New Opportunity, Norman manages a staff of consultants who are working with clients preparing to reenter society and start their lives over in being productive citizens. Rhozier "Roach" Brown While serving a life sentence for murder at Lorton Reformatory, Roach Brown conceived and founded THE INNER VOICES, a national traveling prison theatrical troupe, wrote and directed several award winning plays, a television documentary and specials. The Inner Voices performed outside the gates of Lorton over 1,500 times without escape or incident. Roach designed a drug exhibit at the Smithsonian Museum for the White House, was invited by Members of Congress to testify on national legislation, designed a drug prevention program for the Embassy of Ghana and designed and implemented correctional programs. He has won acclaim at New York, Sundance, Cannes and International Film Festivals and developed prison therapeutic theater troupes. Because of his work with the Inner Voices, President Gerald Ford commuted his life sentence, on Christmas day 1975. A community activist extraordinaire, Roach Brown's aggressive legislative organizing includes increased voter awareness and registration for returning citizens, support of ban the box campaigns and fair hiring practices, and repeal of federal mandatory minimum sentences. He is the host of WPFW-FM's popular Cross Roads' radio show. MiAngel C. Cody MiAngel Cody picks locks to human cages. As a federal criminal defense lawyer, Ms. Cody won presidential clemency and freedom for six prisoners serving life sentences for drug crimes. Ms. Cody has defended hundreds of people in federal court, achieving a range of courtroom victories, from jury acquittals to successful federal appeals to significantly reduced sentences. As Founder and Lead Counsel for The Decarceration Collective law office, Attorney Cody has seen incarcerated fathers and mothers kiss children goodbye. She's watched judges lament that mandatory sentencing laws left them hamstrung with no discretion. She's seen people leave prison with nothing to insure their future success. She's witnessed a system dehumanize humans and, in doing so, become dehumanized itself. Ultimately, she has stood with people as they were sent into cages. And she's received desperate calls when those same people returned from prison with nothing. In 2018, Ms. Cody received a Soros Justice Advocacy Fellowship. In 2014, she received the Federal Bar Association's Federal Lawyer of the Year Award. Her work has been featured in the New York Times, MSNBC, Chicago Tribune, Amazon's Audible Series and CNN. Van Jones Van Jones is the President and Co-Founder of #Cut50, CNN political commentator and host of The Messy Truth and the Van Jones Show. He is founder of The Dream Corps, Rebuild The Dream, Green For All, the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights and Color of Change. Jones is a Yale-educated attorney and author of two New York Times best-selling books, The Green Collar Economy (2008) and Rebuild the Dream (2012). The second book chronicles his journey as an environmental and human rights activist to becoming a White House policy advisor. He was the main advocate for the Green Jobs Act, the first piece of federal legislation to codify the term "green jobs." In 2009, Jones worked as the green jobs advisor to President Obama. In this role, he helped to lead the inter-agency process that oversaw the multi-billion dollar investment in skills training and jobs development within the environmental and green energy sectors. Jones has been honored with numerous awards and spotlighted on several lists of high achievers, including: the World Economic Forum's "Young Global Leader" designation; Rolling Stone's 2012 "12 Leaders Who Get Things Done"; TIME's 2009 "100 Most Influential People in The World"; and the Root's 2014 "The Root 100." Jason Hernandez In 2011 Jason Hernandez, who was serving a sentence of life without parole for a nonviolent drug crime, constructed his own clemency petition along with a letter asking President Obama to commute his sentence. On December 19, 2013, President Obama responded by commuting his sentence to twenty years. Jason was released in 2015, after 17 years in prison, and continued working on clemency petitions. In the process, he assisted six prisoners serving life receive a commutation through the Clemency Initiative. He continues to file petitions for prisoners in the state and federal system and is a recent recipient of a Soros Justice Fellowship wherein he will advocate for clemency to be used on a broader scale and create a toolkit that will allow prisoners, families of prisoners and students to initiate their own clemency campaigns. Mark Holden Mark Holden serves as senior vice president, general counsel and corporate secretary of Koch Industries, Inc. He is also president and COO of the Legal Division of Koch Companies Public Sector, LLC, which provides legal, government and public affairs services to Koch Industries, Inc. and its affiliates. In addition, he also serves as Chairman of the Board of Freedom Partners Chamber of Commerce, Inc. and serves on the Board of Directors of Americans For Prosperity. Mr. Holden began his career with Koch Industries in 1995 as a litigation attorney, and was vice president and general counsel for litigation and compliance. He has worked with the various Koch companies on a variety of litigation, regulatory, compliance, and commercial issues. Mr. Holden earned a bachelor's degree in political science from the University of Massachusetts. He earned his law degree from the Columbus School of Law at the Catholic University of America, where he was an associate editor of the Catholic University Law Review. Andrea James Andrea James J.D is the Founder and Executive Director of the National Council For Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women and Girls, Founder of Families for Justice as Healing, author of Upper Bunkies Unite: And Other Thoughts On the Politics of Mass Incarceration, a 2015 Soros Justice Fellow, and recipient of the 2016 Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights award. As a former criminal defense attorney and a formerly incarcerated woman she shares her personal and professional experiences to raise awareness of the affect of incarceration of women on themselves, their children and communities. Her work is focused on ending incarceration of women and girls and contributing to the shift from a criminal legal system to community led human justice. Alice Marie Johnson Alice Marie Johnson, a first time offender, served 21 years of a life sentence without parole for a drug offense. To date she is the only person with a drug sentence commuted by President Trump. Alice was #1 on CAN DO Clemency's list of the "Top 25 Women most Deserving of Clemency." She was one of six people featured in the ACLUs ad campaign to end mass incarceration. Coordinated by the National Council of Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Women and Girls and the Real Women Real Voices Symposium, while imprisoned Alice was able to use skype to address audiences at Ivy League Universities such as Yale and NYU, as well as Google. She was one of the call-in guests on Cross Roads' National Clemency and Criminal Justice Reform RadioThon, and the Justice Roundtable brought her daughters to Washington, DC to join the White House's March 31 Life After Clemency convening and bring attention to their mother's case. Alice was a model prisoner with an exemplary prison record who is also an ordained minister. While imprisoned she wrote and produced numerous original plays and skits. Mic featured Alice in a video op ed in October 2017 that caught the attention of Kim Kardashian, who successfully advocated for her release at the White House. Alice has often referred to Kim as her "war angel." Paul J. Larkin, Jr. Paul J. Larkin, Jr., is the Rumpel Senior Legal Research Fellow at the Heritage Foundation. He received his law degree from Stanford Law School. He has held numerous positions in the federal and state governments, as well as in the private sector. Among them are Assistant to the Solicitor General at the U.S. Department of Justice and Counsel to the Senate Judiciary under the chairmanship of Senator Orrin Hatch. He has written a variety of articles on clemency, such as Revitalizing the Clemency Process, 39 Harv. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 833 (2016); Essay: A Proposal to Restructure the Clemency Process—The Vice President as Head of a White House Clemency Office, 40 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 237 (2017); and "A Day Late and a Dollar Short": President Obama's Clemency Initiative 2014, 16 Geo. J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 147 (2018). Mark Osler Mark Osler is the Robert and Marion Short Professor of Law at the University of St. Thomas (MN). He also holds the Ruthie Mattox Preaching Chair at First Covenant Church, Minneapolis. Osler's writing on clemency, sentencing and narcotics policy has appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, and in law journals at Harvard, Stanford, the University of Chicago, Northwestern, Georgetown, Ohio State, UNC, William and Mary, and Rutgers. A former federal prosecutor, he played a role in striking down a mandatory 100-to-1 ratio between crack and powder cocaine in the federal sentencing guidelines by winning the case of Spears v. United States in the U.S. Supreme Court. Osler's 2009 book Jesus on Death Row (Abingdon Press) critiqued the American death penalty through the lens of Jesus' trial. His second book, Prosecuting Jesus (Westminster/John Knox, 2016) is a memoir of performing the Trial of Jesus in 11 states. Most recently, he is the author of Contemporary Criminal Law (West, 2018), a casebook. The character of Professor Joe Fisher in the Samuel Goldwyn film American Violet was based on Osler, and he has been the subject of profiles by Rolling Stone, The American Prospect, and CBS News. Amy Ralston Povah For the past eighteen years, Amy Ralston Povah has been an accomplished filmmaker, writer, speaker, and activist. After receiving clemency from President Clinton, she advocated for other women seeking "justice through clemency" and started the CAN-DO Foundation (Clemency for All Non-violent Drug Offenders). Amy has organized five White House vigils for the prisoners profiled on the CAN-DO website; spoken on panels at Yale University, Pepperdine University, Vanderbilt University, Washington State University, New York University, Columbus School of Law, and on Capitol Hill. She wrote about the lack of women who received clemency from President Obama for the Federal Sentencing Reporter and authored Op Eds published in the New York Times, Fusion, San Francisco Chronicle, The Hill and 5 HuffPost articles. Amy submitted the numerous cases profiled by the "Mercy Lottery: Review of the Obama Administration's Clemency Initiative released by NYU Law School. CAN-DO profiled and assisted 20 men and 44 of the 105 women who received clemency under President Obama's clemency initiative. The CAN-DO media page. works to garner exposure for the prisoners on the CANDO website. Kemba Smith Growing up as an only child in Richmond, VA, Kemba Smith graduated high school and entered Hampton University. What happened to Kemba in her new campus environment was a nightmare, and led to a 24.5-year sentence in a federal prison. In Dec. 2000, after serving 6.5 years, President Clinton commuted her sentence to time served. Kemba shares her traumatic real life experience in her book, "Poster Child: The Kemba Smith Story." Featured on CNN, Nightline, Court TV, The Early Morning Show, Donahue, Judge Hatchett, and a host of other television programs, Kemba's story has also been written about in national publications including The Washington Post, NY Times, Glamour, People, JET, Emerge, Diverse Issues in Higher Education, and Essence magazines. Kemba is a graduate of Virginia Union University and was a past recipient of a Soros Justice Fellowship. In December 2014, Kemba was appointed a member of the Virginia Criminal Sentencing Commission by Governor Terry McAuliff. She has spoken at the White House and testified before Congress and the United Nations, and is a popular speaker at colleges, universities, high schools, juvenile facilities, churches and national conferences around the nation. Nkechi Taifa Nkechi Taifa is Advocacy Director for Criminal Justice at the Open Society Foundations and Open Society Policy Center and convener of the Justice Roundtable, a Washington-based coalition advancing federal justice reforms. Taifa was founding Director of the Equal Justice Program at Howard University Law School and adjunct professor at both Howard Law and American University Wash. College of Law. She was legislative counsel for the ACLU, serving as principal spokesperson for its Washington Office on criminal justice and civil rights issues. Taifa also served as public policy counsel for the Women's Legal Defense Fund and as staff attorney for the National Prison Project. As a private practitioner she represented indigent adults and juveniles. Over the course of her career she has spoken across the country on justice reform and human rights issues and has testified before the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Sentencing Commission, the Council of the District of Columbia and the American Bar Association Justice Kennedy Commission. She has served on the boards of numerous public interest organizations, as consultant to various groups and projects, and as an appointed commissioner and chair of the DC Commission on Human Rights. Taifa received her JD from George Washington University Law School. Ebony Underwood Founder and CEO of We Got Us Now, Ebony Underwood is a social entrepreneur, filmmaker and Soros Justice fellow leading a powerful movement built by, led by and for children of incarcerated parents in an effort to create greater awareness about the issue of parental incarceration and the rippling effects of mass incarceration. Ebony's interest in this advocacy work is personal and pivotal. As a daughter of an incarcerated parent, Ebony was traumatized and emotionally devastated by her father's harsh mandatory minimum sentence of life without parole. For 25 years she suffered with the shame and despair she felt. In 2014, she found her voice and began to speak publicly, sharing her story through film, television and social media advocacy. Ebony is a leading voice on the issue of children impacted by parental incarceration, speaking nationally at Yale, Columbia, American and NYU Law Schools, and John Jay School of Criminal Justice, Sing Sing State Correctional Facility, and Google. She has published op-ed articles in Huffington Post, Vibe and Mic, and spear-headed the Google-initiated #LoveLetters campaign to demonstrate the unbreakable bond between a child and their incarcerated parent on Mothers and Fathers Day.
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Halim Hong & Quek: Law Firm in KL Malaysia, Legal Services Kuala Lumpur HHQ is a renowned law firm in Malaysia that provides a range of legal services and assistance for families and individuals that want fair judgement and justice. Learn more about our services today!
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Gordon Z. Bobesich | Law Office Welcome to GORDON Z BOBESICH LAW OFFICE, where we offer the best legal assistance and advice in Mississauga. Knowing the law is not always enough, as a lawyer you have to also believe that justice is important and without it our society wouldn''t function like it''s supposed to. We want to represent you, to prove your side without a sliver of doubt, and we will do so by providing you with the best legal representation around.
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National Institute of Military Justice - NIMJ Official website of the National Institute of Military Justice. NIMJ is dedicated to the fair administration of justice and the advancement of public understanding of military law.
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Legal and Evidence-Based Practices, Center for Legal and Evidence-Based Practices Golden, CO Home CLEBP helps to reform America''s predominantly money-based bail system by promoting rational, fair, and transparent legal and evidence-based pretrial practices.
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Simple Marquee Example The African Diaspora Forum (ADF) learnt with shock and utter dismay that people are being sold as slaves in Libya. “I salute the people of Zimbabwe for achieving such a great goal without spilling blood or burning buildings. South Africans can learn a lot from this,” Letlhake said.
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Home - highplainsfhc.org High Plains seeks to eliminate housing discrimination based on race, color, religion, familial status, gender, disability in North Dakota.