Kosher Shabbat-Compliant Search Results for Jews Life


L'chaim! לחיים and welcome to JewJewJew.com - the world's first Shabbot compliant search engine.

JewJewJew.com complies with holy laws by ensuring:


JewJewJew.com - the worlds first search engine for Jews!
Website content last updated on Tuesday 2019-08-06
2
Jerusalem Cats. Cartoons about cats and life in Jerusalem Israel Cartoons about cats and life in Jerusalem Israel All about Aliyah, immigration to Israel, daily life in Jerusalem and living & coping with teenagers.
3
יהדות תימן, אעלה בתמר , עמותת אעלה בתמר, תימנים, סיפורי חיים , ספרי תימן, הנחלתה של מורשת יהדות תימן, סיפורים אישיים ומשפחתיים של בני יהדות תימן, תמונות של תימנים , העיר עדן, העיר צנעא, מחקרים על תימנים , מוצרים על יהדות תימן, עמותת ”אעלה בתמר” Yemenite Jews, eele be Tamar , eele be Tamar, Yemenis, life stories, books Yemen, its dissemination of Jewish Heritage Yemen, personal and family stories of the Jews of Yemen, pictures of Yemeni city Aden, the city of Sana''a, studies on Yemeni products on Yemenite Jewry , the ”eele be Tamar” | עמותת אעלה בתמר יהדות תימן, אעלה בתמר , עמותת אעלה בתמר, תימנים, סיפורי חיים , ספרי תימן, הנחלתה של מורשת יהדות תימן, סיפורים אישיים ומשפחתיים של בני יהדות תימן, תמונות של תימנים , העיר עדן, העיר צנעא, מחקרים על תימנים , מוצרים על יהדות תימן, עמותת ”אעלה בתמר” Yemenite Jews, eele be Tamar , eele be Tamar, Yemenis, life stories, books Yemen, its dissemination of Jewish Heritage Yemen, personal and family stories of the Jews of Yemen, pictures of Yemeni city Aden, the city of Sana''a, studies on Yemeni products on Yemenite Jewry , the ”eele be Tamar”
4
Jewish Life League | Pro-life news, information and abortion facts The Jewish Life League provides comprehensive pro-life news, information, resources and abortion alternatives from a traditional Jewish viewpoint.
5
Jewish Genealogy Research Photos search Translation - Polish Jews Heritage Polish Jews research, Polish Jews genealogy and translation services, Jewish genealogy, Polish towns photography service related to Jews and Jewish history, Researching, Jewish places in Poland photos and pictures, Genealogy, Research, Photos, Translation, ancestry, Jewish roots research, Jewish surnames, family search, Jewish heritage, Holocaust, Shoah, Shoa, Jewish family tree, alexa, 1914, 1918, 1939, 1945, 1968, 1989
6
The Ebionite Home Page These are the sacred writings of the Ebionite Nazirene Disciple Allan Cronshaw - who, through the ability to recall his previous life as a Disciple of Christ, has restored Jesus'' spiritual teachings.
7
از آب تا زندگی | from water to life از آب تا زندگی | from water to life پزوهشهاي-توسعه پايدار-تغييراقليم-بحران اب كشاورزي-جنگل-مراتع--ابخيزداري -محيط زيست
8
The AC Jewish Club – Just another WordPress site The Bagelboy Club of the Philippines is a haven for Jews in Asia. We provide an avenue where all Jews to be together. We also provide Jewish services regardless of their origin, religion or status in life.
10
Etz Hayim—"Tree of Life" Etz Hayim is a resource for Christians who wish to enrich their Biblical studies through engagement with traditions and interpretations that have been transmitted and developed within the Jewish milieu. Etz Hayim is committed to promoting Christian-Jewish dialogue and understanding and suppporting a fraternal co-operation between Jews and Christians which from the Catholic perspective have been mandated by Vatican documents since the 2nd Vatican Council. Etz Hayim aims to enrich and inform teaching and learning for those in ministries, in educational leadership and teaching in dioceses, universities, and school settings. Etz Hayim is a Hebrew word which means "Tree of Life." The Bible is called the "Tree of Life" in the Book of Proverbs.
11
The 7th Day Return of the Lord | Christian Ambassadors Who Live By The Word Do I Look Like a Preacher Man? I Assure You; John the Baptist Looked Worse! My Parting Shot by Phil Robertson Before my life with Christ, my running buddies and
13
Chabad of North Queensland - Centre for Jewish Life based in Cairns and Townsville - RARA Based in Cairns and Townsville Chabad of North QLD brings Judaism to all Jews in the region and the Great Barrier Reef. A division of Chabad of RARA.
14
Arizona Jewish Life | PHOTOS: American VFI volunteers from the pilot group of Birthright alumni. The new program is open to Birthright alumni still in college. Photos courtesy of Volunteers for Israel. Volunteers for Israel announced a new program that will bring Birthright alumni from colleges across the United States back to Israel to volunteer on Israel Defense Forces bases. Thousands of American Jews have connected to Israel through Birthright. On their post-trip evaluations, participants have consistently rated encounters with Israeli soldiers to be among the most valuable experiences. "To build on these positive experiences, VFI has created an incredible opportunity for Birthright alumni to return to and give back to the state of Israel by working alongside their peers and IDF soldiers on military bases," says Campus Director Linda Askenazi. Earlier this month, a pilot group of 30 students selected for their commitment to Israel and leadership potential from 19 American college campuses completed their volunteer work on an IDF base in Israel's north. These students will now assist with recruitment from their campuses and communities for the continuing VFI program, which was announced June 27. The inaugural trip was funded by VFI and the support of a very generous donor. VFI is exploring partnerships with other pro-Israel campus-based organizations for the program. For more information about this campus initiative, contact Linda Askenazi at LindaVficampus@gmail.com. Since 1982, VFI has partnered with the Israeli organization Sar-El to recruit, process and prepare Americans to volunteer on Israel Defense Forces bases. To learn more, visit www.vfi-usa.org.
18
Chabad Lubavitch Danmark, Jewish life in Denmark, Chabad Lubavitch, Jewish Denmark, judaism, kosher, shul, Synagogue, Rabbi, jews, jødisk,
20
The culture alternative | Jesus is the WAY, the TRUTH and the LIFE Jesus is the WAY, the TRUTH and the LIFE
21
The Jewish Life Center The Jewish Life Center is an inviting, warm environement for all Jews to celebrate their Judaism together in a welcoming community setting.
22
Chabad Lubavitch of Downtown Baltimore - Center for Jewish life, Torah, Judaism, Kabalah and spirituality in Downtown Baltimore near Baltimore’s Inner Harbor Center for Jewish life, Torah, Judaism, Kabalah and spirituality in downtown Baltimore near the Inner Harbor
23
Chabad Lubavitch of Downtown Baltimore - Center for Jewish life, Torah, Judaism, Kabalah and spirituality in Downtown Baltimore near Baltimore’s Inner Harbor Center for Jewish life, Torah, Judaism, Kabalah and spirituality in downtown Baltimore near the Inner Harbor
24
ASU Jewish Students, Jewish Life - Chabad at ASU Jewish student life at ASU: We provide Jewish classes, fun Jewish social events at Arizona State University, Friday night Shabbat meals and free trips to Israel and more.
25
ASU Jewish Students, Jewish Life - Chabad at ASU Jewish student life at ASU: We provide Jewish classes, fun Jewish social events at Arizona State University, Friday night Shabbat meals and free trips to Israel and more.
26
Chabad Lubavitch of Downtown Baltimore - Center for Jewish life, Torah, Judaism, Kabalah and spirituality in Downtown Baltimore near Baltimore’s Inner Harbor Center for Jewish life, Torah, Judaism, Kabalah and spirituality in downtown Baltimore near the Inner Harbor
27
Life Through The Iris – Looking for ramblings about feminism, queer history, and lefty politics? Well, you’re in the right place! Looking for ramblings about feminism, queer history, and lefty politics? Well, you’re in the right place!
28
janadidthis | Travel, Theatre, DIY and Life in general (and Cape Town in particular) Travel, Theatre, DIY and Life in general (and Cape Town in particular)
29
Dartmouth College Hillel – The Hub of Jewish Life at Dartmouth SPRING EVENTS Weekly Events: MONDAYS Meeting & dinner WEDNESDAYS Jews and Java THURSDAYS Jew CrooFRIDAYS Shabbat & dinner Shabbat Services & Dinner Every Friday of Spring term Services @ 6:00pm Dinner @ 7:00pm
33
Hesed we 'emet – A Blog on the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis, and the Life of a Biblical Scholar A Blog on the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis, and the Life of a Biblical Scholar
34
Hesed we 'emet – A Blog on the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis, and the Life of a Biblical Scholar A Blog on the Hebrew Bible, the Book of Genesis, and the Life of a Biblical Scholar
35
Dartmouth College Hillel – The Hub of Jewish Life at Dartmouth SPRING EVENTS Weekly Events: MONDAYS Meeting & dinner WEDNESDAYS Jews and Java THURSDAYS Jew CrooFRIDAYS Shabbat & dinner Shabbat Services & Dinner Every Friday of Spring term Services @ 6:00pm Dinner @ 7:00pm
36
Estonian Jewish Center Jewish life in Estonia, synagogue; Juudid Eestis, juudiusk, sünagoog, Chabad Eestis; Еврейская религиозная община Эстонии, традиции, мероприятия, евреи в Эстонии, синагога
37
Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
38
Beth Goyim Messianic Congregation. Messianic NJ NY, Messianic Radio, Messianic TV, Free Messianic Internet, Messianic Video, Service Jew and Gentile as one in Messiah Yeshua Beth Goyim Messianic Congregation A Messianic Jewish Congregation where Jew and Gentile meet as one people. Messianic Shabbat Services. Messianic Bible study. Located in New Jersey near New York. Messianic Jewish audio and videos available, If you are looking for a solid teaching ministry, then you have found a home. If you just looking for fluff and stuff this is not your place. Messianic Torah Time Bible Study Tuesday 7-9:30PM. Prayer Night Thursday 7-9PM,Shabbat “Saturday” Service 11AM EDT. Messianic thought, Messianic life, following the Messiah Yeshua and the Messianic Jewish Disciples. Christian Jews. Christian+Jew, Messianic radio wtrcradio.com
39
British Jews in The First World War - We Were There Too We Were There Too is a unique cross community project created to capture, record and preserve the impact, experience and contribution of London’s Jewish communities during the First World War era.
40
British Jews in The First World War - We Were There Too We Were There Too is a unique cross community project created to capture, record and preserve the impact, experience and contribution of London’s Jewish communities during the First World War era.
41
jesus the Messiah the saviour testimony music, agnus dei, devotional word, devotional, Conversion converted to Jesus Christianity jews muslim hindu chinese thai vietnam Fear God and keep his commandments","for this is the duty of all mankind; Eccl. 12,13; Whoever has the Son has life; whoever does not have the Son of God does not have life.I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life; 1.John 5, 12-13; For the word of God is alive and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the heart; Hebrews 4,12; Since, then, you have been raised with Christ, set your hearts on things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God; Col. 3,1; My sheep listen to my voice; I know them, and they follow me; John 10,27; I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit in you; I will remove from you your heart of stone and give you a heart of flesh. And I will put my Spirit in you and move you to follow my decrees and be careful to keep my laws; Ez. 36,26; We have escaped like a bird from the fowler’s snare; the snare has been broken, and we have scaped; Psalm 124,7; Whoever does not take up their cross and follow me is not worthy of me; Math. 10,38; This is what the Lord says: “Stand at the crossroads and look; ask for the ancient paths, ask where the good way is, and walk in it,and you will find rest for your souls; Jer. 6,16; Only let us live up to what we have already attained; Phil. 3,16; so I sent messengers to them with this reply: “I am carrying on a great project and cannot go down. Why should the work stop while I leave it and go down to you?; Neh. 6,3; be careful that you do not forget the Lord, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery; Deut. 3,24; When times are good, be happy; but when times are bad, consider this: God has made the one as well as the other; Ecclesiastes 7,14; Whoever believes in the Son has eternal life, but whoever rejects the Son will not see life, for God’s wrath remains on them; John 3,36; The grass withers and the flowers fall, but the word of our God endures forever; Isaiah 40,8;
42
TheMESSIAH.Org - Messianic Jewish Life Ministries A Messianic Jewish teaching ministry bringing the message of hope, shalom ( peace ), and salvation to the Jewish people through Jesus the Jewish Messiah.
43
TheMESSIAH.Org - Messianic Jewish Life Ministries A Messianic Jewish teaching ministry bringing the message of hope, shalom ( peace ), and salvation to the Jewish people through Jesus the Jewish Messiah.
44
CHRIST''s Bride, Ministries, present: The Voice of Him Crying In The Wildernet! Words from The WORD, for a world of people in these climactic final times of human history, people with a critical need for truth from the Source of Truth, light from the Source of Light, love from the Source of Love, life from the Source of Life. CHRIST''s Bride, Ministries, bearing witness to the truth, by the Spirit of Truth, to bring a lost and dying world to life, now and eternally.
45
McLEODGANJ | DHARAMSALA | LITTLE LHASA| HIMALAYAS | DALAI LAMA | DHARAMSALA INFORMATIVE AND COMMUNITY WEBSITE| TRAVEL |DHARAMSHALA| kANGRA| HIMACHAL PRADESH | INDIA Dharamsala, Dharamshala, Mcleodganj,macleodganj,mcleodgunj,dharamsala travel guide, mcleodganj travel guide, dharamshala travel,dharamsala hotels, dharamsala informations , dharamsala facts, dharamshala hotels, dharamshala information, dharamshala facts,little lhasa,dharamkot,bhagsu, naddi,guest houses in dharamsala , guest houses in Mcleodganj,mcllo, mcleodganj cafes, mcleodganj parties,dharamsala parties,ac volvo from isbt to mcleodganj,dharamkot village israel, kangra hotels, kangra map, book room dharamsala , room mcleodganj, dharamsala best website, dharamsala online , mcleodganj map, dharamsala map , dharamshala map, kangra map , mcleodganj shopping , dharamsala shopping , shop dharamsala, norowjee dharamsala mcleodganj family, letterbox history, timings of kangra train, reiki course mcleod ganj, mcleod ganj upper dharamsala travel dharamkot,dharamsala tibetan culture, www.mcllo.com , mcllo.com , flats for rent in mcleod ganj, rent a house in mcleodganj , rent house flat in dharamsala,bhagsunag temple, dharamkot jews, guest house in dharamsala, guest house in mcleodganj, guest house dharamshala, guest house bhagsu, guest house dharamkot, mcleodganj travel agents, how to preserve indigenous tibetan culture, buses from delhi to dharamsala, guest house siddhpur, dharmsala ngo, hpseb guest house in dharamshala, freedom cafe bhagsu, bhagsu omni, His holiness the dalai lama tenzin gyatso, Dalai lama tibet , tibetan, tibet exile, tibetans,his holiness teachings, dalai lama teachings, bhagsunag history, dalai lama dharamsala, meditation courses and retreats in himachal pradesh, india song bagsu, triund , trekking , dhauladhar, trek to triund, himalayas, india, trek guide , triund trek ,dhauladhars,khaniara,tushita center,bhagsu israelis,dalai lama discourse on diamond sutra,guest houses dharamkot,tcv dharamasala, dharamsala and mcleodganj informative , travel and community website , kangra website , dharamsala website , dharamshala website , mcleodganj website , information dharamsala , saransh sehgal , saransh mcllo, dharamsala india shopping, omni guest house bhagsu dharamsala, hp pwd rest house palampur, himachal pradesh, mcleodganj dharamsala kangra valley, reach dharamsala, reach mcleodganj, reach bhagsu, reach triund, reach kangra , places to see kangra , places to see mcleodganj , places to see dharamsala , places to see dharamshala, places to see himachal pradesh, buses to dharamsala , train to dharamsala , train kangra valley , patahnkot train to kangra, reach dharamshala by air, reach dharamsala by bus, dharamsala route map, kangra airport, dharamsala airport, gaggal airport, dharamsala by air, travel guide dharamsala, travel guide mcleodganj, travel guide bhagsu, travel guide dharamkot, Places to See ,Attractions, SightSeeing dharamsala , What to see dharamsala dharamshala mcleodganj, Tourist Spots dharamsala mcleodganj dharamshala ,|Tourist Places in Dharamsala , Mcleodganj and Kangra Valley Himachal Pradesh, St. John''s Church, Tsuglag Khang (Dalai Lama''s Temple Complex) , Tibet Museum, Norbulingka Institute, dal lake dharamsala, The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, BAJRESHWARI DEVI TEMPLE, The Tibetan Institute for the Performing Arts (TIPA) , Bhagsunath Temple, Bhagsu Waterfall, Namgyalma Stupa , Dip Tse-Chok Ling Gompa , The Tibetan Children’s Village, Stitches of Tibet, Kangra Art Museum, MASROOR, Kunal Pathri Temple, War Memorial dharamshala , The Tibetan Medical and Astro Institute, Chinmaya Tapovan, Gopalpur Zoo , Jwalamukhi Temple, Nowrojee''s General Store, Baijnath, Andretta, BIR & BILLING,Aghanjar Mahadev Temple Trek, Kangra Fort, Tatwani Hot Water Springs, Machhrial, IndruNag Temple, Tashi Jong, Dongyu Gatsal Ling Nunnery(DGL Nunnery) , tibetan, free tibet , tibet protest dharamsala mcleodganj, Press Release : A Statement from The Dalai Lama, volunteering in dharamsala, volunteer in dharamshala , volunteer mcleodganj , volunteer macleodganj , dharamsala people, dharamshala facts, Dharamsala''s International and Community News, help tibet , tibetans in exile mcleodganj dharamsala dharamshala, tibetan ashoka guesthouse mccleod ganj, isbt delhi to mcleodganj, jangchup lamdron, bhagsu nag temple of himachal pradesh, weather in mcleodganj, bhagsunag altitude, bhagsu cake, tourist season in triund, dharamkot housing, travels mcleodganj, dharamsala events, meditation centeres in himachal pradesh, manali to dharamsala roads, dharamsala to rishikesh, mcleodganj to rishikesh , dharamsala to manali , dharamsala to shimla, dharamshala to shimla, guest houses in kangra, important facts about dharamshala, cottages in mcleodganj, mcllo.com, bhagsu waterfall, dharamkot guest houses, xcite dharamshala, mcleod ganj guest houses, architectural places at mcleodganj, lower dharamsala , upper dharamsala, first general stores history, temple square mcleodganj, dharamsala reiki, meet dalai lama , greet dalai lama, dalai lama temple, namgyal monastary, dalai lama speech, Map of Dharamsala and Mcleodganj, Dharamshala Maps,Directions Dharamsala-Trek Map of Dhauladhar, Trek Routes Directions and Maps , Mcleodganj Map, dharamsala oldest shop, noworjee''s family history, Hotels, Guest houses and Lodges in Mcleod Ganj and Dharamsala ,telephone Numbers dharamsala , telephone number mcleodganj , mcleodganj zip code, mcleodganj postal code, dharamsala postal code, dharamshala postal code, telephone number hotels , guest houses, restaurants, cafes mcleodganj dharamsala dharamshala kangra kangra district bhagsu dharamkot, mcleod ganj apartments, from where did himachali gorkha came from, adult education in dharamsala , gaddi tribe , gaddis , dharamsala to chamba trek , illaqa, trek pass dhauladhar, occupation in himalayas , bhagsu nag temple & waterfall, Rest Houses In Dharamshala, rest house dharamsala, rest house kangra, rest house palampur, trek groups, dharamsala mcleodganj, Restaurants In Mcleodganj, Restaurants in Dharamshala [lower dharamsala],cybercafe mcleodganj, cyber cafe bhagsu dharamkot, cybercafe dharamsala, history of bhagsunag temple, bhagsu people, massage in mcleodganj, massage in dharamsala, kangra valley train , travel dharamsala , travel dharamshala , travel palampur , travel mcleodganj , bir billing paragliding , pre world cup event bir billing paragliding, tashi jong lama, bir , billing, airjaldi summit , airjaldi dharamsala, ngo dharamsala , ngo mcleodganj , ngo dharamshala, ngo bhagsu , ngo kangra valley , ngo kangra, ngo sidhbari, sidhpur, sacred heart high school sidhbari, dalai lama interview, news dalai lama , temporary housing in dharamshala himachal pradesh, mcleodganj to triund map, cottage mcleodganj, tour operators and travelling agencies to dharamsala, resorts naddi, dharamsala tibet culture preserve activity, mcleod ganj triund, mcleodganj dharamshala kangra, dharamsala website, german bakery bhagsu , bahgsu, israelis in dharamsala, volunteer tibetans, ladies venture guest house, bhagsu temple, triund mcleodganj dharamshala, hotels in mcleodganj, pizzeria in bhagsunag, bhagsu weather, dharamsala weather , dharamshala weather , mcleodganj weather, mcllo mcleod ganj, mountains near triund, officers and men who died and were buried in mcleodganj, mcllo restaurant dharamsala, triund trekking route, candle light vigil unity dharamsala,tibetan centre for conflict resolution dharamshala, how do i reach triund, triund chamba, travel himachal pradesh, dharamsala november what can i study, massage services in mcleodganj, dharamsala theatre festival, holiday resort dharamsala, mcleod ganj shop, contact information for norbulingka himachal, holiday home at naddi, cheryton cottages dharamshala, dharamsala india weather december, forest rest house dharamsala, seven seas lodge dharamsala, cottage mcleodganj, places to eat mcleodganj, sahiba mcleod ganj, mcleodganj chinar resort rating, mcleod ganj trek to triund route, himachal toursim hotels/guest houses in dharamshala, shiva café bhagsu , trance mcleodganj , trance dharamsala, party in bahgsu , full moon party mcleodganj dharamsala, hotel ko-konor mac leod ganj india, dharamsala links, tushita mcllo.com, sidhpur house, tibetan arts at mcleodganj, staying at a monastery mcleod ganj, long stay mcleodganj dharmsala dharamshala, mcleodganj resorts, mount view g.h. mcleod, kashmir cottage dharamsala, employment office dharamsala h.p., himachal pardesh song kangra, dharamshala mcleodganj triund trek, dharmasala- reiki, reiki in dharamsala , reiki in mcleodganj , reiki in dharamshala , reiki in mac leodganj, tashi delek accomodation dharamshala, sites on mcleod ganj, cheryton cottage guesthouse mcleod ganj india, resorts in mcleodganj, place where snow can be found in dharamshala in summer, flight schedule of mdlr from delhi to dharamsala, good bar at mcleodganj, seven seas dharamsala, travel dharamshala to mcleodganj, dharamsala distance, tibetmuseum.org, birds of dharamshala , birds of kangra , birds of mcleodganj , birds of dharamsala, dhauladhar travels mcleod ganj, dhauladhar range dharamsala, dalai lama exiled freedom of speech, population of tibetans in dharamsala, naddi hotels, travel website , dharamsala local website , dharamsala travel informations and tour guide, ngos in mcleodganj, book forest rest house at triund, bhagsu waterfall near mcleodganj, dharamshala circuit house, khaniara , indrunag , dharamsala village , sidhbari village , history of mcleodgunj, mcleodgunj information , travel guide, for rent in dharamkot, khaniara, climate at mcleodganj, kangra postal code, mcleod ganj guesthouse , weather mcleod ganj india june, apartments for rent in mcleodganj, mcleodganj guest house, dharmshal tour, address himalaya hotel & restaurant mcleodganj, reaching triund, dharamsala flora, hpseb guest house, dfo forest, cricket stadium dharamshala, dharamsala cricket stadium, arts result dharamsala himachal pradesh, thangka paintings , thanka teacher dharamsala mcleodganj dharamshala, tibetan teacher , teach english in dharamsala , teach mcleodganj, shiva cafe bhagsu contact, dharamkot near mcleodganj dharamsala post code, what to wear in mcleod ganj, dharamsala tibetan thangka school, dharamshala sahiba hotel, houses to rent bhagsu, dharamsala violence, bhagsu nag dharamshala, bhagsu waterfall in the himalayas, mcleodganj kailash, dalai lama dharamsala june 2008, triund when can you see snow, dharamsala trekking routes, reviews on mdlr flight to dharamsala, yellow guest house mcleod ganj, Forsyth Ganj, kail wood guest house mcleod ganj, reiki masters in mcleodganj, out door adventure dharamkot, drugs , dev cottage mcleod ganj dharamshala, jogibara mcleodganj dharamsala, jogibara road mcleodganj, dharamsala is dalai, loseling guest house dharamsala, dharamkot – accommodation, kangra airport to mcleodganj, hill view guest house naddi, meeting the dali lama red cord thread, dharamsala season, restaurants in mcleodganj, buy land dharamsala, buy flat in mc leod ganj, rest house circuit house accommodation in india, gorkhas of dharmasala, north zone cricket academy dharamsala, snow lion mcleodganj, korean café mcleodganj , province of mcleod ganj, mcleodganj disco, flights between delhi india and dharamsala india, view of snow falls videos in triund dharamshala, mcleod ganj guest houses, houses to rent in dharamkot india, guest house dharamshala, surya mcleod main square, macleod ganj main square , mcleodganj chowk , dharamsala square, flights delhi to mcleod ganj, bhagsu nag temple in dharamshala, bhagsu weather, learn hindi mcleod ganj, weather in dharamsala in october, flights to kangra, dharamshala cricket ground, dharamsala india private audience dalai lama, ladies venture guest house mcleodganj, book room ladies venture guest house mcleodganj, tasangkha, clouds end mcleodganj, police dharamsala, himachal mcleodganj place and all information, delhi-dharamsala-mcleodganj, people, dharamsala culture , mcleodganj culture , dharamsala art , kangr art, tibetan activists mcleodganj, 6 facts about the dalai lama, tushita schedules dharamshala, buddhist philosophy course himachal pradesh, india waterfall temple hebrew, www.mcllo.com/ mcleod ganj dharamsala, bhagsu healing courses, himachal pradesh temples mughal time, hotels and guest house dharamsala, dharamsala dalai lama residence, volunteering in mcleod ganj dharamsala, description for traveling agency in dharamshala bedi travels, vijay palace khara danda road, ghirath himachal pradesh, triund mcleod ganj dharamsala,booking the guest house at triund, cafes mcleodganj, mcleodganj shiva café, dharamsala photo gallery, dharamshala photos, mcleodganj photos, bahgsu photos, dharamkot photos, bhagsu photos, bbc weather dharamsala, dharamshala human rights ngo, norling norbulingka clothing, best time to go for triund trek snow, goenka vipassana dharamkot, karmapa teachings dharamsala, villages around mcleodganj himachal pradesh, hippie culture mcleodganj dharamsala, mcleod ganj mountaineering institute, weather in dharamkot india, udeechi huts naddi, images of mcleodganj, bhagsu hptdc mcleodganj, rainbow dharmsala, list of hotels and guest houses in dharamshala, ramoche temple dharamasala, ngo non violence dharamsala, h.p.s.e.b dharamshala, sex, fare dharamshala to mcleodganj, dharamsala india guest houses, tibetans in exile ngo, mcleod ganj rain, dharamsala monsoon , dharamshala rain , dharamsala rain , how to go to dhauladhar, about the dalai lama s life in dharamsala today , mcleodganj apartment rentals, hotels in mcleodganj naddi, restaurant in dharamshala mcleodganj dharamsala bhagsu dharamkot, cottages prices in mcleodganj, wishpering winds kandi, over population in dharamsala, tibetan culture centre norling, first cup mcleod ganj, moon peak espresso mcleodganj temple road, temple road dharamsala, temple road mcleodganj, guest houses mcleod ganj tibet house, pic of vipassana sn goenka dharamshala, trekking routes in dhauladhar, gallu devi temple dharamkot, meditation courses in dharamshala dharamkot mcleodganj, website of dalai lama, kangra distt population himachal pradesh, khana nirvana, day hike bhagsu to triund map , dharamkot - cheap guesthouses, dark side of mcleodganj dharamshala kangra, best mcleodganj website, about reiki in dharamshala, chinar lodge mcloed ganj phone, buying a housing in dharamsala india, muslim population of dharamshala, place to stay in triund, nunneries dharamsala india volunteer, weather in mcleodganj in september, dharmsala volunteer graphic design, lha mcleod ganj, dharamsala mcleodganj travel, tourist spots in dharamsala, dharamsala accomodation events, tibetan refugees in exile mcleod ganj, mian rajputs of himachal pradesh, energy from waterfall, snow line triund dharamshala, wireless internet mcleod ganj india, wifi mcleodganj, wifi dharamsala, tibetan healing courses in mcleod ganj, conifer lodge- the green house dharamsala, success of tibetan in exile, dogga school dharamsala, ngos list in dharamshala, dalai lama dharmsala vegetarian, volunteering in tibetan community in dharamsala, kangra bajreshwari temple aarti timings, guest house mcleodganj dalai lama, tibet directories, mcleod ganj thangka shop, mcllo bar photo, mcleod ganj tourist office, cast of himachalpradesh, visiting dharamsala and meeting the dalai lama , residence permits for dharamsala, tse chok-ling monastery room, tibetan delek hospital gangchen kyishong dharamsala 176 215 dist. kangra himachal pradesh. India, xcite restaurant dharamsala mcleodganj, carpe diem restaurant in mcleodganj dharamsala, trek agencies mcleodganj, himalayan explorer mcleodganj dharamsala, what should we take before going to dhauladhars, dhauladhar trekking, web designer dharamshala, mcleodganj homestays, dharamsala map bhagsu, address and phone numbers in himachal pradesh, regional mountaineering centre mcleod ganj, ngo office kangra dharamshala, mcleodganj current temperature, pathankot to dharamsala bus route, volunteer positions in dharmashala india, mcleodganj party information, charity dharamsala, tibetanpaintings, high altitude flora himachal pradesh, tibetan solidarity committee to hold worldwide mass prayers fasts on 30 august, spiritual activities in dharamshala, best place to live in himachal pradesh, nowrojee dharmsala, accommodation with cooking facilities – dharamkot, weather dharamsala h.p. india, kangra airport mcleod taxi rs, pema thang guest house mcleod ganj india, volunteer dharamsala buddhist nuns, tibetan women association dharamsala, mcleodganj and around, guest house mount view dharamshala, nowrojee store dharamsala, illaqa dharamshala, quick facts of dharamshala, volunteer computer dharamsala, exploring dharamshala camping, moonpeak coffee, dharamshala ngos tibetan refugees, ladakh arts temple road mcleodganj, himachal pradesh volunteering monks english, tibetan monks dharamsala mcleodganj dharamshala tashi jong, pubs mcleodganj, code of dharamshala, marriage or religious function of himachal pradesh, trekking place near bhagsu waterfall, guesthouses in dharamsala for long term stays, shepherds seen lord shiva in the himalayas, mcleod ganj festivals , tibeten cultural photos, information about trees plants animals birds dharamshala mcleodganj, foreigners best place mcleodganj, where to live in mcleodganj, kangra valley dharamshala poverty, slogans of dalai lama, tibetan government in exile mcleod ganj official site , mcleod ganj in the western himachal pradesh region, picture of dharamsala international cricket ground, every year thousands of tibetans cross the himalayas, dharamsala government democracy, photos of the tibetan government in exile, best adventures agency in dharamsala, nauzer nowrojee, tibetan children`s village mcleod ganj, mountaineering center dharamsala, why do i want blessed jewelry by monks, indo-tibet friendship dharamsala, buddhist monk crosses himalayas to come to india, calling code dharamsala mcleodganj, calling city code kangra india, private taxi services in dharamshala, travel websites, people of the kangra valley himachal pradesh, communication costs dharamsala, volunterring dharamsala tibet hospital, paragliding in mcleodganj, bhagsunag telephone directory, silent meditation in buddhist monestary , how to find tibetian meditation in in himachal pradesh, the barad -- a tribe of himachal, tibetan special arts mcleod ganj, kotwali bazar dharamsala, email address dharamsala mcleodganj, bus route with timing from dharamsala to manali, ngo providing free computer education in himachal pradesh, superintendent of police dharamshala at kangra, venerable tsering phuntsok photos, dharamsala buddha statues for sale, thangde gatsal painting studio of dharamsala india, himachal road transport dharamsala mcleodganj hrtc, book stores mcleod ganj, dharamsala vipassana centre, tibetan lama greet scarf, mcleod ganj trekking equipment rental, refugees institute organisation ngo in dharamsala, dharamsala-kangra airport, mcleod ganj cooking, himachali food dish , himachal district & bus stand, dharamshala h.h.dalai lama office, some good monastries in dharamshala where outsider can stay, tibetan chain hunger strike mcleod ganj, indian art n culture, carpets india dharamshala mcleod ganj office of tibetan handicrafts, mcleodganj dharamsala dharamshala bhagsu dharamkot kangra, loss of tibetan culture, himachal buses route, mcleodganj locals website, institute of norbulingka and museum in himachal pradesh, monks ask tourists for money dharamsala, thangka painting courses in dharamsala, see notice board opposite to sunrise chai shop mcleodganj dharamsala, mcleod ganj telephone directory , where to get tibetan culture goods, www.mcllo.com, dharamsala, mcleodganj dharamsala mcleodgunj macleodganj dharamshala bahgsu bhagsu dharamkot triund kangra palampur kangra district, Kangra Hotels, Lonely Planet Recommended, Best Hotel in Kangra, Places to stay in Kangra, www.mcllo.com , Kangra valley , Kangra Fort, Bajreshwari Temple Kangra , Kangra Town , Stay, Hotels, Guest House Kangra,in the heart of historic kangra town.
46
RAJE - Russian American Jewish Experience - Leadership Fellowship Programs RAJE is an evolving organization committed to sparking Jewish life in Russian American society. We are passionate about building a community that embraces Russian speaking Jews from all walks of life. The core of RAJE is our Fellowship Programming.
47
McLEODGANJ | DHARAMSALA | LITTLE LHASA| HIMALAYAS | DALAI LAMA | DHARAMSALA INFORMATIVE AND COMMUNITY WEBSITE| TRAVEL |DHARAMSHALA| kANGRA| HIMACHAL PRADESH | INDIA Dharamsala, Dharamshala, Mcleodganj,macleodganj,mcleodgunj,dharamsala travel guide, mcleodganj travel guide, dharamshala travel,dharamsala hotels, dharamsala informations , dharamsala facts, dharamshala hotels, dharamshala information, dharamshala facts,little lhasa,dharamkot,bhagsu, naddi,guest houses in dharamsala , guest houses in Mcleodganj,mcllo, mcleodganj cafes, mcleodganj parties,dharamsala parties,ac volvo from isbt to mcleodganj,dharamkot village israel, kangra hotels, kangra map, book room dharamsala , room mcleodganj, dharamsala best website, dharamsala online , mcleodganj map, dharamsala map , dharamshala map, kangra map , mcleodganj shopping , dharamsala shopping , shop dharamsala, norowjee dharamsala mcleodganj family, letterbox history, timings of kangra train, reiki course mcleod ganj, mcleod ganj upper dharamsala travel dharamkot,dharamsala tibetan culture, www.mcllo.com , mcllo.com , flats for rent in mcleod ganj, rent a house in mcleodganj , rent house flat in dharamsala,bhagsunag temple, dharamkot jews, guest house in dharamsala, guest house in mcleodganj, guest house dharamshala, guest house bhagsu, guest house dharamkot, mcleodganj travel agents, how to preserve indigenous tibetan culture, buses from delhi to dharamsala, guest house siddhpur, dharmsala ngo, hpseb guest house in dharamshala, freedom cafe bhagsu, bhagsu omni, His holiness the dalai lama tenzin gyatso, Dalai lama tibet , tibetan, tibet exile, tibetans,his holiness teachings, dalai lama teachings, bhagsunag history, dalai lama dharamsala, meditation courses and retreats in himachal pradesh, india song bagsu, triund , trekking , dhauladhar, trek to triund, himalayas, india, trek guide , triund trek ,dhauladhars,khaniara,tushita center,bhagsu israelis,dalai lama discourse on diamond sutra,guest houses dharamkot,tcv dharamasala, dharamsala and mcleodganj informative , travel and community website , kangra website , dharamsala website , dharamshala website , mcleodganj website , information dharamsala , saransh sehgal , saransh mcllo, dharamsala india shopping, omni guest house bhagsu dharamsala, hp pwd rest house palampur, himachal pradesh, mcleodganj dharamsala kangra valley, reach dharamsala, reach mcleodganj, reach bhagsu, reach triund, reach kangra , places to see kangra , places to see mcleodganj , places to see dharamsala , places to see dharamshala, places to see himachal pradesh, buses to dharamsala , train to dharamsala , train kangra valley , patahnkot train to kangra, reach dharamshala by air, reach dharamsala by bus, dharamsala route map, kangra airport, dharamsala airport, gaggal airport, dharamsala by air, travel guide dharamsala, travel guide mcleodganj, travel guide bhagsu, travel guide dharamkot, Places to See ,Attractions, SightSeeing dharamsala , What to see dharamsala dharamshala mcleodganj, Tourist Spots dharamsala mcleodganj dharamshala ,|Tourist Places in Dharamsala , Mcleodganj and Kangra Valley Himachal Pradesh, St. John''s Church, Tsuglag Khang (Dalai Lama''s Temple Complex) , Tibet Museum, Norbulingka Institute, dal lake dharamsala, The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives, BAJRESHWARI DEVI TEMPLE, The Tibetan Institute for the Performing Arts (TIPA) , Bhagsunath Temple, Bhagsu Waterfall, Namgyalma Stupa , Dip Tse-Chok Ling Gompa , The Tibetan Children’s Village, Stitches of Tibet, Kangra Art Museum, MASROOR, Kunal Pathri Temple, War Memorial dharamshala , The Tibetan Medical and Astro Institute, Chinmaya Tapovan, Gopalpur Zoo , Jwalamukhi Temple, Nowrojee''s General Store, Baijnath, Andretta, BIR & BILLING,Aghanjar Mahadev Temple Trek, Kangra Fort, Tatwani Hot Water Springs, Machhrial, IndruNag Temple, Tashi Jong, Dongyu Gatsal Ling Nunnery(DGL Nunnery) , tibetan, free tibet , tibet protest dharamsala mcleodganj, Press Release : A Statement from The Dalai Lama, volunteering in dharamsala, volunteer in dharamshala , volunteer mcleodganj , volunteer macleodganj , dharamsala people, dharamshala facts, Dharamsala''s International and Community News, help tibet , tibetans in exile mcleodganj dharamsala dharamshala, tibetan ashoka guesthouse mccleod ganj, isbt delhi to mcleodganj, jangchup lamdron, bhagsu nag temple of himachal pradesh, weather in mcleodganj, bhagsunag altitude, bhagsu cake, tourist season in triund, dharamkot housing, travels mcleodganj, dharamsala events, meditation centeres in himachal pradesh, manali to dharamsala roads, dharamsala to rishikesh, mcleodganj to rishikesh , dharamsala to manali , dharamsala to shimla, dharamshala to shimla, guest houses in kangra, important facts about dharamshala, cottages in mcleodganj, mcllo.com, bhagsu waterfall, dharamkot guest houses, xcite dharamshala, mcleod ganj guest houses, architectural places at mcleodganj, lower dharamsala , upper dharamsala, first general stores history, temple square mcleodganj, dharamsala reiki, meet dalai lama , greet dalai lama, dalai lama temple, namgyal monastary, dalai lama speech, Map of Dharamsala and Mcleodganj, Dharamshala Maps,Directions Dharamsala-Trek Map of Dhauladhar, Trek Routes Directions and Maps , Mcleodganj Map, dharamsala oldest shop, noworjee''s family history, Hotels, Guest houses and Lodges in Mcleod Ganj and Dharamsala ,telephone Numbers dharamsala , telephone number mcleodganj , mcleodganj zip code, mcleodganj postal code, dharamsala postal code, dharamshala postal code, telephone number hotels , guest houses, restaurants, cafes mcleodganj dharamsala dharamshala kangra kangra district bhagsu dharamkot, mcleod ganj apartments, from where did himachali gorkha came from, adult education in dharamsala , gaddi tribe , gaddis , dharamsala to chamba trek , illaqa, trek pass dhauladhar, occupation in himalayas , bhagsu nag temple & waterfall, Rest Houses In Dharamshala, rest house dharamsala, rest house kangra, rest house palampur, trek groups, dharamsala mcleodganj, Restaurants In Mcleodganj, Restaurants in Dharamshala [lower dharamsala],cybercafe mcleodganj, cyber cafe bhagsu dharamkot, cybercafe dharamsala, history of bhagsunag temple, bhagsu people, massage in mcleodganj, massage in dharamsala, kangra valley train , travel dharamsala , travel dharamshala , travel palampur , travel mcleodganj , bir billing paragliding , pre world cup event bir billing paragliding, tashi jong lama, bir , billing, airjaldi summit , airjaldi dharamsala, ngo dharamsala , ngo mcleodganj , ngo dharamshala, ngo bhagsu , ngo kangra valley , ngo kangra, ngo sidhbari, sidhpur, sacred heart high school sidhbari, dalai lama interview, news dalai lama , temporary housing in dharamshala himachal pradesh, mcleodganj to triund map, cottage mcleodganj, tour operators and travelling agencies to dharamsala, resorts naddi, dharamsala tibet culture preserve activity, mcleod ganj triund, mcleodganj dharamshala kangra, dharamsala website, german bakery bhagsu , bahgsu, israelis in dharamsala, volunteer tibetans, ladies venture guest house, bhagsu temple, triund mcleodganj dharamshala, hotels in mcleodganj, pizzeria in bhagsunag, bhagsu weather, dharamsala weather , dharamshala weather , mcleodganj weather, mcllo mcleod ganj, mountains near triund, officers and men who died and were buried in mcleodganj, mcllo restaurant dharamsala, triund trekking route, candle light vigil unity dharamsala,tibetan centre for conflict resolution dharamshala, how do i reach triund, triund chamba, travel himachal pradesh, dharamsala november what can i study, massage services in mcleodganj, dharamsala theatre festival, holiday resort dharamsala, mcleod ganj shop, contact information for norbulingka himachal, holiday home at naddi, cheryton cottages dharamshala, dharamsala india weather december, forest rest house dharamsala, seven seas lodge dharamsala, cottage mcleodganj, places to eat mcleodganj, sahiba mcleod ganj, mcleodganj chinar resort rating, mcleod ganj trek to triund route, himachal toursim hotels/guest houses in dharamshala, shiva café bhagsu , trance mcleodganj , trance dharamsala, party in bahgsu , full moon party mcleodganj dharamsala, hotel ko-konor mac leod ganj india, dharamsala links, tushita mcllo.com, sidhpur house, tibetan arts at mcleodganj, staying at a monastery mcleod ganj, long stay mcleodganj dharmsala dharamshala, mcleodganj resorts, mount view g.h. mcleod, kashmir cottage dharamsala, employment office dharamsala h.p., himachal pardesh song kangra, dharamshala mcleodganj triund trek, dharmasala- reiki, reiki in dharamsala , reiki in mcleodganj , reiki in dharamshala , reiki in mac leodganj, tashi delek accomodation dharamshala, sites on mcleod ganj, cheryton cottage guesthouse mcleod ganj india, resorts in mcleodganj, place where snow can be found in dharamshala in summer, flight schedule of mdlr from delhi to dharamsala, good bar at mcleodganj, seven seas dharamsala, travel dharamshala to mcleodganj, dharamsala distance, tibetmuseum.org, birds of dharamshala , birds of kangra , birds of mcleodganj , birds of dharamsala, dhauladhar travels mcleod ganj, dhauladhar range dharamsala, dalai lama exiled freedom of speech, population of tibetans in dharamsala, naddi hotels, travel website , dharamsala local website , dharamsala travel informations and tour guide, ngos in mcleodganj, book forest rest house at triund, bhagsu waterfall near mcleodganj, dharamshala circuit house, khaniara , indrunag , dharamsala village , sidhbari village , history of mcleodgunj, mcleodgunj information , travel guide, for rent in dharamkot, khaniara, climate at mcleodganj, kangra postal code, mcleod ganj guesthouse , weather mcleod ganj india june, apartments for rent in mcleodganj, mcleodganj guest house, dharmshal tour, address himalaya hotel & restaurant mcleodganj, reaching triund, dharamsala flora, hpseb guest house, dfo forest, cricket stadium dharamshala, dharamsala cricket stadium, arts result dharamsala himachal pradesh, thangka paintings , thanka teacher dharamsala mcleodganj dharamshala, tibetan teacher , teach english in dharamsala , teach mcleodganj, shiva cafe bhagsu contact, dharamkot near mcleodganj dharamsala post code, what to wear in mcleod ganj, dharamsala tibetan thangka school, dharamshala sahiba hotel, houses to rent bhagsu, dharamsala violence, bhagsu nag dharamshala, bhagsu waterfall in the himalayas, mcleodganj kailash, dalai lama dharamsala june 2008, triund when can you see snow, dharamsala trekking routes, reviews on mdlr flight to dharamsala, yellow guest house mcleod ganj, Forsyth Ganj, kail wood guest house mcleod ganj, reiki masters in mcleodganj, out door adventure dharamkot, drugs , dev cottage mcleod ganj dharamshala, jogibara mcleodganj dharamsala, jogibara road mcleodganj, dharamsala is dalai, loseling guest house dharamsala, dharamkot – accommodation, kangra airport to mcleodganj, hill view guest house naddi, meeting the dali lama red cord thread, dharamsala season, restaurants in mcleodganj, buy land dharamsala, buy flat in mc leod ganj, rest house circuit house accommodation in india, gorkhas of dharmasala, north zone cricket academy dharamsala, snow lion mcleodganj, korean café mcleodganj , province of mcleod ganj, mcleodganj disco, flights between delhi india and dharamsala india, view of snow falls videos in triund dharamshala, mcleod ganj guest houses, houses to rent in dharamkot india, guest house dharamshala, surya mcleod main square, macleod ganj main square , mcleodganj chowk , dharamsala square, flights delhi to mcleod ganj, bhagsu nag temple in dharamshala, bhagsu weather, learn hindi mcleod ganj, weather in dharamsala in october, flights to kangra, dharamshala cricket ground, dharamsala india private audience dalai lama, ladies venture guest house mcleodganj, book room ladies venture guest house mcleodganj, tasangkha, clouds end mcleodganj, police dharamsala, himachal mcleodganj place and all information, delhi-dharamsala-mcleodganj, people, dharamsala culture , mcleodganj culture , dharamsala art , kangr art, tibetan activists mcleodganj, 6 facts about the dalai lama, tushita schedules dharamshala, buddhist philosophy course himachal pradesh, india waterfall temple hebrew, www.mcllo.com/ mcleod ganj dharamsala, bhagsu healing courses, himachal pradesh temples mughal time, hotels and guest house dharamsala, dharamsala dalai lama residence, volunteering in mcleod ganj dharamsala, description for traveling agency in dharamshala bedi travels, vijay palace khara danda road, ghirath himachal pradesh, triund mcleod ganj dharamsala,booking the guest house at triund, cafes mcleodganj, mcleodganj shiva café, dharamsala photo gallery, dharamshala photos, mcleodganj photos, bahgsu photos, dharamkot photos, bhagsu photos, bbc weather dharamsala, dharamshala human rights ngo, norling norbulingka clothing, best time to go for triund trek snow, goenka vipassana dharamkot, karmapa teachings dharamsala, villages around mcleodganj himachal pradesh, hippie culture mcleodganj dharamsala, mcleod ganj mountaineering institute, weather in dharamkot india, udeechi huts naddi, images of mcleodganj, bhagsu hptdc mcleodganj, rainbow dharmsala, list of hotels and guest houses in dharamshala, ramoche temple dharamasala, ngo non violence dharamsala, h.p.s.e.b dharamshala, sex, fare dharamshala to mcleodganj, dharamsala india guest houses, tibetans in exile ngo, mcleod ganj rain, dharamsala monsoon , dharamshala rain , dharamsala rain , how to go to dhauladhar, about the dalai lama s life in dharamsala today , mcleodganj apartment rentals, hotels in mcleodganj naddi, restaurant in dharamshala mcleodganj dharamsala bhagsu dharamkot, cottages prices in mcleodganj, wishpering winds kandi, over population in dharamsala, tibetan culture centre norling, first cup mcleod ganj, moon peak espresso mcleodganj temple road, temple road dharamsala, temple road mcleodganj, guest houses mcleod ganj tibet house, pic of vipassana sn goenka dharamshala, trekking routes in dhauladhar, gallu devi temple dharamkot, meditation courses in dharamshala dharamkot mcleodganj, website of dalai lama, kangra distt population himachal pradesh, khana nirvana, day hike bhagsu to triund map , dharamkot - cheap guesthouses, dark side of mcleodganj dharamshala kangra, best mcleodganj website, about reiki in dharamshala, chinar lodge mcloed ganj phone, buying a housing in dharamsala india, muslim population of dharamshala, place to stay in triund, nunneries dharamsala india volunteer, weather in mcleodganj in september, dharmsala volunteer graphic design, lha mcleod ganj, dharamsala mcleodganj travel, tourist spots in dharamsala, dharamsala accomodation events, tibetan refugees in exile mcleod ganj, mian rajputs of himachal pradesh, energy from waterfall, snow line triund dharamshala, wireless internet mcleod ganj india, wifi mcleodganj, wifi dharamsala, tibetan healing courses in mcleod ganj, conifer lodge- the green house dharamsala, success of tibetan in exile, dogga school dharamsala, ngos list in dharamshala, dalai lama dharmsala vegetarian, volunteering in tibetan community in dharamsala, kangra bajreshwari temple aarti timings, guest house mcleodganj dalai lama, tibet directories, mcleod ganj thangka shop, mcllo bar photo, mcleod ganj tourist office, cast of himachalpradesh, visiting dharamsala and meeting the dalai lama , residence permits for dharamsala, tse chok-ling monastery room, tibetan delek hospital gangchen kyishong dharamsala 176 215 dist. kangra himachal pradesh. India, xcite restaurant dharamsala mcleodganj, carpe diem restaurant in mcleodganj dharamsala, trek agencies mcleodganj, himalayan explorer mcleodganj dharamsala, what should we take before going to dhauladhars, dhauladhar trekking, web designer dharamshala, mcleodganj homestays, dharamsala map bhagsu, address and phone numbers in himachal pradesh, regional mountaineering centre mcleod ganj, ngo office kangra dharamshala, mcleodganj current temperature, pathankot to dharamsala bus route, volunteer positions in dharmashala india, mcleodganj party information, charity dharamsala, tibetanpaintings, high altitude flora himachal pradesh, tibetan solidarity committee to hold worldwide mass prayers fasts on 30 august, spiritual activities in dharamshala, best place to live in himachal pradesh, nowrojee dharmsala, accommodation with cooking facilities – dharamkot, weather dharamsala h.p. india, kangra airport mcleod taxi rs, pema thang guest house mcleod ganj india, volunteer dharamsala buddhist nuns, tibetan women association dharamsala, mcleodganj and around, guest house mount view dharamshala, nowrojee store dharamsala, illaqa dharamshala, quick facts of dharamshala, volunteer computer dharamsala, exploring dharamshala camping, moonpeak coffee, dharamshala ngos tibetan refugees, ladakh arts temple road mcleodganj, himachal pradesh volunteering monks english, tibetan monks dharamsala mcleodganj dharamshala tashi jong, pubs mcleodganj, code of dharamshala, marriage or religious function of himachal pradesh, trekking place near bhagsu waterfall, guesthouses in dharamsala for long term stays, shepherds seen lord shiva in the himalayas, mcleod ganj festivals , tibeten cultural photos, information about trees plants animals birds dharamshala mcleodganj, foreigners best place mcleodganj, where to live in mcleodganj, kangra valley dharamshala poverty, slogans of dalai lama, tibetan government in exile mcleod ganj official site , mcleod ganj in the western himachal pradesh region, picture of dharamsala international cricket ground, every year thousands of tibetans cross the himalayas, dharamsala government democracy, photos of the tibetan government in exile, best adventures agency in dharamsala, nauzer nowrojee, tibetan children`s village mcleod ganj, mountaineering center dharamsala, why do i want blessed jewelry by monks, indo-tibet friendship dharamsala, buddhist monk crosses himalayas to come to india, calling code dharamsala mcleodganj, calling city code kangra india, private taxi services in dharamshala, travel websites, people of the kangra valley himachal pradesh, communication costs dharamsala, volunterring dharamsala tibet hospital, paragliding in mcleodganj, bhagsunag telephone directory, silent meditation in buddhist monestary , how to find tibetian meditation in in himachal pradesh, the barad -- a tribe of himachal, tibetan special arts mcleod ganj, kotwali bazar dharamsala, email address dharamsala mcleodganj, bus route with timing from dharamsala to manali, ngo providing free computer education in himachal pradesh, superintendent of police dharamshala at kangra, venerable tsering phuntsok photos, dharamsala buddha statues for sale, thangde gatsal painting studio of dharamsala india, himachal road transport dharamsala mcleodganj hrtc, book stores mcleod ganj, dharamsala vipassana centre, tibetan lama greet scarf, mcleod ganj trekking equipment rental, refugees institute organisation ngo in dharamsala, dharamsala-kangra airport, mcleod ganj cooking, himachali food dish , himachal district & bus stand, dharamshala h.h.dalai lama office, some good monastries in dharamshala where outsider can stay, tibetan chain hunger strike mcleod ganj, indian art n culture, carpets india dharamshala mcleod ganj office of tibetan handicrafts, mcleodganj dharamsala dharamshala bhagsu dharamkot kangra, loss of tibetan culture, himachal buses route, mcleodganj locals website, institute of norbulingka and museum in himachal pradesh, monks ask tourists for money dharamsala, thangka painting courses in dharamsala, see notice board opposite to sunrise chai shop mcleodganj dharamsala, mcleod ganj telephone directory , where to get tibetan culture goods, www.mcllo.com, dharamsala, mcleodganj dharamsala mcleodgunj macleodganj dharamshala bahgsu bhagsu dharamkot triund kangra palampur kangra district, Kangra Hotels, Lonely Planet Recommended, Best Hotel in Kangra, Places to stay in Kangra, www.mcllo.com , Kangra valley , Kangra Fort, Bajreshwari Temple Kangra , Kangra Town , Stay, Hotels, Guest House Kangra,in the heart of historic kangra town.
48
Rabbi Avi Shafran - Reflections on Jews, Judaism, Media and Life Essays by an Orthodox Jewish political/social critic, author and columnist.
49
the yellow star - home The Yellow Star is an opera by composer-librettist Bradley Detrick which brings to life the little-known story of how the Danish people miraculously conspired to save nearly all of the Danish Jews in October 1943.
50
Answers to frequently-asked-questions about the Torah - Bible - AnswersinTorah.com Answers to frequently-asked-questions about the Torah - Bible and the Messianic Jewish Practices
51
Jewish & Judaism at James Madison University | JMU | Chabad Hous James Madison University Jewish Life - JMjews Chabad is a Jewish Student Center serving all Jews and students at James Madison University - JMU - Harrisonburg, and the Shenandoah Valley. Whether you like Hillel, Chabad, reform or conservative, we are a place for everyone! Located in Harrisonburg, Virginia.
53
United Messianic Jewish Assembly - Home - United Messianic Jewish Assembly Shalom and welcome to the official UMJA home page! We are a new Messianic Jewish organization composed of an assembly of congregations and ministries pursuing a Messianic Torah centered life. We are an organization for both Jews and those from the Nations who have become part of the commonwealth of Yisra'el.
54
Inspiring Jews | Listening for a new conversation in Jewish life Igniting change in spiritual communities through interviews, visioning and dialogue, fearless conversations that lead to action.   Dr. Ron Wolfson:  "Engaging our members in a relational way, in a way that really connects people to each other." "This past March a new book came out.  It’s called “Relational Judaism, The Power of Relationships to Transform.”…
55
Welcoming Outreach Center for all Jews - Located in Rockville, MD JewishROC is a welcoming Outreach Center that caters to Jews from all walks of life. We have world-class Kabbalah study in Rockville, MD
56
United Messianic Jewish Assembly - Home - United Messianic Jewish Assembly Shalom and welcome to the official UMJA home page! We are a new Messianic Jewish organization composed of an assembly of congregations and ministries pursuing a Messianic Torah centered life. We are an organization for both Jews and those from the Nations who have become part of the commonwealth of Yisra'el.
57
Welcoming Outreach Center for all Jews - Located in Rockville, MD JewishROC is a welcoming Outreach Center that caters to Jews from all walks of life. We have world-class Kabbalah study in Rockville, MD
58
Jesus Agape Jehovah, Yahweh, I AM, YHWY, Elohim, Adonay, Jesus Christ, Jesus, God, Dios, Jesucristo, Bible, prayer for healing, healing scriptures, healing prayer, prayer for the sick, prayer for the sick, miracles of Jesus, jesus miracles, scriptures on healing, ministry, love, agape, Christ, Holy, Spirit, Ghost, omnipotent, omniscient, omnipresent, faith, blessed, apostles, bible, joy, happy, healings, sickness, disease, illness, church, assembly, word, power, help, music, poor, rich, money, millionaire, conferences, speakers, Spanish, English, cures, miracles, good, worship, Israel, Jerusalem, eternal life, purpose, heaven, kingdom, Rome, food, charity, tithe, partner, services, charismatic, Pentecostal, Pentecost, Holy Spirit, conferences, encounter, event, religion, Christian, truth, light, soul, soul mate, purpose, happiness, catholic, Lutheran, Christianity, fellowship, family, children, power, exorcism, deliverance, healing, sicknesses, diseases, evangelize, evangelism, strongholds, battlefield of the mind, encounter, crusade, salvation, eternal life, wealth, school, training, warfare, battle, love me, love all, lovely, mission, Baja, USA, United States, America, Latin America, Europe, Mexico, world, life, God love, self-control, trust, patience, divine love, divine power, Holy Spirit power, comforter, counselor, preacher, preaching, sermons, minister, pastor, believe, receive, possessed, iPod, face book, Facebook, twitter, Pinterest, snap shot, famous, best, king, hell, afterlife, good news, gospel, Jewish, Jews, promised land, video, Cristiano, movies, stars, charity, cause, donation, tithe, donations, feed, hungry, supply, needy, destitute, heart, flame, yearning, family, cancer, aids
59
Chabad at Rice University Chabad at Rice University provides a vibrant Jewish student life at Rice University; connecting Jewish students on campus to each other, their heritage, and their Jewish future.
61
Sermons Bible Studies Illustrations & Outlines aSermon.com Expository Sermons, sermons online, sermon illustrations, sermon outlines, and preaching illustrations with free full length sermons, Bible studies, messages, daily devotions resources for Christian ministry.
62
Living the Kingdom Life – Kingdom living is not about being whisked away to heaven but about experiencing the age to come now and expressing the principles of the Kingdom of God with power, passion and purpose. Kingdom living is not about being whisked away to heaven but about experiencing the age to come now and expressing the principles of the Kingdom of God with power, passion and purpose.
63
Four Questions of Judaism - Addressing The Big Questions of Life What is the meaning and purpose of life? What is God? Who are we as human beings? What is good and evil? These questions are the very core of Judaism. Jews have not settled on one answer to each of these questions. This project is a kind of spiritual adventure, exploring the different avenues of Judaism and the different answers to these questions that have emerged. It''s simple goal is to make these answers accessible to all who wish to hear them and think about them. But the more distant goal is to inspire those people to create their own answers to these questions, to discuss them openly and intelligently, and to gain an understanding of who we are and what we are doing here.
64
George's Journal | Observations on life; particularly spiritual Exploring the spiritual aspects of life by looking at what the Bible says about topics like: God, Jesus Christ, Christian living, creation, the church, the Jews, the future and the unseen world.
65
Israel Perspectives: Feeling ''Right'' at Home Perspectives on daily life in Israel, politics, and issues confronting the Jewish People through the eyes of one who was born and raised in New York, and who, as of January 2003, finds himself taking an active role in the compelling drama that is the life of the Jewish People in the Land of Israel.
66
The Way of the Most High The Way of the Most High is a path of life which few follow according to the Turah (Scripture). The path most follow is one of rebellion, "do as thou wilt," the path of death, the path of the heathen and transgressors. The path of slaves and sheeple. The path of the brain-washed.
67
Thug Life Social Media | I'm a social media consultant & rap/hip hop music reviewer. 20+yrs exp in Mktg/PR/Social Media. All views my own. I'm a social media consultant & rap/hip hop music reviewer. 20+yrs exp in Mktg/PR/Social Media. All views my own.
69
George's Journal | Observations on life; particularly spiritual Exploring the spiritual aspects of life by looking at what the Bible says about topics like: God, Jesus Christ, Christian living, creation, the church, the Jews, the future and the unseen world.
71
Jewish Asheville and Western North Carolina Chabad Lubavitch Center for Jewish Life, The Chabad House Western North Carolina Chabad Lubavitch Center for Jewish Life, aims to share with all Jews that which is their Birthright - our Heritage.
73
Home - Psalm 11918.org Topical Bible studies, answers to the hard questions for Jews and Gentiles, plus free references and resources for Bible students, pastors, and rabbis.
74
He loves you with an everlasting love! Are all faiths equal? If the New Age doctrine is true, then Muslims and Jews have to give up their one God and Hindus have to give up their thousands of gods and goddesses. If Hinduism is true and one of their gods or goddesses is the supreme being, then Christians have to give up Jesus and Buddhists and New Agers have to acknowledge that there IS a god.
75
Essaouira Facts and information about Essaouira, Mogador, Morocco. Selected items focused on eco tourism,contemporary life, history, culture and ecology. Illustrated with links for reference and further research.
76
CEOs, Artists, Scientists unite to support diplomacy with Iran Prominent Iranian-Americans from all walks of life write an open letter to the people of the United States of America
77
American Mussar - 21st century Jewish spiritual practice for an authentic and meaningful life Mussar made accessible to 21st century Jews. No Hebrew or Jewish literacy needed. Take the free Soul Trait Profile Quiz.
78
Watchmen Ministries - Home Watchmen Ministries (WM) is a non commercial, non 501 (c) 3, non government controlled, independent, tax paying, 1st Century Bible believing and obeying, New Covenant Christian ministry, in one accord with the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Incarnate God, as commanded in the Bible (KJV) , in particular Matthew 17: 24-27; Luke 20: 21-26; Romans 13:5-7 & Acts 2:1 It is and independent Christian ministry, prophecy & teaching website empowered by the Holy Spirit of Jesus Christ to warn and call to repentance the “fallen away”, apostate Churches and the whole of America to repent from its Apostasy before the judgments of God take place as commanded in Ezekiel Chapter 33. It contains true verifiable fulfilled and fulfilling prophecies of Jesus Christ, and the Old Testament prophets, specifically, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, a modern day true watchman/prophet of God and other present day, biblically supported prophets and prophetesses with commentaries that coincide with Biblical prophecies that metaphorically and factually identifying United States of America USA as the Mystery (commercial) Babylon, Daughter of Babylon, and (New-Testament Babylon in Revelation chapters 17&18; Jeremiah 50&51; Isaiah 47&13, whose cities are destined to be attacked within one hour by submarine fired nuclear tipped missiles and destroyed in one day reducing it to less than 3rd world status by the resultant nuclear Firestorms. Jews must retrun to Israel Jeremiah 16: 14-18
80
Jewish-Berlin.com: everything Jewish in Berlin Information and tours in English and Hebrew about Jewish life and Judaism in Berlin and Germany
81
Judaism by Choice – Experiencing the joys of Jewish life. Judaism by Choice offers classes, resources, learning events and trips for Jews and non-Jews, and those interested in conversion, who want to learn more ...
82
The Rohr Chabad Centre for Jewish Life Waterloo Region - Serving the University of Waterloo, Wilfrid Laurier University, and the communities of the Waterloo Region Premier site for Judaism and Jewish students in Kitchener-Waterloo. We service wilfrid laurier university, the university of waterloo, and the local jewish community
84
Jewish Life at Lehigh - Chabad - Where Every Jew Is Family Chabad at Lehigh, a place where Jews of all backgrounds and degrees of observance can enjoy exploring their heritage in a warm, welcoming and non-judgmental environment.
85
God 1st A ministry founded on encouraging individuals to put God 1st while viewing life through the window of the Bible. We minister in all aspects of Christianity including: Salvation and Christian Living, Bible Prophecy, Importance of Blessing Israel, Marriage and Family, and Social and Moral Issues to name a few.
86
Beit Or | The House of Light We are dedicated to getting back to the roots of the bible so that we may apply \\"that which was in the beginning\\" to perfecting our lives through holiness. We believe and teach that the Torah as given to Moshe and demonstrated by Yeshua is a way of life, anything more or less is religion.
87
Elie''s Overcoat - The Movie Based on a true story, Elie''s Overcoat is an escape thriller centered around one night in the life long friendship between a Gentile and a Jew. With World War II weighing down and an Iron Guard ruling Romania, Traian Cociuba makes a choice that will forever decide the fate of him and his best friend, Elie.
88
Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean (Philip A. Harland) This site brings the social world of ancient associations, Christian congregations, and Jewish synagogues to life using inscriptions, monuments, archeological finds, and New Testament writings from the Roman empire, especially Asia Minor (Turkey)
89
God 1st A ministry founded on encouraging individuals to put God 1st while viewing life through the window of the Bible. We minister in all aspects of Christianity including: Salvation and Christian Living, Bible Prophecy, Importance of Blessing Israel, Marriage and Family, and Social and Moral Issues to name a few.
90
Welcome To Ronald Price Training Champions This web site is dedicated to you total success. Total success is accomplished through educating yourself in relation to you total being, spirit, soul, mind, strength, body and financially. There are many answers here on this site. I hope you find answers that can help you
91
Essaouira Facts and information about Essaouira, Mogador, Morocco. Selected items focused on eco tourism,contemporary life, history, culture and ecology. Illustrated with links for reference and further research.
92
The Israel Forever Foundation The Israel Forever Foundation is an engagement organization that develops and promotes experiential learning opportunities to celebrate and strengthen the personal connection to Israel as an integral part of Jewish life and identity.
93
Home - Psalm 11918.org Topical Bible studies, answers to the hard questions for Jews and Gentiles, plus free references and resources for Bible students, pastors, and rabbis.
95
Religions of the Ancient Mediterranean (Philip A. Harland) This site brings the social world of ancient associations, Christian congregations, and Jewish synagogues to life using inscriptions, monuments, archeological finds, and New Testament writings from the Roman empire, especially Asia Minor (Turkey)
96
Welcome To Ronald Price Training Champions This web site is dedicated to you total success. Total success is accomplished through educating yourself in relation to you total being, spirit, soul, mind, strength, body and financially. There are many answers here on this site. I hope you find answers that can help you
97
The Rohr Chabad Centre for Jewish Life Waterloo Region - Serving the University of Waterloo, Wilfrid Laurier University, and the communities of the Waterloo Region Premier site for Judaism and Jewish students in Kitchener-Waterloo. We service wilfrid laurier university, the university of waterloo, and the local jewish community
98
Oregon Jewish Life | Do you get excited anticipating the arrival of an item you ordered online? You don't have to wait long if you choose an expedited shipping option at check out.
99
The Harness Makers Dream Nick Kotz The Harness Maker's Dream follows the story of Ukrainian immigrant Nathan Kallison's journey to the United States in search of a brighter future.
100
The Israel Forever Foundation The Israel Forever Foundation is an engagement organization that develops and promotes experiential learning opportunities to celebrate and strengthen the personal connection to Israel as an integral part of Jewish life and identity.