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Website content last updated on Tuesday 2019-11-12
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Jewish Education in Staten Island : Little Star Preschool Little Star Preschool provides premier Jewish Education in Staten Island, in a positive environment where we inspire and prepare our children for life.
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Montreal Jewish Magazine Welcome to the Montreal Jewish Magazine, your gateway to arts, entertainment, local happenings and up to date news in Montreal's Jewish community.
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Montreal Jewish Magazine Welcome to the Montreal Jewish Magazine, your gateway to arts, entertainment, local happenings and up to date news in Montreal's Jewish community.
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Free Funny Jokes, Happy News, Positive Stories, Funny Stories Online - funjokesjoy Get free Funny Jokes, Happy News, Positive Stories, Funny Stories online, inspirational stories, positive stories, funny jokes. Read, share and enjoy.
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Free Funny Jokes, Happy News, Positive Stories, Funny Stories Online - funjokesjoy Get free Funny Jokes, Happy News, Positive Stories, Funny Stories online, inspirational stories, positive stories, funny jokes. Read, share and enjoy.
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Israel Seen Podcast Blogs Zionism Judaism Jewish Jew News Israel Seen is a labor of love and a portal to the other side of Israel. We provide content from an array of innovative, interesting and dynamic Israelis.
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Israel Seen Podcast Blogs Zionism Judaism Jewish Jew News Israel Seen is a labor of love and a portal to the other side of Israel. We provide content from an array of innovative, interesting and dynamic Israelis.
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Welcome to JCC For nearly 35 years, the JCC of Middlesex County has served the community, providing cutting edge programs for adults of all ages, children and families and those in need. The JCC has had a strong, positive presence and impact upon the Edison, Metuchen, Woodbridge, Highland Park, Monroe Township and surrounding communities, as well as the entire Middlesex and now Monmouth County communities. The JCC has grown, adapted and continued to meet the changing needs and interests of our members and the greater community of participants seeking enrichment and social stimulation, health and wellness, education, culture and the arts, along with expanded programs for those seeking a warm, nurturing and safe environment for their children, families and for all those who come through our doors.
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Welcome to JCC For nearly 35 years, the JCC of Middlesex County has served the community, providing cutting edge programs for adults of all ages, children and families and those in need. The JCC has had a strong, positive presence and impact upon the Edison, Metuchen, Woodbridge, Highland Park, Monroe Township and surrounding communities, as well as the entire Middlesex and now Monmouth County communities. The JCC has grown, adapted and continued to meet the changing needs and interests of our members and the greater community of participants seeking enrichment and social stimulation, health and wellness, education, culture and the arts, along with expanded programs for those seeking a warm, nurturing and safe environment for their children, families and for all those who come through our doors.
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HebreWizards.com - A fun Jewish learning school. Best Hebrew school, best congregation in Greenwich, fun Hebrew school,learn Hebrew, act out the bible stories, bat mitzvah preparation, Unique services, community Hebrew program, happy Hebrew school, Best hebrew school in greenwich Make Hebrew fun, learn through color war, spiritual leaders who love to teach positive jewish experience through jewish music and prayer, Best hebrew school in greenwich
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Combined Jewish Philanthropies (CJP) | Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Greater Boston Combined Jewish Philanthropies combines expertise and resources to create positive, life-changing results for people in need, for our friends in Israel and for
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Combined Jewish Philanthropies (CJP) | Combined Jewish Philanthropies of Greater Boston Combined Jewish Philanthropies combines expertise and resources to create positive, life-changing results for people in need, for our friends in Israel and for
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Arizona Jewish Life | PHOTOS: American VFI volunteers from the pilot group of Birthright alumni. The new program is open to Birthright alumni still in college. Photos courtesy of Volunteers for Israel. Volunteers for Israel announced a new program that will bring Birthright alumni from colleges across the United States back to Israel to volunteer on Israel Defense Forces bases. Thousands of American Jews have connected to Israel through Birthright. On their post-trip evaluations, participants have consistently rated encounters with Israeli soldiers to be among the most valuable experiences. "To build on these positive experiences, VFI has created an incredible opportunity for Birthright alumni to return to and give back to the state of Israel by working alongside their peers and IDF soldiers on military bases," says Campus Director Linda Askenazi. Earlier this month, a pilot group of 30 students selected for their commitment to Israel and leadership potential from 19 American college campuses completed their volunteer work on an IDF base in Israel's north. These students will now assist with recruitment from their campuses and communities for the continuing VFI program, which was announced June 27. The inaugural trip was funded by VFI and the support of a very generous donor. VFI is exploring partnerships with other pro-Israel campus-based organizations for the program. For more information about this campus initiative, contact Linda Askenazi at LindaVficampus@gmail.com. Since 1982, VFI has partnered with the Israeli organization Sar-El to recruit, process and prepare Americans to volunteer on Israel Defense Forces bases. To learn more, visit www.vfi-usa.org.
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Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation | The Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation (Schusterman) is a global organization that seeks to ignite the passion and unleash the power in young people to create positive change for themselves, the Jewish community and the broader world.
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The Lerner School - Jewish Day School, Preschool, Elementary, Camps The Sandra E. Lerner Jewish Community Day School is the only Jewish day school in North Carolina's Triangle, including Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill.
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Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation | The Charles and Lynn Schusterman Family Foundation (Schusterman) is a global organization that seeks to ignite the passion and unleash the power in young people to create positive change for themselves, the Jewish community and the broader world.
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The Lerner School - Jewish Day School, Preschool, Elementary, Camps The Sandra E. Lerner Jewish Community Day School is the only Jewish day school in North Carolina's Triangle, including Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill.
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Rockville Holistic, Integrative Wellness Therapy, Enrichment Center - Bethesda Resiliency Training | Marilyn Spenadel Marilyn Spenadel, Adult & Adolescent Counseling, therapy services for individuals, couples, and families in Montgomery County Counseling, MD, empowerment, mindfulness, self-esteem, spiritual therapist, Life Coach, Performance Coach, in the 20852, 20850, & 20854, MD, Maryland, Rockville, MD, Kensington, MD Silver Spring, Potomac, MD, Holistic Psychotherapist, Mind/Body & Soul, At-Risk Counseling, Trauma, Holistic Psychotherapy in MD, Psychology, Top Therapist in Bethesda, Rockville Spirituality Therapist, Psychology Today, NIMH, MD Holistic Psychotherapist, Montgomery County Psychotherapist, Rockville Psychotherapist, Maryland Life Coach, Integrative Psychotherapy, Panic Attacks, PTSD, Eating Disorders, Relationships, Spirituality, Alternative Therapy, Integrative, Holistic Enrichment Center, Connections, Oneness, Walter Johnson High School, Anxiety, Mind/body/ spiritual connections, Psychosomatic Stress, Psychotropic Medicines, Adolescents, Relationships, Couples, Jewish, Hopeless, Hopeful, Deepak Chopra, Tara Brach, Oprah, Eckart Toole, Democratic, Tony Robbins
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Rockville Holistic, Integrative Wellness Therapy, Enrichment Center - Bethesda Resiliency Training | Marilyn Spenadel Marilyn Spenadel, Adult & Adolescent Counseling, therapy services for individuals, couples, and families in Montgomery County Counseling, MD, empowerment, mindfulness, self-esteem, spiritual therapist, Life Coach, Performance Coach, in the 20852, 20850, & 20854, MD, Maryland, Rockville, MD, Kensington, MD Silver Spring, Potomac, MD, Holistic Psychotherapist, Mind/Body & Soul, At-Risk Counseling, Trauma, Holistic Psychotherapy in MD, Psychology, Top Therapist in Bethesda, Rockville Spirituality Therapist, Psychology Today, NIMH, MD Holistic Psychotherapist, Montgomery County Psychotherapist, Rockville Psychotherapist, Maryland Life Coach, Integrative Psychotherapy, Panic Attacks, PTSD, Eating Disorders, Relationships, Spirituality, Alternative Therapy, Integrative, Holistic Enrichment Center, Connections, Oneness, Walter Johnson High School, Anxiety, Mind/body/ spiritual connections, Psychosomatic Stress, Psychotropic Medicines, Adolescents, Relationships, Couples, Jewish, Hopeless, Hopeful, Deepak Chopra, Tara Brach, Oprah, Eckart Toole, Democratic, Tony Robbins
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Jewish Family and Children's Services Jewish Family and Children's Services (JFCS) of San Francisco, Peninsula, Marin & Sonoma Counties in California. Making a positive impact in people's lives.
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Home Africa, African, Dance, African Dance, African Drums, Djembe, Drum Circle, Los Angeles, Culture, Family, Black, America, American, History, Africana, Soul, International, Sista, Jewel, Jackson, Jewish, Positive, Entertainment, Energy, Exciting, Cali
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Jewish Family and Children's Services Jewish Family and Children's Services (JFCS) of San Francisco, Peninsula, Marin & Sonoma Counties in California. Making a positive impact in people's lives.
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The Gift of Children - A Jewish Perspective on Raising a Large Family A Jewish Perspective on Raising a Large Family
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Jewish Children''s Museum The largest Jewish themed Children''s Museum in the United States. A hands-on setting for children of all faiths and backgrounds to gain a positive perspective and awareness of the Jewish heritage, fostering tolerance and understanding
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Jewish Children''s Museum The largest Jewish themed Children''s Museum in the United States. A hands-on setting for children of all faiths and backgrounds to gain a positive perspective and awareness of the Jewish heritage, fostering tolerance and understanding
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Camp Ramah in California | A Journey for a Lifetime Join us at Camp Ramah in California for the Journey of a Lifetime! We create lasting friendships, positive Jewish experiences, and the next generation of Jewish leaders. Join us in the Ojai Valley and get started on your Journey. Want to learn more? Call our office and we would love to hear about your children and answer questions about the camp experience: 310-476-8571.
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Camp Ramah in California | A Journey for a Lifetime Join us at Camp Ramah in California for the Journey of a Lifetime! We create lasting friendships, positive Jewish experiences, and the next generation of Jewish leaders. Join us in the Ojai Valley and get started on your Journey. Want to learn more? Call our office and we would love to hear about your children and answer questions about the camp experience: 310-476-8571.
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NCSY Inspires Jewish teens NCSY Connects with Jewish teens through innovative, cutting-edge social and recreational programs to develop a positive Jewish identity.
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NCSY Inspires Jewish teens NCSY Connects with Jewish teens through innovative, cutting-edge social and recreational programs to develop a positive Jewish identity.
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Oregon NCSY - Connecting, Inspiring and Empowering Jewish Teens Oregon NCSY connects with Jewish teens through innovative, social and recreational programs to help them develop positive Jewish identities.
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Kavana Cooperative A welcoming and diverse community cooperative encouraging personal Judaism. Together we are building an innovative, model community that empowers each of us to create a meaningful Jewish life and a positive Jewish identity.
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Kavana Cooperative A welcoming and diverse community cooperative encouraging personal Judaism. Together we are building an innovative, model community that empowers each of us to create a meaningful Jewish life and a positive Jewish identity.
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World ORT | Impact Through Education ORT is a global education network driven by Jewish values. We are passionate about unleashing the potential of young people so they can lead fulfilling lives and have a positive impact on the world around them.
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The Tribe THE TRIBE CULTIVATES A SUPPORTIVE, STIMULATING AND INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA'S DIVERSE YOUNG JEWISH PROFESSIONALS, EMPOWERING THEM WITH THE SKILLS TO BECOME LEADERS AND TAKE POSITIVE ACTION IN SUPPORT OF OUR COMMUNITY AND BEYOND.
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Beber Camp - Jewish Summer Camp in Wisconsin Beber Camp creates a community that challenges & nurtures fun, individual & community-based growth, & Jewish identity in a safe & positive environment.
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World ORT | Impact Through Education ORT is a global education network driven by Jewish values. We are passionate about unleashing the potential of young people so they can lead fulfilling lives and have a positive impact on the world around them.
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Beber Camp - Jewish Summer Camp in Wisconsin Beber Camp creates a community that challenges & nurtures fun, individual & community-based growth, & Jewish identity in a safe & positive environment.
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Steel Partners Foundation Steel Partners Foundation was created as a way to help make a significant impact within communities, emphasizing on philanthropic causes related to children, education and sports.
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The Tribe THE TRIBE CULTIVATES A SUPPORTIVE, STIMULATING AND INCLUSIVE ENVIRONMENT FOR SOUTH FLORIDA'S DIVERSE YOUNG JEWISH PROFESSIONALS, EMPOWERING THEM WITH THE SKILLS TO BECOME LEADERS AND TAKE POSITIVE ACTION IN SUPPORT OF OUR COMMUNITY AND BEYOND.
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Bailey Group - Home The Bailey Group is making a positive educational IMPACT using it''s empowering mentoring Initiative Youth In Leadership For Positive Results. Post your family reunoin informaion and receive travel and reservation assistance.
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Silver Spring Learning Center home Your child will thrive at the Silver Spring Learning Center preschool. We strive to build a positive self-image within each child during these crucial early learning years. Come play with us!
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Faith Communities Council of Victoria: Promoting a Harmonious Victoria Established in 2010, the Faith Communities Council of Victoria (FCCV) is Victoria’s umbrella multifaith body. FCCV was created to contribute to the harmony of the Victorian community by promoting positive relations between people of different faiths and greater public knowledge and mutual understanding of the teachings, customs and practices of Victoria''s diverse faith traditions.
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Home - Spiritual Life - slife.info Spiritual Life is an interfaith web based community that celebrates (honors) the many paths to God. We are dedicated to teaching and expressing a positive and practical approach to life. Our beliefs are in harmony with the basic tenets of the world''s religions and spiritual traditions that teach love. As a loving, and supportive spiritual community we encourage each person to pray regularly, think clearly, feel openly and love expansively.
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Home - Swisslimbs SwissLimbs is a Swiss not-for-profit organization based in Lugano. We accomplish initiatives in the public interest in Switzerland and abroad, in particular in the field of rehabilitation and ortho-prosthetic services, high-mobility artificial limbs for amputees and disabled people.
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Home - Swisslimbs SwissLimbs is a Swiss not-for-profit organization based in Lugano. We accomplish initiatives in the public interest in Switzerland and abroad, in particular in the field of rehabilitation and ortho-prosthetic services, high-mobility artificial limbs for amputees and disabled people.
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Gospelize Me | Share Jesus. April 12, 1963 We the undersigned clergymen are among those who in January, issued "An Appeal forLaw and Order and Common Sense," in dealing with racial problems in Alabama. We expressed understanding that honest convictions in racial matters could properly be pursued in the courts but urged that decisions of those courts should in the meantime be peacefully obeyed. Since that time there had been some evidence of increased forbearance and a willingness to face facts. Responsible citizens have undertaken to work on various problems which caused racial friction and unrest. In Birmingham, recent public events have given indication that we all have opportunity for a new constructive and realistic approach to racial problems. However, we are now confronted by a series of demonstrations by some of our Negro citizens directed and led in part by outsiders. We recognize the natural impatience of people who feel that their hopes are slow in being realized. But we are convinced that these demonstrations are unwise and untimely. We agree rather with certain local Negro leadership which has called for honest and open negotiation of racial issues in our area. And we believe this kind of facing of issues can best be accomplished by citizens of our own metropolitan area white and Negro, meeting with their knowledge and experience of the local situation. All of us need to face that responsibility and find proper channels for its accomplishment. Just as we formerly pointed out that "hatred and violence have no sanction in our religious and political tradition." We also point out that such actions as incite to hatred and violence, however technically peaceful those actions may be, have not contributed to the resolution of our local problems. We do not believe that these days of new hope are days when extreme measures are justified in Birmingham. We commend the community as a whole and the local news media and law enforcement officials in particular, on the calm manner in which these demonstrations have been handled. We urge the public to continue to show restraint should the demonstrations continue, and the law enforcement officials to remain calm and continue to protect our city from violence. We further strongly urge our own Negro community to withdraw support from these demonstrations, and to unite locally in working peacefully for a better Birmingham.When rights are consistently denied, a cause should be pressed in the courts and in negotiations among local leaders, and not in the streets. We appeal to both our white and Negro citizenry to observe the principles of law and order and common sense. Signed by: C. C. J. CARPENTER, D.D., LL.D. Bishop of Alabama JOSEPH A. DURICK, D.D. Auxiliary Bishop. Diocese of Mobile-Birmingham Rabbi HILTON J. GRAFMAN, Temple Emmanu-El, Birmingham, Alabama Bishop PAUL HARDIN, Bishop of the Alabama-West Florida Conference of theMethodist Church. Bishop HOLAN B. HARMON, Bishop of the North Alabama Conference of theMethodist Church GEORGE M. MURRAY, Bishop Coadjutor, Episcopal Diocese of Alabama EDWARD V. RAMSAGE, Moderator, Synod of the Alabama Presbyterian Church in theUnited States EARL STALLINGS, Pastor, First Baptist Church, Birmingham, Alabama. . . Martin Luther King Jr wrote a letter responding from a Birmingham Jail . . 16 April 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely." Seldom do I pause to answer criticism of my work and ideas. If I sought to answer all the criticisms that cross my desk, my secretaries would have little time for anything other than such correspondence in the course of the day, and I would have no time for constructive work. But since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in." I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently we share staff, educational and financial resources with our affiliates. Several months ago the affiliate here in Birmingham asked us to be on call to engage in a nonviolent direct action program if such were deemed necessary. We readily consented, and when the hour came we lived up to our promise. So I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. Moreover, I am cognizant of the interrelatedness of all communities and states. I cannot sit idly by in Atlanta and not be concerned about what happens in Birmingham. Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly. Never again can we afford to live with the narrow, provincial "outside agitator" idea. Anyone who lives inside the United States can never be considered an outsider anywhere within its bounds. You deplore the demonstrations taking place in Birmingham. But your statement, I am sorry to say, fails to express a similar concern for the conditions that brought about the demonstrations. I am sure that none of you would want to rest content with the superficial kind of social analysis that deals merely with effects and does not grapple with underlying causes. It is unfortunate that demonstrations are taking place in Birmingham, but it is even more unfortunate that the city's white power structure left the Negro community with no alternative. In any nonviolent campaign there are four basic steps: collection of the facts to determine whether injustices exist; negotiation; self purification; and direct action. We have gone through all these steps in Birmingham. There can be no gainsaying the fact that racial injustice engulfs this community. Birmingham is probably the most thoroughly segregated city in the United States. Its ugly record of brutality is widely known. Negroes have experienced grossly unjust treatment in the courts. There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in the nation. These are the hard, brutal facts of the case. On the basis of these conditions, Negro leaders sought to negotiate with the city fathers. But the latter consistently refused to engage in good faith negotiation. Then, last September, came the opportunity to talk with leaders of Birmingham's economic community. In the course of the negotiations, certain promises were made by the merchants--for example, to remove the stores' humiliating racial signs. On the basis of these promises, the Reverend Fred Shuttlesworth and the leaders of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights agreed to a moratorium on all demonstrations. As the weeks and months went by, we realized that we were the victims of a broken promise. A few signs, briefly removed, returned; the others remained. As in so many past experiences, our hopes had been blasted, and the shadow of deep disappointment settled upon us. We had no alternative except to prepare for direct action, whereby we would present our very bodies as a means of laying our case before the conscience of the local and the national community. Mindful of the difficulties involved, we decided to undertake a process of self purification. We began a series of workshops on nonviolence, and we repeatedly asked ourselves: "Are you able to accept blows without retaliating?" "Are you able to endure the ordeal of jail?" We decided to schedule our direct action program for the Easter season, realizing that except for Christmas, this is the main shopping period of the year. Knowing that a strong economic-withdrawal program would be the by product of direct action, we felt that this would be the best time to bring pressure to bear on the merchants for the needed change. Then it occurred to us that Birmingham's mayoral election was coming up in March, and we speedily decided to postpone action until after election day. When we discovered that the Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene "Bull" Connor, had piled up enough votes to be in the run off, we decided again to postpone action until the day after the run off so that the demonstrations could not be used to cloud the issues. Like many others, we waited to see Mr. Connor defeated, and to this end we endured postponement after postponement. Having aided in this community need, we felt that our direct action program could be delayed no longer. You may well ask: "Why direct action? Why sit ins, marches and so forth? Isn't negotiation a better path?" You are quite right in calling for negotiation. Indeed, this is the very purpose of direct action. Nonviolent direct action seeks to create such a crisis and foster such a tension that a community which has constantly refused to negotiate is forced to confront the issue. It seeks so to dramatize the issue that it can no longer be ignored. My citing the creation of tension as part of the work of the nonviolent resister may sound rather shocking. But I must confess that I am not afraid of the word "tension." I have earnestly opposed violent tension, but there is a type of constructive, nonviolent tension which is necessary for growth. Just as Socrates felt that it was necessary to create a tension in the mind so that individuals could rise from the bondage of myths and half truths to the unfettered realm of creative analysis and objective appraisal, so must we see the need for nonviolent gadflies to create the kind of tension in society that will help men rise from the dark depths of prejudice and racism to the majestic heights of understanding and brotherhood. The purpose of our direct action program is to create a situation so crisis packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation. I therefore concur with you in your call for negotiation. Too long has our beloved Southland been bogged down in a tragic effort to live in monologue rather than dialogue. One of the basic points in your statement is that the action that I and my associates have taken in Birmingham is untimely. Some have asked: "Why didn't you give the new city administration time to act?" The only answer that I can give to this query is that the new Birmingham administration must be prodded about as much as the outgoing one, before it will act. We are sadly mistaken if we feel that the election of Albert Boutwell as mayor will bring the millennium to Birmingham. While Mr. Boutwell is a much more gentle person than Mr. Connor, they are both segregationists, dedicated to maintenance of the status quo. I have hope that Mr. Boutwell will be reasonable enough to see the futility of massive resistance to desegregation. But he will not see this without pressure from devotees of civil rights. My friends, I must say to you that we have not made a single gain in civil rights without determined legal and nonviolent pressure. Lamentably, it is an historical fact that privileged groups seldom give up their privileges voluntarily. Individuals may see the moral light and voluntarily give up their unjust posture; but, as Reinhold Niebuhr has reminded us, groups tend to be more immoral than individuals. We know through painful experience that freedom is never voluntarily given by the oppressor; it must be demanded by the oppressed. Frankly, I have yet to engage in a direct action campaign that was "well timed" in the view of those who have not suffered unduly from the disease of segregation. For years now I have heard the word "Wait!" It rings in the ear of every Negro with piercing familiarity. This "Wait" has almost always meant "Never." We must come to see, with one of our distinguished jurists, that "justice too long delayed is justice denied." We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God given rights. The nations of Asia and Africa are moving with jetlike speed toward gaining political independence, but we still creep at horse and buggy pace toward gaining a cup of coffee at a lunch counter. Perhaps it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, "Wait." But when you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate filled policemen curse, kick and even kill your black brothers and sisters; when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in an airtight cage of poverty in the midst of an affluent society; when you suddenly find your tongue twisted and your speech stammering as you seek to explain to your six year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television, and see tears welling up in her eyes when she is told that Funtown is closed to colored children, and see ominous clouds of inferiority beginning to form in her little mental sky, and see her beginning to distort her personality by developing an unconscious bitterness toward white people; when you have to concoct an answer for a five year old son who is asking: "Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?"; when you take a cross county drive and find it necessary to sleep night after night in the uncomfortable corners of your automobile because no motel will accept you; when you are humiliated day in and day out by nagging signs reading "white" and "colored"; when your first name becomes "nigger," your middle name becomes "boy" (however old you are) and your last name becomes "John," and your wife and mother are never given the respected title "Mrs."; when you are harried by day and haunted by night by the fact that you are a Negro, living constantly at tiptoe stance, never quite knowing what to expect next, and are plagued with inner fears and outer resentments; when you are forever fighting a degenerating sense of "nobodiness"--then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait. There comes a time when the cup of endurance runs over, and men are no longer willing to be plunged into the abyss of despair. I hope, sirs, you can understand our legitimate and unavoidable impatience. You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws. This is certainly a legitimate concern. Since we so diligently urge people to obey the Supreme Court's decision of 1954 outlawing segregation in the public schools, at first glance it may seem rather paradoxical for us consciously to break laws. One may well ask: "How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?" The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws. One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that "an unjust law is no law at all." Now, what is the difference between the two? How does one determine whether a law is just or unjust? A just law is a man made code that squares with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas: An unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal law and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority. Segregation, to use the terminology of the Jewish philosopher Martin Buber, substitutes an "I it" relationship for an "I thou" relationship and ends up relegating persons to the status of things. Hence segregation is not only politically, economically and sociologically unsound, it is morally wrong and sinful. Paul Tillich has said that sin is separation. Is not segregation an existential expression of man's tragic separation, his awful estrangement, his terrible sinfulness? Thus it is that I can urge men to obey the 1954 decision of the Supreme Court, for it is morally right; and I can urge them to disobey segregation ordinances, for they are morally wrong. Let us consider a more concrete example of just and unjust laws. An unjust law is a code that a numerical or power majority group compels a minority group to obey but does not make binding on itself. This is difference made legal. By the same token, a just law is a code that a majority compels a minority to follow and that it is willing to follow itself. This is sameness made legal. Let me give another explanation. A law is unjust if it is inflicted on a minority that, as a result of being denied the right to vote, had no part in enacting or devising the law. Who can say that the legislature of Alabama which set up that state's segregation laws was democratically elected? Throughout Alabama all sorts of devious methods are used to prevent Negroes from becoming registered voters, and there are some counties in which, even though Negroes constitute a majority of the population, not a single Negro is registered. Can any law enacted under such circumstances be considered democratically structured? Sometimes a law is just on its face and unjust in its application. For instance, I have been arrested on a charge of parading without a permit. Now, there is nothing wrong in having an ordinance which requires a permit for a parade. But such an ordinance becomes unjust when it is used to maintain segregation and to deny citizens the First-Amendment privilege of peaceful assembly and protest. I hope you are able to see the distinction I am trying to point out. In no sense do I advocate evading or defying the law, as would the rabid segregationist. That would lead to anarchy. One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty. I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience. It was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake. It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire. To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience. In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience. We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was "legal" and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was "illegal." It was "illegal" to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler's Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers. If today I lived in a Communist country where certain principles dear to the Christian faith are suppressed, I would openly advocate disobeying that country's antireligious laws. I must make two honest confessions to you, my Christian and Jewish brothers. First, I must confess that over the past few years I have been gravely disappointed with the white moderate. I have almost reached the regrettable conclusion that the Negro's great stumbling block in his stride toward freedom is not the White Citizen's Counciler or the Ku Klux Klanner, but the white moderate, who is more devoted to "order" than to justice; who prefers a negative peace which is the absence of tension to a positive peace which is the presence of justice; who constantly says: "I agree with you in the goal you seek, but I cannot agree with your methods of direct action"; who paternalistically believes he can set the timetable for another man's freedom; who lives by a mythical concept of time and who constantly advises the Negro to wait for a "more convenient season." Shallow understanding from people of good will is more frustrating than absolute misunderstanding from people of ill will. Lukewarm acceptance is much more bewildering than outright rejection. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that law and order exist for the purpose of establishing justice and that when they fail in this purpose they become the dangerously structured dams that block the flow of social progress. I had hoped that the white moderate would understand that the present tension in the South is a necessary phase of the transition from an obnoxious negative peace, in which the Negro passively accepted his unjust plight, to a substantive and positive peace, in which all men will respect the dignity and worth of human personality. Actually, we who engage in nonviolent direct action are not the creators of tension. We merely bring to the surface the hidden tension that is already alive. We bring it out in the open, where it can be seen and dealt with. Like a boil that can never be cured so long as it is covered up but must be opened with all its ugliness to the natural medicines of air and light, injustice must be exposed, with all the tension its exposure creates, to the light of human conscience and the air of national opinion before it can be cured. In your statement you assert that our actions, even though peaceful, must be condemned because they precipitate violence. But is this a logical assertion? Isn't this like condemning a robbed man because his possession of money precipitated the evil act of robbery? Isn't this like condemning Socrates because his unswerving commitment to truth and his philosophical inquiries precipitated the act by the misguided populace in which they made him drink hemlock? Isn't this like condemning Jesus because his unique God consciousness and never ceasing devotion to God's will precipitated the evil act of crucifixion? We must come to see that, as the federal courts have consistently affirmed, it is wrong to urge an individual to cease his efforts to gain his basic constitutional rights because the quest may precipitate violence. Society must protect the robbed and punish the robber. I had also hoped that the white moderate would reject the myth concerning time in relation to the struggle for freedom. I have just received a letter from a white brother in Texas. He writes: "All Christians know that the colored people will receive equal rights eventually, but it is possible that you are in too great a religious hurry. It has taken Christianity almost two thousand years to accomplish what it has. The teachings of Christ take time to come to earth." Such an attitude stems from a tragic misconception of time, from the strangely irrational notion that there is something in the very flow of time that will inevitably cure all ills. Actually, time itself is neutral; it can be used either destructively or constructively. More and more I feel that the people of ill will have used time much more effectively than have the people of good will. We will have to repent in this generation not merely for the hateful words and actions of the bad people but for the appalling silence of the good people. Human progress never rolls in on wheels of inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to be co workers with God, and without this hard work, time itself becomes an ally of the forces of social stagnation. We must use time creatively, in the knowledge that the time is always ripe to do right. Now is the time to make real the promise of democracy and transform our pending national elegy into a creative psalm of brotherhood. Now is the time to lift our national policy from the quicksand of racial injustice to the solid rock of human dignity. You speak of our activity in Birmingham as extreme. At first I was rather disappointed that fellow clergymen would see my nonviolent efforts as those of an extremist. I began thinking about the fact that I stand in the middle of two opposing forces in the Negro community. One is a force of complacency, made up in part of Negroes who, as a result of long years of oppression, are so drained of self respect and a sense of "somebodiness" that they have adjusted to segregation; and in part of a few middle-class Negroes who, because of a degree of academic and economic security and because in some ways they profit by segregation, have become insensitive to the problems of the masses. The other force is one of bitterness and hatred, and it comes perilously close to advocating violence. It is expressed in the various black nationalist groups that are springing up across the nation, the largest and best known being Elijah Muhammad's Muslim movement. Nourished by the Negro's frustration over the continued existence of racial discrimination, this movement is made up of people who have lost faith in America, who have absolutely repudiated Christianity, and who have concluded that the white man is an incorrigible "devil." I have tried to stand between these two forces, saying that we need emulate neither the "do nothingism" of the complacent nor the hatred and despair of the black nationalist. For there is the more excellent way of love and nonviolent protest. I am grateful to God that, through the influence of the Negro church, the way of nonviolence became an integral part of our struggle. If this philosophy had not emerged, by now many streets of the South would, I am convinced, be flowing with blood. And I am further convinced that if our white brothers dismiss as "rabble rousers" and "outside agitators" those of us who employ nonviolent direct action, and if they refuse to support our nonviolent efforts, millions of Negroes will, out of frustration and despair, seek solace and security in black nationalist ideologies--a development that would inevitably lead to a frightening racial nightmare. Oppressed people cannot remain oppressed forever. The yearning for freedom eventually manifests itself, and that is what has happened to the American Negro. Something within has reminded him of his birthright of freedom, and something without has reminded him that it can be gained. Consciously or unconsciously, he has been caught up by the Zeitgeist, and with his black brothers of Africa and his brown and yellow brothers of Asia, South America and the Caribbean, the United States Negro is moving with a sense of great urgency toward the promised land of racial justice. If one recognizes this vital urge that has engulfed the Negro community, one should readily understand why public demonstrations are taking place. The Negro has many pent up resentments and latent frustrations, and he must release them. So let him march; let him make prayer pilgrimages to the city hall; let him go on freedom rides -and try to understand why he must do so. If his repressed emotions are not released in nonviolent ways, they will seek expression through violence; this is not a threat but a fact of history. So I have not said to my people: "Get rid of your discontent." Rather, I have tried to say that this normal and healthy discontent can be channeled into the creative outlet of nonviolent direct action. And now this approach is being termed extremist. But though I was initially disappointed at being categorized as an extremist, as I continued to think about the matter I gradually gained a measure of satisfaction from the label. Was not Jesus an extremist for love: "Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and persecute you." Was not Amos an extremist for justice: "Let justice roll down like waters and righteousness like an ever flowing stream." Was not Paul an extremist for the Christian gospel: "I bear in my body the marks of the Lord Jesus." Was not Martin Luther an extremist: "Here I stand; I cannot do otherwise, so help me God." And John Bunyan: "I will stay in jail to the end of my days before I make a butchery of my conscience." And Abraham Lincoln: "This nation cannot survive half slave and half free." And Thomas Jefferson: "We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal . . ." So the question is not whether we will be extremists, but what kind of extremists we will be. Will we be extremists for hate or for love? Will we be extremists for the preservation of injustice or for the extension of justice? In that dramatic scene on Calvary's hill three men were crucified. We must never forget that all three were crucified for the same crime--the crime of extremism. Two were extremists for immorality, and thus fell below their environment. The other, Jesus Christ, was an extremist for love, truth and goodness, and thereby rose above his environment. Perhaps the South, the nation and the world are in dire need of creative extremists. I had hoped that the white moderate would see this need. Perhaps I was too optimistic; perhaps I expected too much. I suppose I should have realized that few members of the oppressor race can understand the deep groans and passionate yearnings of the oppressed race, and still fewer have the vision to see that injustice must be rooted out by strong, persistent and determined action. I am thankful, however, that some of our white brothers in the South have grasped the meaning of this social revolution and committed themselves to it. They are still all too few in quantity, but they are big in quality. Some -such as Ralph McGill, Lillian Smith, Harry Golden, James McBride Dabbs, Ann Braden and Sarah Patton Boyle--have written about our struggle in eloquent and prophetic terms. Others have marched with us down nameless streets of the South. They have languished in filthy, roach infested jails, suffering the abuse and brutality of policemen who view them as "dirty nigger-lovers." Unlike so many of their moderate brothers and sisters, they have recognized the urgency of the moment and sensed the need for powerful "action" antidotes to combat the disease of segregation. Let me take note of my other major disappointment. I have been so greatly disappointed with the white church and its leadership. Of course, there are some notable exceptions. I am not unmindful of the fact that each of you has taken some significant stands on this issue. I commend you, Reverend Stallings, for your Christian stand on this past Sunday, in welcoming Negroes to your worship service on a nonsegregated basis. I commend the Catholic leaders of this state for integrating Spring Hill College several years ago. But despite these notable exceptions, I must honestly reiterate that I have been disappointed with the church. I do not say this as one of those negative critics who can always find something wrong with the church. I say this as a minister of the gospel, who loves the church; who was nurtured in its bosom; who has been sustained by its spiritual blessings and who will remain true to it as long as the cord of life shall lengthen. When I was suddenly catapulted into the leadership of the bus protest in Montgomery, Alabama, a few years ago, I felt we would be supported by the white church. I felt that the white ministers, priests and rabbis of the South would be among our strongest allies. Instead, some have been outright opponents, refusing to understand the freedom movement and misrepresenting its leaders; all too many others have been more cautious than courageous and have remained silent behind the anesthetizing security of stained glass windows. In spite of my shattered dreams, I came to Birmingham with the hope that the white religious leadership of this community would see the justice of our cause and, with deep moral concern, would serve as the channel through which our just grievances could reach the power structure. I had hoped that each of you would understand. But again I have been disappointed. I have heard numerous southern religious leaders admonish their worshipers to comply with a desegregation decision because it is the law, but I have longed to hear white ministers declare: "Follow this decree because integration is morally right and because the Negro is your brother." In the midst of blatant injustices inflicted upon the Negro, I have watched white churchmen stand on the sideline and mouth pious irrelevancies and sanctimonious trivialities. In the midst of a mighty struggle to rid our nation of racial and economic injustice, I have heard many ministers say: "Those are social issues, with which the gospel has no real concern." And I have watched many churches commit themselves to a completely other worldly religion which makes a strange, un-Biblical distinction between body and soul, between the sacred and the secular. I have traveled the length and breadth of Alabama, Mississippi and all the other southern states. On sweltering summer days and crisp autumn mornings I have looked at the South's beautiful churches with their lofty spires pointing heavenward. I have beheld the impressive outlines of her massive religious education buildings. Over and over I have found myself asking: "What kind of people worship here? Who is their God? Where were their voices when the lips of Governor Barnett dripped with words of interposition and nullification? Where were they when Governor Wallace gave a clarion call for defiance and hatred? Where were their voices of support when bruised and weary Negro men and women decided to rise from the dark dungeons of complacency to the bright hills of creative protest?" Yes, these questions are still in my mind. In deep disappointment I have wept over the laxity of the church. But be assured that my tears have been tears of love. There can be no deep disappointment where there is not deep love. Yes, I love the church. How could I do otherwise? I am in the rather unique position of being the son, the grandson and the great grandson of preachers. Yes, I see the church as the body of Christ. But, oh! How we have blemished and scarred that body through social neglect and through fear of being nonconformists. There was a time when the church was very powerful--in the time when the early Christians rejoiced at being deemed worthy to suffer for what they believed. In those days the church was not merely a thermometer that recorded the ideas and principles of popular opinion; it was a thermostat that transformed the mores of society. Whenever the early Christians entered a town, the people in power became disturbed and immediately sought to convict the Christians for being "disturbers of the peace" and "outside agitators."' But the Christians pressed on, in the conviction that they were "a colony of heaven," called to obey God rather than man. Small in number, they were big in commitment. They were too God-intoxicated to be "astronomically intimidated." By their effort and example they brought an end to such ancient evils as infanticide and gladiatorial contests. Things are different now. So often the contemporary church is a weak, ineffectual voice with an uncertain sound. So often it is an archdefender of the status quo. Far from being disturbed by the presence of the church, the power structure of the average community is consoled by the church's silent--and often even vocal--sanction of things as they are. But the judgment of God is upon the church as never before. If today's church does not recapture the sacrificial spirit of the early church, it will lose its authenticity, forfeit the loyalty of millions, and be dismissed as an irrelevant social club with no meaning for the twentieth century. Every day I meet young people whose disappointment with the church has turned into outright disgust. Perhaps I have once again been too optimistic. Is organized religion too inextricably bound to the status quo to save our nation and the world? Perhaps I must turn my faith to the inner spiritual church, the church within the church, as the true ekklesia and the hope of the world. But again I am thankful to God that some noble souls from the ranks of organized religion have broken loose from the paralyzing chains of conformity and joined us as active partners in the struggle for freedom. They have left their secure congregations and walked the streets of Albany, Georgia, with us. They have gone down the highways of the South on tortuous rides for freedom. Yes, they have gone to jail with us. Some have been dismissed from their churches, have lost the support of their bishops and fellow ministers. But they have acted in the faith that right defeated is stronger than evil triumphant. Their witness has been the spiritual salt that has preserved the true meaning of the gospel in these troubled times. They have carved a tunnel of hope through the dark mountain of disappointment. I hope the church as a whole will meet the challenge of this decisive hour. But even if the church does not come to the aid of justice, I have no despair about the future. I have no fear about the outcome of our struggle in Birmingham, even if our motives are at present misunderstood. We will reach the goal of freedom in Birmingham and all over the nation, because the goal of America is freedom. Abused and scorned though we may be, our destiny is tied up with America's destiny. Before the pilgrims landed at Plymouth, we were here. Before the pen of Jefferson etched the majestic words of the Declaration of Independence across the pages of history, we were here. For more than two centuries our forebears labored in this country without wages; they made cotton king; they built the homes of their masters while suffering gross injustice and shameful humiliation -and yet out of a bottomless vitality they continued to thrive and develop. If the inexpressible cruelties of slavery could not stop us, the opposition we now face will surely fail. We will win our freedom because the sacred heritage of our nation and the eternal will of God are embodied in our echoing demands. Before closing I feel impelled to mention one other point in your statement that has troubled me profoundly. You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping "order" and "preventing violence." I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes. I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to observe their ugly and inhumane treatment of Negroes here in the city jail; if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe them, as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham police department. It is true that the police have exercised a degree of discipline in handling the demonstrators. In this sense they have conducted themselves rather "nonviolently" in public. But for what purpose? To preserve the evil system of segregation. Over the past few years I have consistently preached that nonviolence demands that the means we use must be as pure as the ends we seek. I have tried to make clear that it is wrong to use immoral means to attain moral ends. But now I must affirm that it is just as wrong, or perhaps even more so, to use moral means to preserve immoral ends. Perhaps Mr. Connor and his policemen have been rather nonviolent in public, as was Chief Pritchett in Albany, Georgia, but they have used the moral means of nonviolence to maintain the immoral end of racial injustice. As T. S. Eliot has said: "The last temptation is the greatest treason: To do the right deed for the wrong reason." I wish you had commended the Negro sit inners and demonstrators of Birmingham for their sublime courage, their willingness to suffer and their amazing discipline in the midst of great provocation. One day the South will recognize its real heroes. They will be the James Merediths, with the noble sense of purpose that enables them to face jeering and hostile mobs, and with the agonizing loneliness that characterizes the life of the pioneer. They will be old, oppressed, battered Negro women, symbolized in a seventy two year old woman in Montgomery, Alabama, who rose up with a sense of dignity and with her people decided not to ride segregated buses, and who responded with ungrammatical profundity to one who inquired about her weariness: "My feets is tired, but my soul is at rest." They will be the young high school and college students, the young ministers of the gospel and a host of their elders, courageously and nonviolently sitting in at lunch counters and willingly going to jail for conscience' sake. One day the South will know that when these disinherited children of God sat down at lunch counters, they were in reality standing up for what is best in the American dream and for the most sacred values in our Judaeo Christian heritage, thereby bringing our nation back to those great wells of democracy which were dug deep by the founding fathers in their formulation of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence. Never before have I written so long a letter. I'm afraid it is much too long to take your precious time. I can assure you that it would have been much shorter if I had been writing from a comfortable desk, but what else can one do when he is alone in a narrow jail cell, other than write long letters, think long thoughts and pray long prayers? If I have said anything in this letter that overstates the truth and indicates an unreasonable impatience, I beg you to forgive me. If I have said anything that understates the truth and indicates my having a patience that allows me to settle for anything less than brotherhood, I beg God to forgive me. I hope this letter finds you strong in the faith. I also hope that circumstances will soon make it possible for me to meet each of you, not as an integrationist or a civil-rights leader but as a fellow clergyman and a Christian brother. Let us all hope that the dark clouds of racial prejudice will soon pass away and the deep fog of misunderstanding will be lifted from our fear drenched communities, and in some not too distant tomorrow the radiant stars of love and brotherhood will shine over our great nation with all their scintillating beauty. Yours for the cause of Peace and Brotherhood, Martin Luther King, Jr.
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Seed - Adult and Family Jewish Education in the UK | We aim to strengthen the family through positive Jewish encounters and by sharing the richness of Jewish life, learning and values.
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Mission US | THIRTEEN Developed for use in middle and high school classrooms, Mission US engages students in the study of transformational moments in American history. Each mission consists of an interactive game and a set of curriculum materials that are aligned to national standards and feature document-based activities. The game immerses players in rich, historical settings and then empowers them to make choices that illuminate how ordinary people experienced the past. The Educator's Guide provides a wealth of resources and activities for both teachers and students, including primary source documents that show the broader social, political, and economic context of events and perspectives featured in the game. Since some of the topics Mission US explores are difficult, it is recommended that teachers/parents preview the game content to make sure it is appropriate for their students/children. LEARNING OBJECTIVESThe most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress showed that only 17% of eighth graders perform at or above the proficient level in American history. Mission US aims to get students to care about history by seeing it through the eyes of peers from the past. The goals of Mission US are to help students:• Learn how Americans struggled to realize the ideals of liberty and equality• Understand the role of ordinary men and women, including young people, in history• Develop historical empathy • Build understanding and critical perception to think like an historian.RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTWNET collaborates with a multidisciplinary team to create Mission US. Much planning, research, review, and testing with diverse groups of teachers and students goes into the development and creation of each mission and its companion educational materials. Reflecting the latest academic scholarship and incorporating primary source documents, the history content for each mission is developed by a team of historians at the American Social History Project/Center for Media & Learning (ASHP), a research center at the City University of New York Graduate Center. Scholars with expertise in each era serve as advisors. Throughout the development process, researchers from the Center for Children and Technology/Education Development Center conduct focus group testing with students and teachers that helps the game development team address misconceptions about the content each mission explores. The game developer is Electric Funstuff, a company with extensive educational technology experience.SERIOUS GAMINGWinner of the Games for Change Award for Most Significant Impact, Mission US is part of a growing body of "serious games" that immerse users in historical and contemporary problems in ways that encourage perspective-taking, discussion, and weighing of multiple kinds of evidence. Research has shown that, by assuming the roles of peers from the past, students develop a more personal, memorable, and meaningful connection with complex historical content and context. MISSIONS“For Crown or Colony?” puts players in the shoes of Nat Wheeler, a printer’s apprentice in 1770 Boston. They encounter both Patriots and Loyalists, and when rising tensions result in the Boston Massacre, they must choose where their loyalties lie.  A brand-new version of this game is now available! Learn more.In “Flight to Freedom,” players take on the role of Lucy, a 14-year-old girl enslaved in Kentucky who escapes to Ohio. As Lucy joins a community of abolitionists, players discover that life in the “free” North is dangerous and difficult. In 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act threatens all African Americans in the North and brings new urgency to the anti-slavery movement.In “A Cheyenne Odyssey,” players become Little Fox, a Northern Cheyenne boy whose life is changed by the encroachment of white settlers, railroads, and U.S. military expeditions.  As buffalo diminish and the U.S. expands westward, players experience the Cheyenne's persistence through conflict and national transformation.In “City of Immigrants,” players navigate New York’s Lower East Side as Lena, a young Jewish immigrant from Russia. Trying to save money to bring her parents to America, she works long hours in a factory for little money and gets caught up in the growing labor movement. In “Up from the Dust,” players take on the roles of twins Frank and Ginny Dunn, whose family wheat farm is devastated by the Great Depression and Dust Bowl. As they experience the hardships of the 1930s, players learn about Americans’ strategies for survival – as individuals, communities, and a nation. “Up from the Dust” is available online and as free iPad and Windows 10 apps.IMPACTMultiple research studies have found using Mission US leads to measurable gains in students' historical knowledge and skills, and yielded positive feedback from teachers. Most recently, a major summative study by Education Development Center (EDC) found that students who studied the Great Depression and Dust Bowl using Mission US significantly outperformed those who studied these topics using typical materials on standardized measures of U.S. history knowledge and skill. The Mission US group showed a 14.9% knowledge gain from pretest to posttest; the other group’s gain was less than 1%. See Research and Evaluation for summaries of past Mission US studies. PRAISE FOR MISSION USWith well over two million registered users across the fifty states and beyond, Mission US continues to earn honors and praise from educators, parents, students, and critics. See Awards and Reviews for a list of selected accolades, reviews, and testimonials.For more information, visit the Help page.  Get updates about Mission US on Facebook and Twitter.  To share your feedback or for assistance, email us via the contact form on this site. 
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Home - Ezra Youth Movement Ezra provides children and teenagers with a host of recreational and educational activities within a Jewish framework, seeks to promote religious values, and encourages its members to make a positive contribution to the wider community.
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Voices of Joy Katzen-Guthrie ... New Thought, Positive, Inspirational, & Jewish Renewal Music to Uplift, Empower, Heal, Bring Joy
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legacy-photographical Welcome to our site, browse and enjoy. Thank you so much to all those who helped make our sale as successful as it was. BORUCH'S BIO:: Since I was a kid, I've seen the world through a different lens. I’ve been told I was nuts. Now I'm making a life through this way of seeing, and suddenly, I have "vision". In reality, I think it's somewhere in-between. Life is not a glass half-full or half-empty; most of us are using the wrong sized glass! We have to remake our “container” to best fit our life. My goal is to let the camera show what my eye sees and my mind believes, sharing a glimpse of the container I’ve tried to make. Enjoy envisioning this process together with me. Let me hear what you feel in response. Many photos are for sale. Click the "BUY" link for details. I am available for a wide variety of shoots. Send an email and we can talk about your project. NATASHA'S BIO: Hello, I Natasha Len was born in South Africa in 1971. I have always felt connected to art and nature, even as a child growing up in Johannesburg. My first art competition was won in the city centre at the age of eight with a picture depicting animal conservation in Africa. From then on, I continued my art studies throughout school, and finally received my Diploma in Fine Arts at the Witwatersrand Technikon in Johannesburg after 3 years of study under some of South Africa’s most inspiring artists and lecturers. This culminated in an exhibition at the Market Theatre where I sold a few of my first works. It was at this time, that I began to blossom in my religion as a Jew, and I saw so many parallels between the art world and the religious world that my eyes were opened to the wondrous possibilities of a life full of both religion and art. To this day, I have no greater pleasure than sitting down with my children and teaching them about life through creating artworks that help them express themselves in positive ways. My work expresses my inspirations and feelings about the world around me, and art enables me to see the world positively and appreciate its fine details. I feel it appropriate to quote a saying from F.W. Watts. “In all true art there is a vital underlying thought, and artists have accordingly been amongst the great thinkers of man-kind.” And the quote continues “As an eminent painter once expressed, “my intention has not been so much as to paint pictures that will charm the eye, but rather to suggest great thoughts that will appeal to the imagination and the heart and kindle all that is best and noblest in humanity. For Jewish Art speaks as great poetry, sometimes demanding noble aspirations, and warning us against deep lapses in morals and duties as once our Hebrew Prophets had spoken.” Natasha Len is a wife and a mother of eight children who currently lives and paints in Boca Raton, FL and has been actively pursuing her love of art and family. She enjoys using acrylic, charcoal and silk-screening. Her works have graced many homes in many cities in the USA, South Africa, England and Israel.
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Revolve Community Revolve is a community that seeks to catalyze the passion and enhance the leadership skills of exceptional social justice advocates to effect positive change and realize their potential through personal and professional development grounded in Jewish values.
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Londoners at Home: The Way We Live Now Londoners at Home, The Way We Love Now - Milan Svanderlik - Gerald Stuart Burnett - Milan Svanderlik Photographer - contact details - biography - George McCall - Living as a single person - Three adults one child - Yvonne Mackenzie - Philippa Mackenzie - Carl Thorndike - Alfie Thorndike - Gay Couple - Jeffrey Portman - Adriano Spinosa - Living at home with carers - Bill Mathieson - Annie Tierney - Living in a home for the elderly - Diana Athill OBE - Mary Feilding Guild - Residential home for the active elderly - Boomerang generation - Janet Ross - Becky Ross - Bjorn Harald - Co-Living - The Collective - Shauna McGill - The Collective Old Oak - Lucy Kennedy - Liam Harcourt - James Aikman - Rachael Ridley - Victoria Hardy - Kirsty McBriar - Living on the water - Justine Armatage - Charlie Finke - The Cesarians - narrowboat - Lee Valley - offgrid people - Campaigning from home - Peter Tatchell - A Collector''s Home - Margaret Dawn Pepper - cigarette cards - 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Martin Johnson - Alhena - Living in a Yurt - Living in a hut - Ali Tamlit - Living in a Tent - Aimée Lee - Daniel Lul - I, Daniel Blake - Ken Loach - Department of Work and Pensions - double amputation - disabled - fit for work - Welfare State - Employment and Support Allowance - Personal Independence Payment - Housing Benefit - Healthcare Assessment Advisory Service - Mandatory Reconsideration - Atos - Meningococcal Meningitis - Septicaemia - eviction - Global Britain - Living in the World of Doctor Who - Gavin Robinson - Dr Who - Phyllis - Drag Artist - Lesbian couple - Christine Lehman - Jane Bartlett - Living in a Garage - Dennis Albert Reynolds - barber - Living with pets - Joan Dorothy Philomena O’Connor - Single mother - Katherine Fawcett - Brody Cross - Carolyn Gowdy - Illustrator - Artist - Radical Illustrator - Bolaji Johnson - Iris Johnson - Anjola Johnson - Nigerians - Ghanaians - immigration - No One at Home - Empty Home - Foreign Investment in UK Residential Property - offshore companies - Foreign ownership of property - tax havens - luxury homes - Michał Andrzej Ogłaza - Maria Seila Sarramian Diaz - Victor Wojciech Sarramian Ogłaza - immigration - Poles - Spaniards - Poland - Spain - Richard Heath - Michael Beardsmore - William Heath - Mark Hastings - World War 1 - Battle of Passchendaele - First World War - Kenneth Thompson - London Fire Brigade - Passchendaele 2017 - Honouring the Fallen in Flanders - Chandra Patel - Beni Patel - Meera Patel - Gujarati Londoners - French Londoners - François Moscovici - Claudine Provencher - Valentine Moscovici - Jules Moscovici - Robert Edwin Graham - loneliness- solitude - Keith Benton - Gill Kernick - Trellick Tower - Grenfell Tower - Balfon Tower - towering Inferno - Tower blocks - Ernő Goldfinger - Doris Dowsett Muench - Robert Palmer - Philip Palmer - Keep Fit - German Rhythmic Movement - Medau - Margaret Morris Movement - Surya Kumari - The Sacred Dance Group - Woolwich Singers - Teatro Vivo - Judy Gordon - Greenwich & Lewisham Young People''s Theatre - Montage Theatre Arts Company - Extended Family - Gopal Bhachu - Ranjeet Kaur Bhachu - Sumeet Singh Bhachu - Pavan Kaur Emir - Murat Emir - Arun Singh Emir - Eesha Johal - Adem Singh Emir - Channi Johal - Kisori Morris - Valerie Maureen Humphreys - Holden Nate John Morris - Lesbian Parents - A SkyHigh Fashion Startup - YenTing Cho - haute couture - Taiwan - MovISee - YenTing Cho Studio - Fashion - Muslim Londoners - Harun Rashid Khan - Farzana - Aneesa - Maria - Safiyya - Secretary General of the Muslim Council of Britain - Turkish Londoners - Elif Fincanci Smith - Calum Smith - Anglo Bangladeshi Londoners - Dean Cooper - Sameera Asad Cooper - Dr Mohammad Assadullah - Bay Cooper - Hero Cooper - Cosmo Cooper - Mari Muench - Kurikindi - Samai Jipa Muench - Ecuador - Napo River - Kichwa tribe - Eco Lodge - PetroAmazonas - Eco tourism - rainforest - Yasuni National Park - Protecting nature''s diversity - Sani Isla - Aideen Cowling - Blair Cowling - Anne Gormley - John Gormley - Irish Londoners - Kurikindi - The World of an Ecuadorian Shaman - Kichwa tribe - Kurikindi Foundation - Asylum Seeker Fearing for His Life - Md. 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Support Israel Support Israel by signing this petition and help fight media bias, hate crimes against Jews, and anti-Semitism. Together, we can fight this problem, creating a positive movement with a united Jewish front.
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Mission US | THIRTEEN Developed for use in middle and high school classrooms, Mission US engages students in the study of transformational moments in American history. Each mission consists of an interactive game and a set of curriculum materials that are aligned to national standards and feature document-based activities. The game immerses players in rich, historical settings and then empowers them to make choices that illuminate how ordinary people experienced the past. The Educator's Guide provides a wealth of resources and activities for both teachers and students, including primary source documents that show the broader social, political, and economic context of events and perspectives featured in the game. Since some of the topics Mission US explores are difficult, it is recommended that teachers/parents preview the game content to make sure it is appropriate for their students/children. LEARNING OBJECTIVESThe most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress showed that only 17% of eighth graders perform at or above the proficient level in American history. Mission US aims to get students to care about history by seeing it through the eyes of peers from the past. The goals of Mission US are to help students:• Learn how Americans struggled to realize the ideals of liberty and equality• Understand the role of ordinary men and women, including young people, in history• Develop historical empathy • Build understanding and critical perception to think like an historian.RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTWNET collaborates with a multidisciplinary team to create Mission US. Much planning, research, review, and testing with diverse groups of teachers and students goes into the development and creation of each mission and its companion educational materials. Reflecting the latest academic scholarship and incorporating primary source documents, the history content for each mission is developed by a team of historians at the American Social History Project/Center for Media & Learning (ASHP), a research center at the City University of New York Graduate Center. Scholars with expertise in each era serve as advisors. Throughout the development process, researchers from the Center for Children and Technology/Education Development Center conduct focus group testing with students and teachers that helps the game development team address misconceptions about the content each mission explores. The game developer is Electric Funstuff, a company with extensive educational technology experience.SERIOUS GAMINGWinner of the Games for Change Award for Most Significant Impact, Mission US is part of a growing body of "serious games" that immerse users in historical and contemporary problems in ways that encourage perspective-taking, discussion, and weighing of multiple kinds of evidence. Research has shown that, by assuming the roles of peers from the past, students develop a more personal, memorable, and meaningful connection with complex historical content and context. MISSIONS“For Crown or Colony?” puts players in the shoes of Nat Wheeler, a printer’s apprentice in 1770 Boston. They encounter both Patriots and Loyalists, and when rising tensions result in the Boston Massacre, they must choose where their loyalties lie.  A brand-new version of this game is now available! Learn more.In “Flight to Freedom,” players take on the role of Lucy, a 14-year-old girl enslaved in Kentucky who escapes to Ohio. As Lucy joins a community of abolitionists, players discover that life in the “free” North is dangerous and difficult. In 1850, the Fugitive Slave Act threatens all African Americans in the North and brings new urgency to the anti-slavery movement.In “A Cheyenne Odyssey,” players become Little Fox, a Northern Cheyenne boy whose life is changed by the encroachment of white settlers, railroads, and U.S. military expeditions.  As buffalo diminish and the U.S. expands westward, players experience the Cheyenne's persistence through conflict and national transformation.In “City of Immigrants,” players navigate New York’s Lower East Side as Lena, a young Jewish immigrant from Russia. Trying to save money to bring her parents to America, she works long hours in a factory for little money and gets caught up in the growing labor movement. In “Up from the Dust,” players take on the roles of twins Frank and Ginny Dunn, whose family wheat farm is devastated by the Great Depression and Dust Bowl. As they experience the hardships of the 1930s, players learn about Americans’ strategies for survival – as individuals, communities, and a nation. “Up from the Dust” is available online and as free iPad and Windows 10 apps.IMPACTMultiple research studies have found using Mission US leads to measurable gains in students' historical knowledge and skills, and yielded positive feedback from teachers. Most recently, a major summative study by Education Development Center (EDC) found that students who studied the Great Depression and Dust Bowl using Mission US significantly outperformed those who studied these topics using typical materials on standardized measures of U.S. history knowledge and skill. The Mission US group showed a 14.9% knowledge gain from pretest to posttest; the other group’s gain was less than 1%. See Research and Evaluation for summaries of past Mission US studies. PRAISE FOR MISSION USWith well over two million registered users across the fifty states and beyond, Mission US continues to earn honors and praise from educators, parents, students, and critics. See Awards and Reviews for a list of selected accolades, reviews, and testimonials.For more information, visit the Help page.  Get updates about Mission US on Facebook and Twitter.  To share your feedback or for assistance, email us via the contact form on this site. 
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