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ISRAEL BIBLE CENTER - Dr Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg The Certificate in Jewish Context and Culture program consists of 24 mini-courses. It covers topics including: Hebrew Language, and much more!
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COL - Chabad On Line \\ " - " Chabad-Lubavitch news: judaism, jewish, jew, torah, jewish education, chasidus, chassidus, hasidim, hasidism, learn, talmud, library, rebbe, lubavitch, chabad, habad, moshiach, mashiach, messiah, rabbi, parshah, parsha, holidays, god, faith, israel, spirituality, bible, education
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Forex No Deposit Bonus Forex Deposit Bonus|Many Forex Many Forex Find World’s latest Forex Promotion Offers Forex No Deposit Bonus,Demo Contest,Forex Deposit Bonus and Broker Reviews
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Less Than After - Christian Rock Band South Texas Christian Rock band Less Than After exists to see people come to know Jesus. Our heart is lead people to a place where they honestly and sincerely praise the Creator of heaven and earth.
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Center for Biblical Theology and Eschatology Reformation and Reformed Christian Recources Library. Biblical Theology, Eschatology and Bible Studies in the historic Reformed Protestant tradition of the doctrines of Grace. by Tony Warren
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Mes carnets de voyages à l''étranger et hors de France continentale... (tout ce que vous avez toujours voulu savoir) 45 destinations décrites. Les destinations les plus récentes: Joyaux de TOSCANE et les CINQUE TERRE, Grand Ouest américain, Afrique australe: Afrique du Sud, Swaziland, Chutes Victoria (Zimbabwe), Parc Chobe Botswana) les îles des Cyclades, Malte, Inde du nord, vallées du Gange et de la Yamuna (de Delhi à Bénarès), Japon, Italie du nord (Sud Tyrol, Lacs, Lombardie), Yunnan, Ouzbékistan... MORAUTHELI http://recitdevoyage.free.fr/tous%20les%20carnets%20de%20voyages%20et%20recits%20de%20voyages/ target=_blank Tous les récits de voyages http://www.voyageurdumonde.com/ http://www.bonplanvoyage.com/ http://www.triparoundtheworld.com/ http:/www.quandpartir.com/ http:/www.routard.com http:/www.capaustral.com Récits et témoignages illustrés (nombreuses photographies, musiques MP3 ou Wav, diaporamas et videos) de voyages à travers le monde et hors de France continentale: voyage en pays étrangers, voyages dans des pays étrangers, voyager à l''étranger, territoires et départements d''outre-mer tout ce que vous avez toujours voulu savoir sans jamais oser le demander crdp, encyclopédie, mon carnet de voyage, mes itinéraires et circuits, mon carnet de voyages, mes conseils pratiques de voyage, mon récit de voyage, mes témoignages de voyages, mes récits de voyages, mes carnets de voyages, mes photos de voyages, mes diaporamas de voyages, mes vidéos de voyages, mes impressions de voyages, mon journal de bord et mes carnets de route, mon carnet de bord et mon journal, mon livre de bord, ainsi commence peu à peu un véritable tour du monde, une marche mondiale en quête de toujours plus agréables vacances, errances à travers le monde, travels arround the world, worldwide holidays, trips and journeys arround the world, es voyagistes et tours operators: voyages internationaux, Fram, Jet Tour, Vacances Transat, Look, Marmara, Asia, Visiteurs en Asie, Asia, Salaun Holidays (travels), National Tours, Jollivet, achats de cadeaux et souvenirs en rapporter aux amis, précautions sanitaires, connaître la monnaie et les possibilité de change dans le pays (retraits avec carte bancaire), les pourboires à laisser aux guides, dans les hôtels...), les décalages horaires, tout connaître de l''histoire et de la géographie des pays: relief, climat, population, économie, religions, culture et traditions (musique, danse, théâtre, arts graphiques et plastiques), sans oublier un chapitre encyclopédique sur la gastronomie et la nourriture, moines, monastère, abbaye, CRDP, wikipédia, encyclopédie Encarta, encyclopédie Universalis, guides touristiques: Hachette, collection guides VOIR, le guide du Routard, le Petit Futé, Lonely Planet, Editions MICHELIN Coll. Guide de tourisme (guide vert), Encyclopædia Universalis, guide vert Michelin, guide bleu Michelin, guides Marcus, guides Neos, Bibliothèque du Voyageur des Editions Gallimard, Collection Bibliothèque du voyageur, éditions Assimil, Guides Bleus Evasion, éditions Bonechi , Bibiothèque du voyageur aux Editions Hachette , Editions Irving Weisdorf & Co Ltd, Editions Michelin Tourisme Guides Nelles, Editions Mondéos Guides Mondéos, Editions GALLIMARD Collection Découvertes , Editions HACHETTE Tourisme, guides Mondeos l''essentiel du voyage, Editions Mondeos, Editions du voyage, collection Guide Evasion en France, vols transcontinentaux et vols intérieurs, un regard anthropologique sans être anthropologue, une démarche ethnographique sans être ethnologue sur l''étrangeté que représente l''étranger,Editions HACHETTE Coll. Guide Evasion en France, Editions Fernand Nathan, Editions la documentation française, EDL Editions, Editions Arts et Vie, Edition Mistretta, Editions GEO/Prisma Presse,Editions del Hippocampo, Lonely Planet, Collection Passions d''ailleurs aux Editions LAROUSSE magazine LOOK Live la Biennale et la Mostra Editions h.f. ullmann-Tandem Verlag GmbH magasine GEO Collection Cartoville aux Editions Gallimard Pyrénées Collection GEOGUIDE aux Editions Gallimard Loisirs Collection Le Guide Rando aux Editions Rando Ibos Pyrénées-orientales émission Echappées Belles France 5 Gaudí OpenStreetMap des milliers d''amis avec les compte Facebook ou Twitter 1997 LONDRES London 1998 LISBONNE Lisboa 1999 IRLANDE 2000 QUÉBEC 2001 TURQUIE orientale 2002 ÉGYPTE 2003 THAÏLANDE 2004 MEXIQUE 2005 GRÈCE 2006 VIETNAM 2007 INDE DU SUD 2007 ANDALOUSIE 2007 MAROC 2008 SRI LANKA 2008 CHINE 2009 CUBA 2009 CORSE (CORSICA) 2009 RAJASTHAN (et Âgrâ et Delhi) 2010 SICILE 2010 JORDANIE/PALESTINE (ISRAEL) 2011 PEROU (PÉROU) 2011 sud-ouest de la TURQUIE, autour de la Lycie 2011 Venise 2012 BIRMANIE (Myanmar) 2012 Istanbul 2012 CATALOGNE Barcelone 2012 CATALUNYA Barcelona 2012 Madagasikara 2012 MADAGASCAR 2013 MADÈRE Madère Madeira 2013 INDONESIE: Java, Bali, Celebes (SUlawesi) 2013 SINGAPOUR Singapore 2014 LAOS 2014 CAMBODGE 2014 Italie du Sud (Mezzogiorno) 2014 OUZBEKISTAN 2015 YUNNAN 2015 Italie du nord: Lombardie, Grands Lacs, Milan EXPO, Dolomites, Innsbruck (Autriche) 2015 JAPON 2016 INDE DU NORD VALLE DU GANGE 2016 MALTE 2016 CYCLADES (Grèce) 2017 AFRIQUE AUSTRALE (Afrique du sud, Swaziland, Zimbabwe, Botswana) 2017 Grand Ouest américain 2017 TOSCANE et CINQUE TERRE NOS GUIDES: Su Su en Birmanie Yangon Rangoon Rangoun A Londres, notre guide GARRETT (ou GARETH ?); en Irlande, notre guide Marie; au Québec, notre guide Claude; au Mexique, notre guide Jésus; en Andalousie, notre guide Eric; en Grèce, notre guide ΗΣΠΙΔΑ (Espida autrement dit Espérance); en Turquie orientale, notre guide Kémal; au Maroc (Maghreb), notre guide Jamel (ou Djamel) et le chauffeur Brahim (ou Ibrahim); en Inde du sud, notre guide Sanjay Mandiekar; au Sri Lanka (Ceylan), notre guide Sina; en Thaïlande, notre guide Yaé; au Viêt Nam, nos guides Phuong et Cuong; en Chine, nos guides Marc, monsieur Cheng, Mademoiselle Li Yuan, moines, monastère, abbaye, Jean, Philippe et Sophie; à Cuba, notre guide Doris et nos chauffeurs Alberto et Indio; en Corse, notre chauffeur-guide Jean-Marie (pour Ollandini); au Rajasthan, notre guide Dilip, en Sicile avec Notre guide Rosaria (et non Rosalia) et notre chauffeur Luigi pour notre réceptif Accord Viaggi/Sicil Fly, en Jordanie notre guide IYAD pour le réceptif al-Thuraya et en Palestine notre guide chétienne palestinienne HENRIETTE pour O.S. Tours & Travel; au Pérou, notre guide-accompagnateur Carlos Francisco Roca Florido pour le réceptif Solmartours, à la formation de base dans l''agro-tourisme et l''agro-développement, nos guides locales Lydia, Anna, Anna Lucia, Aurora; en Lycie notre guide Nurcan; à Madère notre guide Leonor; à JAVA notre guide Yudi; à BALI notre guide I Gede Suardana; à CELEBES, nos guides Herman et Martin avec le réceptif Panorama Destination; à Singapour: guide Goh Chai Jin dit Charles; au Laos nos guides Vilaphonh VIC et Bounpheng BOUN; au Cambodge SAM Aun; en Italie du sud Rosaria, Lora (Dilora) en Ouzbékistan, Delphine au Yunnan, Mahipal, Hanuman et Sohan en Inde du nord vallée du Gange, Naomichi au Japon, David, Fabricia, Maria, Jacqueline à Malte, Nicolas David et Philippe aux Cyclades, Michèle et Siaka Fungai rangers Erika Bernard Richard Lio en Afrique Australe, Jean Arsenault dans l''Ouest Américain - dans le sud-ouest de la Turquie en voyage promotionnel MDM (Mozaïque du Monde): notre guide Nurcan et notre chauffeur Memhet pour le réceptif ITM International Marketing Service... Palais des Doges (Palazzo Ducale) Basilique Saint Marc, place St Marc, Piazza San Marco, Campanile, Grand Canal, Pont du Rialto, îles de la lagune: Murano, Burano, Torcello, Lido... Biennale et Mostra, festival du cinéma film Luc Besson ''''The Lady'''' Michelle Yeoh David Thewlis - Michael Aris Happy World dictature voyages - Birmans Bamars BURMA censure Pascale pagodes monastères stûpas Meiktila Kalaw Shwe Lin Lun Aung Chan Thar marchés fruits légumes Pindaya Shwe Umin Bouddha ombrelle soie mûrier kyaung Shwe Yaungshwe Nyaung Shwe Lac INLE pirogues à moteur Yadana Man Aung lacustres villages pilotis piliers poteaux teck ethnies tribus Hinthas Inthas artisants Naung Thaw In Phaw Khone Nampan cigares cheroots Kaung Daing Phaung Daw Oo jardins flottants Heyaywama Nga Hpe chats sauteurs Shwe Inn Dein Nyaung Oak chinlon pêc heurs zébus buffle boeuf carriole charrette Thazin Garden Bagan Pagan Bago Pegu Pegou Dhammayazika Novices processions défilé chars ombrelles moines bonzes nonnes bonzesses Myinkapar Shwezigon hti esprits nats Gubyaukgyi Kubyaukgyi Pwasaw Ananda Shwesandaw Thatbyinnyu Sulamani Dhammayangyi Htilominlo Mingalazedi Amarapura longyis longjis dhotis pagnes sarongs Pont U-Bein Lac Taungthaman Maha Gandayon bol aumône marionnettes Mahamyat Muni Mahamuni Rakhines Arakan feuilles or Shwenandaw colline Mandalay Sagaing coucher soleil Kuthodaw Mingun Mantaragyi roi royaume empire Bodawpaya cloche Hsinbyume Myatheindan Ava Innwa Bagaya Maha Aung Mye Bonzan Irrawaddy Ayeyarwady râj colonie britannique Sule centre chiques bétel oiseau Karaweik Kandawgyi Kyaukkhtat Gyi Chaukhtatgyi Aung San Suu Kyi Bogyoke junte militaire - 2012 - ISTANBUL Sérail Sultanahmet Mosquée Bleue Sainte Sophie mosquées cami camii Somiman Ier le Magnifique Süleymaniye Hammam de Roxelane Pont de Galata Tour de Galata quartier de Péra lycée de Galatasaray rue Istiklal Tünel Taksim gare de Sirkeci quais d''Eminönü Beyoglu Yenikoy Besiktas quartier Üsküdar Grand Bazar les caravansérails (han ou hani) Kapi Karsi kasri minbar medersa écoles coraniques cimetières ottomans stèles sultans et sultanat califes et califat Islam Musulmans fontaine des ablutions Köskü Kavagi Hisari yalis en bois (konak) sarayi Lisesi Bosphore Bosphorus Corne d''Or Mar Noire Mer de Marmara croisière Îles aux Princes sultanes circoncision Misir Carsisi turban épices Grand Vizir eunuques noirs harem les femmes lokanta mosaïques Christ Vierge Pantocrator faïences d''Iznik mirhab hijab niqab Byzance Constatinople Istanbul Théodose Constantin Justinien empereurs byzantins ottomans Stamboul Osman Croisades sac janissaires loukoms baklavas épices Seldjoukides doges Venise Vénitiens Génois Gênes vapür Pierre Loti minarets coupoles dômes icônes iconoclastes Rome romain patriarche patriarcat orthodoxe schisme esclaves infidèles roumi rumi Anadolu omeyyade abbasside sunnites chiites voile derviches tourneurs Tour de Léandre Karaköy colonnes piliers obélisque basilique église Citerne pavillon kiosque Yézidis Alaouites Nusayris Noseïris Ansariyas Bedprière Salat Namaz Aube Aurore fajr duhan imsak sabah günes Midi dhur ögle Après-midi asr ikindi Soir maghrib aksam nuit isha''a yatsiesten Beyazit Amher Mahmud Bogazici oumma hippodrome aqueduc réservoir Valens Gülhane porphyre confiseries mezzés pont Köprüsü Bezmialem Abdülmecit Karaköy Abdülaziz Unkapani Hayrat Haliç Cadessi sokagi Pasa Pasha Pacha Khédive d''Egypte Palis de Dolmabahçe Palais de Ciragan Palais de Beylerbeyi Abdül-Mecit Abdül-Aziz qibla ka''ba sadirvan Théodora Comène Zoé Zeus Hera Io baroque rococo Nuruosmaniye Sehzade Yeni Camii - 2012 CATALOGNE Catalunya BARCELONE Barcelona Carcassonne, Fenouillèdes Perpignan châteaux QUéribus Peyrepertuse, aqueduc d''Ansigna, Cucugna, gorges de Galamus Oratoire St Antoine Perpignan: pl. de la Loge, cathédrale, château des rois de Majorque Forteresse de Salses-le-Château orgues d''Ille-sur-Têt village de Castelnou Ortaffa Elne (Ste Eulalie et Ste Julie) Collioure St Génis-des-Fontaines Le Boulou plaine du Roussillon (nord) pays de Salanque pays du Ribéral pays des Aspres plaine du Roussillon (sud) Côte Vermeille massif des Albères Conflent et Cerdagne Prades (église St Pierre) St Michel-de-Cuxa extérieur Corneilla-de-Conflent Villefranche-de-Conflent Mont-Louis village de Dorres randonnées St Martin-de-Fénolar Maureillas-las-Lilas St Ferréol Céret Amélie-les-Bains-Palalda Arles-sur-Tech Gorges de la Fou villages de Corsavy et de Montferrer St Laurent-de-Cerdans village de Coustouges Serralongue Prats-de-Mollo-la Preste chemins de Saint-Jacques-de-Compostelle les Cathares Ripollès Abbaye de Ripoll Sant Joan de les Abadesses Alt Empordà Cadaquès Castello d''Empuries Vestiges antiques d''Emporion Peratallada Baix Empordà Palau-sator Pals Vulpellac Giroan Gérone Figuères Vieux quartiers Cathédrale et musée capitulaire Santa Maria Bains arabes et chapelle St Pere de Galligants Eglise Sant Feliu Sant Cugat del Vallès Montserrat ermitages langue occitan catalan Barri Gotic Santa Sant Eulalia cathédrale église basilique Maria las Ramblas (Boqueria, Mercat) Plaça Reial (Place Royale) Palau Güell Plaça de la Pau (Place de la Paix) Montjuic Marché aux Fleurs Palau Nacional (Musée National d''Art de Catalogne - MNAC) Plaça d''Espanya (Place d''Espagne) et Poble Espanyol Sagrada Familia façades Passion Nativité Gloire clocher flèches Plaça de Catalunya (Place de Catalogne) Palau de la Musica Catalana Illa de la Discordia (Passeig de Gracia) Casa Batllo Avinguda Diagonal Casa Mila quartier Eixample (Quadrat d''Or) Parc Güell architecte Antoni Gaudí i Cornet maîtres Art Nouveau oeuvres Lluís Domènech i Montaner Josep Puig i Cadafalch Joseph Domenech i Estapà - 2012 Madagasikara à MADAGASCAR avec nos chauffeurs Patrick, Dominique, Jean-Jacques et Mamy et les guides des réserves Jean Lamour, Jean-Baptiste, Arthur, Jimmy, Méthode, Robinson, Charline, Justin, Agathe et Emma l''agence A la carte A Mada de Richard Philippe RAKOTOARISON HERIVOLA Monny nos hôtels favoris Chalet des Roses à Tana Le Lac à Samhambavy, Gaspard à Ranomafana Isalo Ranch à Ranohira, Baobab Café à Morondava et Tanakoay à Bekopaka Voyage privatif à la carte Olivier Pelaez du Ranch Solaris Mangily-Ifaty les bonnes adresses de restaurants Les Bougainvilliers Bougainvillées à Ambaloavao Meanbe à Belo sur Tsiribihina Mad Zébu les ateliers d''artisant en raphia cocottes en aluminium à Ambatolampy cornes de zébus Chez les Six Frères à Antsirabe lapidaire jaoillier Taillerie de la Ville d''Eau Chez Joseph Antsirabe confoseur bonbons Chez Marcel vers à soie Chez Clarisse et Haingo à Manandona Sculpture sur bois Arts Malagasy Jean et Frèreet marqueterie à Ambositra Manufacture de thé TAF Sidexam à Sahambavy forgerons Ajamba plantation et distillerie d''huiles essentielles Manakara Canal des Pangalanes Papier antaimoro Ambalavao mines gisements de saphirs Colorline Marc Noverraz Ilakaka Réserve privée Hôtel Vakôna Parc National Analamazaotra Réserve de l''Ialatsara IADE Ambohimahasoa rova palais de la reine Ambohimanga Colline Bleue gite Bakobako visite nocturne forêt primaire relief ruiniforme karstique double funérailles pisteurs lémuriens lemur microcèbe hapalemur maki catta vary eulemur Tananarive train FCE TCE détaillement locomotive motrice Mamitours en 4x4 taxi-brousse paludisme pauvreté feux de brousse brûlis charbon de bois geckos lézards iguanes caméléons serpents fossas araignées prédateurs autronésiens zébus rizières en terrasses Irondro orpaillage chutes cascades canyons sifakas ou propithèques crocodiles du nil Fianarantsoa gare thermes briques latérite cases arbre du voyageur ravenala ou ravinala sisal hotely gargote gargotte chariots et charrettes port terres rares royaume Merina vezo sakalava roi Radama Ranavalona Ratsiraka Ravalomanana Andry Rajoelina maire président Transition HAT agon barrière de corail Antaimoro ou Antemoro mora mora culte des ancêtres tombeaux Manao ahoana Veloma totems funéraires érotiques Route Nationale 7 bandits dahalo voleurs embuscades déliquance corruption Daniel Rajaona thé et théiers Radoniaina Angelo Rakotoarisoa Rakotoarison Patrimoine Mondial de l''UNESCO Patrimoine de l''Humanité de l''UNESCO pachypodiums tapias bivouac Namaza escalde et spéélo vertige Forêt de Zombitse-Vahibasia ethnies Antandroy et Mahafaly Bara Andranavory Sakaraha alaolo Tollagnaro Fort Dauphin Tuléar Toliara Canal du Mozambique cactées aride et désertique faune et flore maqsuillage masque tabaky ravitoto romazava de zébu aux brèdes mafana mangrove bungalows moustiquaires alizé et mousson langoustes et camarons gambas plage pirogue balancier Famadihana cérémonie exhumation retournement des morts fady tabous interdits grottes tombe vazimba Circuit Andamazavaky failles diaclases sacré Manjakandriana Moramanga Mitsinjo indri indri aye aye ravinstara ylang ylang Analamazaotra guide Rakotovao farwest Rova Manjakamiadana palais du roi Andrianampoinimerina avenue de l''Indépendance Araben''ny fahaleovantena hôtel de ville Lapan'' Ny Tanana Lac Anosy - 2013 MADERE Madère Madeira MADÈRE Funchal barbares Alains Romains arabo-berbères hispano-mauresque manuélin styme mudéjar Alcácer Alphonse Jean Algarve Fernand de Magellan Fernão Magalhaes colons colonisation Brésil navigateurs Révolution de Septembre, du Minho, de Patuleia Oeillets révolte Manuel Antonio de Oliveira Salazar dictature dictateur fascisme Estado Novo 1974 socialiste Mário Soares crise PIGS austérité légende amants Robert McKean (ou Robert Mac Keen) et Anna de Harfet (ou Anne d?Arfet ou Dorset) Henri le navigateur, João Gonçalves Zarco et Tristão Vaz Teixeira Bartolomeu Perestrelo découverte conquête Christophe Colomb corsaire français, Pierre Bertrand de Montluc vigne vin vendanges cépages vinification ZEE archipel Macaronésie alizés vent vinho verde poire pêra-rocha Mangualde banaes bananeraies volcans sous-marin basalte orgues Pico Ruivo supercontinent Gondwana dérive des continents forêts sempervirentes écorégion biotope écosystème bione Porto Santo îles Desertas (Désertes) ilhas ilheus îles Selvagens (Sauvages) Câmara de Lobos Machico Santa Cruz Santana Caniço de Baixo Malvasia São Vicente et Ribeira da Janela Porto da Cruz Faial vendanges raisin Malvoisie Tinta negra mole phoques moines Pointe St Laurent espada sabre noir pêche port pêcheurs Nossa Senora Estreito Campanário Ribeira Brava Madelena do Mar randonnée levadas canaux irrigation laura silva laurasilva primaire Bao Morte Quinta Grande cap falaise Cabo Girão Preikestolen Koh Phi Phi belvédère panorama mirador miradouro à-pic point de vue Fajã crique plage cirque sable noir galets São Bento transepts Ponta do Sol Porto Moniz piscines naturelles lave Seixal N-Dame Notre-Dame Ponta do Garajau Lido Riu Palace Reis Magos Ponta de São Lourenço paquebots bateaux de croisières Caniçal baleines cachalots Prainha Baia da Abra marina Quinta do Lorde Ilhéu îlot rocher Rosto Castelo Espigão Amarelo Clérigo Jorge canne à sucre distillerie Companhia dos Engehos do Norte alcool (aguardente) rhum Guindaste Rocha da Aguia casas de colmo toits chaume chaumières Navio Viuva Arco excursions plateau Paul da Serra landes maquis incendies eucalystus laurier fétide til (Ocotea Foetens) vipérine arbuste plante parc photovoltaïque éolien Festa da Tosquia Rabaçal Boca da Encumeada Estalagem auberge Corrida Serra de Agua Mountain Expeditions 4x4 jeep chemins forestiers pistes littoral côtes hameaux villages Curral das Freiras soeurs religieuses nonnes Cristóvão chapelle Eira do Serrado poncha caralhinho mexelote Jardim jardins parcs Serra Antonio Martinho faubourgs quartiers coq de Barcelos St Jacques de Compostelle Santo Domingo de la Calzada miracles Poço da Neve glacière sorbets Arieiro sommet Ribeiro Frio saxifrages orchidées chrysanthème renoncules Balcões col passe Passo do Poisso endémique autochtones faune flore genre famille botaniques Botânico Quinta do Bom Sucesso Quinta do Lago Boa Vista quintas Palheiro Ferreiro (propriété des Blandys) Orquidea Almirante Reis espèces variétés William Reid botanistes Carlos Azevado de Meneses fougères arborescentes ficoïdes palmiers pandanus cycas aloès yuccas agaves agapanthes mosaïculture irésine heliconias oiseaux de paradis Strelitzia Jacaranda Tipuana tipu Tulipier du Gabon érythrine psittaciformes perruches, inséparables, perroquets et aras Fortaleza de São João Baptista Camphrier Dragonniers A Parreira dîner-spectacle Roque bolo do caco bolo de mel pain d''épices brochette espetada bailhino braguinha guitare brinquinho Monte Terreiro da Luta gare crémaillère d''Autriche Hongrie Bohême carros de cesto luge traineau paniers d''osier carroceiros Grande Hôtel Belmonte Livramento Comboio Mercado dos Lavradores marché laboureurs rua Brigadeiro maracuja légumes fruits pimpinela annona chouchous chayottes ou christophines Praça de Peixe Visconde de Andia Broderies Adolfo Aires de Freitas Patrício et João de Deus Magno Gouveia fabrique atelier usine manufacture Ferreiros Município mairei hôtel de ville Collège des Jésuites (ou São João Evangelista) Ursule comtede Carvalhal vieillissement Garrafeiras Colheitas estufagem millésime canteiro liqueur Henriques & Henriques, la Madeira Wine Company (famille Blandy), Vinhos Barbeitos, Vinhos Justino Henriques, Filhos, Pereira d''Oliveira Vinhos, Silva Vinhos Museu Quinta das Cruzes César Filipe Gomes legs John Wetzler collectionneur orfèvre caixas de açucar fajôco Casa-Museu Frederico de Freitas Calçada de Santa Clara monastère clarisses dominicaines Franciscaines (Congregação das Franciscanas Missionárias de Maria) Gonçalo de Amarante Sainte Claire Ordre de Saint-François d''Assise maître-autel Avenida Ariaga la Sé cathédrale statue de Sissi dans le parc du Casino Infante da Vigia blason Restaurante dos Combatentes da Flor Saint Laurent Street Art exil imératrice Franz l''empereur François-Joseph Autriche Bacalhau a la narciso morue Açorda soupe sopa Baile da Rosa roses Largo do Chafariz, Avenida Arriaga, Palácio de S. Lourenço, Largo Phelps et Praça da Restauração Mur de l''Espérance tapis de fleurs chars allégoriques fleuris défilé cortège Festa da Flor João Egidio Rodrigues Isabel Borges Ecole de samba Caneca Furada Geringonca Fabrica de Sonhons Turma do Funil Furia Samba Bairro da Argentina Sorrisos de Fantasia Praça do Mar Sá Carmeiro navire caravelle caraque ou nef Robert Wijntje mâts voiles Santa Maria La Pinta La Niña gaillard dunette cale pont claire-voie des écoutilles placées sur le surbau vigie roulis cétacés croix Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo Arriero et Amparo Ajuda - 2013 INDONESIE JAVA Jakarta Solo Surakarta Surabaya Mojokerto Yogyakarta kraton pasar Pasuruan Malang volcan Gunung Bromo Tengger Madura Nusa Prambanan Borobudur Bahyuwangi Monts Penanjakan Yudi Sangiran Flores Moluques Timor Papouasie Bornéo Sumatra Kalimantan Lombok Wajak Austronésiens Mataram Majapahit Demak Agung VOC Semeru Merapi Malacca Bongaya Gowa Hasanuddin Bone Palakka Arumpone Luwu Malangke Soekarno Sukarno Soeharto Suharto Komodo Sanjaya Sailendra BALI I Gede Suardana Medewi Pura Tanah Lot Hayam Wuruk Kertanegara de Singasari Ngurah Rai Revolusi bali-sasak kriss legong barong sarong sarung gamelan Tri Hita Karana Kopi Luwak subak abian kepeng Gilimanuk Agama Hindu Dharma Candi Bantar kaja Suraya kelod Brahmâ Canang Sari crémations bûcher To Manurung wesia ou vaishyas sudra ou shudra satria Shatria Sanur Denpasar Batubulan Mas Celuk Bedulu Ubud Jimbaran warung Ngaben mukur Falun Dafa Gong apotek notaris Durga Kunta Kalika Rangda Sahadewa Goa Gajah sarcophage Ubud Baturiti Batu Riti Ulun Danu Bratan Jatiluwih Luhur Batukaru Pacung Mengwi Dewi sacrifices Odal kebaya kamben bindis (ou tilaks) turban udeng Sebatu Tampak Siring Penelokan Kintamani Batur Bangli Kehen pededong-gedongan limage dents lepasaon ou kepusodel tipattaluh ou ketipatkukur tigabulanan tutugkambuhan otonan Pawukon-o Wukuo Upacara Pontong gigi vices ceinture selandong ou sabuk Ramayana pis bolong sesari Tirta Empul Gunung Kawi Danau Landih Hayu Bihi Padmasana Kintamani Gianyar Klungkung Besakih Goa Lawah salines Kusamba Saka Odalan Otonan Tumpek NyepiSang Yangh Widi Umum Malam tamarille ou tamarillo salak Taman Gili Kertha Gosa puputan Kanda Pat Sari ou Kandi Pat Sare Yama Chitragupta Bale Kambang Mahâbhârata Penataran Madeg Kiduling Kreteg Rendang Bandar Udara Bukit Rinjani Maccinibaji CELEBES SULAWESI Dayaks Philippines archipels Batacres Torajas Leang-Leang La Galigo Tallo Wajo Minahasa Semenanjung Timur Selatan Makassar Macassar gorontalo pamona buton Para Pare Bugis pinisi dewata Sangiang Serri pics Mangisi Buttu Bolang Tananti Pema Nona Lansa Noni Tangru Puang Saruran Sidrap Enrekang Makale Pongtiku Rantepao Sa''dan Plawa Pallawa Lempo Batutumonga Bolu Marante Bori PangalaAluk Todolo tongkonan Ambe Tonduk Tominaa Bassi Bulaan Karurung Kuakua esclaves Tokapua Tomakaka Tobuda tau-tau effigies layuk adat pekamberan batu rumah asap to masaki Puang Sambolinggi alang babiroussa Rumah Makan Pa''piong Manuk brochettes Babi Pamarasan arak arrack kluwek, keluwek, keluak ou atau kluak kepayang roupies rupiahs buffles bufalo kérabau ou karbau Madandan Londa Lemo Kambira Makula Buntu Kalando dons cadeaux machette parang lantang turut berduka cita sépultures (liang) (menyatakan duka mendalam anak cucu cercueils suspendus SAGADA Luzon niches tombes tombeaux sépultures sepak takraw Ma''nene Puya foetus morts-nés nouveaux-nés bébés menirs mégalithes orphelinat fanfare orchestre Yayasan Mala''bi Pa''Pompang Pa''Bas combats de coqs combats de buffles toucans calaos sangliers anoas Bonto Bonto Fort Rotterdam Néerlandais palmiers à huile silkair Garuda - 2013 SINGAPOUR guide Goh Chai Jin Charles Récit de voyage à Singapour Singapore Carnet de voyage à Singapour Singapore Séjour à Singapour Singapore MORAUTHELI Cité-État Temasek Singapoura royaume de Srivijaya (Sumatra) roi Hayam Wuruk de Majapahit Parameswara Sang Nila Utama prince de Palembang symbole du lion Indes Néerlandaises Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles comptoir commerce colonie de la couronne de Malacca aux Anglais Straits Settlements premier Premier Ministre, Lee Kuan Yew l''un des quatre Dragons Asiatiques Lee Hsien Loong People''s Action Party (PAP) péninsule malaise détroit de Johor Pulau Ujong climat tropical chaud et humide taux de fécondité dénatalité HDB (Housing and Development Board) citoyens résidents (philippins, bangladais, sri-lankais, japonais, coréens, indiens, malais, malaisiens, anglo-saxons, tamouls) bouddhistes mahayana musulmans chrétiens taoistes mandarin Détroit de Karimata île de Palau Bintan réceptif Amerasia célibat gouverneur T.S. Raffles poldérisation remblais arrasements comblement digue Palau Semakau pétrochimie industeis port porte-conteneurs une nation sécuritaire arrestation emprisonnement drogues embouteillages circulation système de taxation-télépayage électronique Electronic Road Pricing (ERP) Marina Bay gratte-ciel Gateway architecture urbaniseme Ieoh Ming Pei ArtScience Museum Singapore Flyer MBS, Marina Bay Sand Gardens by the Bay The Grove Jardin National des Orchidées (National Orchid Garden) orchidée nationale Vanda Miss Joaquim Little India église méthodiste Kampong Kapor temple hindou Sri Veeramakallamman dédié à Kali façade colorée Ministère de la Culture, de l''Information et des Arts (MICA) îlot urbain Clarke Quay Royal Selangor Pewter Center (Royal Selangor Gallery), Senor Taco, Highlander anciennes jonques chinoises (tongkangs) Colonial District) Parlement Cour Suprême cathédrale Saint Andrew City Hall OCBC Bank (Oversea-Chinese Banking Corp Ltd), Royal Group, Onera The Sail Boat Quay hôtel Fullerton Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay May Bank, HSBC, DBS, Stra Chinatown quartier chinois restaurant Yum Cha Dim Sum rouleaux de printemps, raviolis, nouilles, riz, légumes sautés beignet de banane May Bank, HSBC, DBS, Straits Trading, Bank of America Buddha Tooth Relic Temple and Museum Santa Grand Hotel restaurant Yum Cha Dim Sum rouleaux de printemps raviolis nouilles riz légumes sautés et beignet de banane - 2014 LAOS guides VIC Vilaphonh et BOUN Récit de voyage au Laos Carnet de voyage au Laos Séjour au Laos pays millions sourires million éléphants royaume vestige Plaine Jarres civilisation Dvaravati Wat Phou Vat Phu populations Thaï Nan-Chao Chine Yunnan Mongol Kubilai Khan tête empire chinois ethnie Thaï hommes libres Moyen Mékong culture khmère Fa Ngum bouddhisme Theravâdâ origines bouddhisme Petit Véhicule Bouddha d''Emeraude Wat That Luang conquis Birmanie Birmans souverain siamois thaï protectorat Auguste Pavie vice-consul commissaire général État Union française Indochine Pathet Lao Savang Vatthana Sisavang Vong trône abolition monarchie abdication Viêt Nam Viêt Minh piste Hô Chi Minh accords paix Parti révolutionnaire populaire lao République démocratique RDPL camps prisonniers politiques reine Khamphoui Chao mines ASEAN Association nations Sud-Est asiatique Perestroïka Glasnost URSS chef Etat est Choummaly Souriya Sayasone Premier Ministre est Thongsing Thammavong frontière typhons saisons plateau Bolovens population millions habitants croyances indigènes composition ethnique ethnies Lao Loum Lao Theung Lao Lao Sung Hmong Meo langues taïes-kadaïes alphabet siamois langue tonale sip L daph wan tchan t''ngai jan deuan minaa L mee nah khop chay L or koon nam L teuk PIB-PPA Parité Pouvoir Achat agriculture subsistance forêt primaire déforestation palissandre bois rose benjoin devises Vietnam Airlines Boeing 777 Réceptif ASEV Asie Sud Est Voyage François Foulon cambodge notre guide Vilaphonh VIC Sacha Bollet émission Echappées France 5 Belles Annaliese WULF Jürgen BERGMAN Berthold SCHWARZ Baw pen nyang tricycles samlos motos-taxis tuk-tuk jumbo Huay Xai chikungunya A/H1N1 frontale monnaie Kips LAK Vols arrachée Arc Triomphe Patuxay Setthathirath Wat Phra Keo Wat Sisaket Pha That Luang Marché Thalat Sao Siddharta Gautama illuminé BOUDDHA Sakyamuni Amitabha empereur Ashoka communauté monastique ascèse hédonisme Dharma Sangha Maitreya Mahayana Avalokitesvara déité Véhicule Tantrique Vajrayana Kualao bornes kilométriques pétanque Trimurti Mercure statue roi Fa Ngum siamois Ayutthaya Korat Wat Inpeng Wat Ong Teu Wat Mixai Ambassade Brunei Nam Phu Bibliothèque Nationale Palais Présidentiel Si Chiang Mai Nong Khai Anouvong Wat Xieng Nheum Talat Khan Kham Wat Phra Keo Wat Sisaket galerie gouttière sacrée eau bénite lustrale nagas dragons Nouvel An bouddhiste Boun Pii Mai Laos Chaul Chnam Thmey Cambodge Pha That Luang Setthathirath Ecole française Extrême-orient EFEO Pah Vet Wat That Luang Thai fidèles pèlerins adeptes Ton Nam potage crudités sauté curry Thalat Sao Kamu ou khamu ou Khmu villages pratiques animistes chamans Hmonglangue sino-tibétaine sinisés Hans Chinois plain pied héritage colonial foyers brasero Poêle New Lao Stove NLS Broussonetia papyrifera Col Phôn Hông Tam Tjang Nam Ngum échoppes sauces pâtes Nam Song Phou Din Daeng canoës canoés kayaks chambres air rafting montgolfières VTT escalade spéléo Ban Phatang Phou Hinlek Fai Nam Lik Vieng Kham Phou Khoun Phou Khoun Phien Fa fumerie opium vache qui rit Con bo cuoi alcool pattes ours noir collier blanc bhikkhuni cpréceptes vinaya robe sanghati uttarasanga antaravasaka kayabandhana patta bol quête aumône vaasi rasoir suuci aiguille filtre parissavana uppraspivhina añsa nisidana Muong Soua Muong Luang Phrah Arts Traditionnels Iko Katu Tai Lue âme khouan phi Wat Xieng Thong Wat Sene minicroisière sim salle prière lapis-lazuli Arbre Vie rassasi Sakkarine Wat Sene Souk Haram Manivanh Kitsalat Som pa filet Tak Bat quête écharpe vapeur jupe lao traditionnelle sinh riz gluant khai niew Phosy Couleur Café Sainamkhan River View bistrot cassolette oh lam laap kai mangoustan goji açaï litchi litchee Wat Pak Khan Wat Khili Wat Souvankhiri Xieng Khouang Ban Xang Khong Ban Xieng Lek Wat Pha Houak Airâvata Phaya Si Mahanam Phya In trois joyaux Jambupati Hos Pavillons noirs chinois Deo-van-Tri Bounkhong Wat That Wat Phra Mahathat reliquaire Dyen Sabai passerelle bambou Ban Phan Luan Wat Phan Luang Ratsouda Ram Khoundouangchan Wat Pak Ha Xaingaram crématoire Dara Market Wat Manorom bénédiction cordelette Roots & Leaves Baci nuptial phousao fiancé fiancailles phoubao Soukhouane ONG batelier Pak Ou épervier cigales latex Phou Pha Hen sentier Tam Phum Kamu Lodge Ban Yoi Hai Groupe Apple Tree gérant Olivier Trafial Lutecia Koh Samui riz cantonnais Sine Savan Sine Tjoup lao lum arbalète flèches beignets drapeau cohue Ban Xang Hai Tad Khouang Xi papillons Ban Naouane lao loum Ban Ou Ban Taphen Free The Bears eaux turquoises cascade émincés Butterfly Park légumes indica riz gluant Khao Niao khao niao moon khao niao kluay Kali Kaï Lap Kaï Saikow Say Houaa saucisse boudin sang Mok Pa Tam Mak Hung Kai Ping Som Pa Som Mou Sine Hèng Sine Lot Lao Airlines EADS consortium franco-italien Aerei da Trasporto Regionale ATR 72 Paksé Pakse Bounpheng camp réeducation napalm défoliants bombes hindo-bouddhique WAT PHU Dork Khoun café Bolovens Patrimoine Mondial UNESCO Kuruksetra Shrestapura Henri Mouhot bassins artificiels barays Suryavarman II phallique lingam symbole shivaïte frangipaniers pyramide degrés Jayavarman IV Udayadityavarman II Bhima Jarasandha kala cella voûte encorbellement yoni Kbal Spean trimurti trinité hindouiste Shiva Brahmâ VishnuPierre Sacrifices Rocher Eléphants mpreinte pied Bouddha Nafang Yai antennes paraboliques Hat Xai Khun Don Không archipel Muang Không Pon Arena Don Không ''''4000 îles'''' Don Som Don Loppadi Don Khon Don Khone Don Det arches Wat Khon Tai Li Phi Somphamit M. Noy papillotes Hua Det Khong Hang Ban Houay Hou Behanzin Doudart Lagrée amiral Grandière Dr Mougeot vapeur Argus lieutenant Garnier Vat Phuang Kaew Wat Phouang Keo nam oy kon bonbons candi Vat Hin Siew Ban Hinsiew Tai latanier ôle tripitakaPhapheng Veun Khamformalités pots vin - 2014 CAMBODGE guide SAM Récit de voyage au Cambodge Carnet de voyage au Cambodge Séjour au Cambodge Siddharta Gautama illuminé BOUDDHA Sakyamuni Amitabha empereur Ashoka communauté monastique ascèse hédonisme Dharma Sangha Maitreya Mahayana Avalokitesvara déité Véhicule Tantrique Vajrayana Ashoka Ceylan Sri Lanka stûpas Angkor empire khmer mélanésien Môns sanscri Fou-nan kampuchéa krom Chenla Chen La vassal Fou-nan Wentan Jayavarman II principautés aménagements hydrauliques (baray) culte du Dieu-roi (Devaraja) Shiva Vishnou Vishnu Chams Jayavarman VII Champa bouddhisme Theravâdâ Petit Véhicule mahayana Kubilai Khan Theravada rivalités interdynastiques Angkor Thom décadence Chey Chetta II tribut de vassalité Viêt Nam Cochinchine suzeraineté Ang Duong Paul Doume Gia Long Ang Chan II annexion Norodom Ier Son Ngoc Thanh révolte des ombrelles nationalisme khmer Sisowath Monivong Norodom Sihanouk Battambang Siem Reap Son Ngoc Thanh guérilla indépendantiste Accords de Genève indépendantistes Khmers issarak Viet Minh neutralité Viêt Cong piste Ho Chi Minh Khmers rouges maoïste Angkar Parti communiste du Kampuchéa (PCK) général Lon Nol coup d''état Kampuchéa mines Khieu Samphân Pol Pot Saloth Sâr Norodom Sihamoni PPC, le Parti du Peuple Cambodgien PSNC Parti du Sauvetage National du Cambodge CNRP - Cambodia National Rescue Party PDH Parti des Droits de l''Homme Sam Rainsy Le premier ministre Hun Sen Mékongmôn-khmères cursive sanskrit pali crise asiatique balance commerciale riels monoculture hévéa Nouveau Poêle Lao (New Lao Stove ou NLS) textile grèves manifestations réprimées violence cadastre Sam AUN réceptif TÂM Travel tuktuk tuk-tuk insurrection collectivisation Phnom Penh ruines camps de rééducation persécutions religieuses Douch Duch Kang Kek Ieu Nuon Chea Khieu Samphân Ieng Sary Ieng Thirith riz paddy ornements allégoriques terre vernissée arêtes faîtière Stoeng Treng Stung Treng Krong Stueng Traeng Wat Khat Takyaram Tonle Sekong propagande affiches Kanakpak Pracheachon Kâmpuchéa KPK Heng Samrin Chea Sim Sorsor Mouy Roy Sambor Mékong Kampi dauphins d''eau douce Orcaella brevirostris dauphin de l''Amazone Inia geoffrensis Kratie Krong Krachen Viêtminhs Odom Sambath Preah Soramarith Phsar Kratie écharpe gargote fête de la Clarté Qingmingjie Prek Te carrelet tumulus funéraires cham Khmers islam islamisés hévéas Chup Kampong Cham Wat Nokor Phnom Santuk Kampong Thom Sambor Prei Kuk site pré-angkorien Prey Pros Prey Pros River Rest tro u bicorde Siem Reap krolann haricots rouges à l''étouffée Raffles Somadevi Nouvel An Bouddhique Chaul Chnam Thmey Bouddhisme Mahayana Hinayana dynastie Jayavarman II Indravarman Ier Roluos Baray de Loleï, Prah Ko Bakong Yaçovarman Ier Phnom Bakheng Baksei Champkrong Harshvarman Ier Phimeanakas Pré Rup Rajendravarman II Suryavarman Ier Baphuon Udayadityavarman II Jayavarman VI Angkor Vat Suryavarman II Angkor Thom Bayon Prah Khan Ta Prohm Jayavarman VII bassins (baray) Chaussée des Géants gardiens dvarapala yaksa asura deva anastylose Porte Sud tour visage tour-visages temple montagne temple-montagne arcs et voûtes en encorbellement Bayon prasat sanctuaire mont Meru galerie Aiâvata éléphant tricéphale apsaras danseuses célestes Baphûon, la Tour de Cuivre Ecole Française d''Extrême- Orient (EFEO) Jacques Dumarçay Pascal Royère inauguration épopée Ramayana Mahabharata statuaire ronde bosse Sras Srei ablution Terrasse des Eléphants Terrasse du Roi Lépreux Enfers Yama nagas serpents dragons Prasat Suor latérite grès rouge Preah Khan Circuit douves bibliothèque racine fromagers Eat Khmer Food Restaurant Angkor Vat Wat gopura Vishnu bassins épopée hindoue Mahabharata conflit Pandava Kaurava Krisna (avatar de Vihnu) Barattage de l''Océan de Lait Géants mythe cosmologique Ta Prohm Ta Phrom faux-fromagers Tetrameles nudiflora figuiers étrangleurs Ficus gibbosa balustrades-nagas Tomb Raider Deux frères Jean-Jacques Annaud Lara Croft Angelina Jolie Indiana Jones lingam symbole phallique yoni symbole féminin Banteay Srei André Malraux Koh Ker Phnom Bahkeng danses d''apsaras danseuses célestes Rig-Véda Mahabharata Patrimoine Oral et Immatériel épouses Gandharvas Indra bénédiction Robam Choun Por Robam Kaine ballet royal Moni Mekhala Robam Nesat amrita nectar d''immortalité démons Pub Street Tonle Sap Chaong Kneas silures pâte de poisson prahoc Réserve de la Biosphère Po Banteaychey Khong Mouch Wat Svai Smiles of Angkor Artisans d''Angkor laquage Chantiers-Ecoles de Formation Professionnelle (CEFP) société d''économie mixte apprentis ouvriers Asian Square fruit du dragon (pitaya) Airbus A321 Vietnam Airlines Mébon Occidental - 2014 ITALIE du sud Mezzogiorno Pouilles Basilicate Campanie Italie méridonalelow-cost Transavia First Class Città dello Sport Le grand sud italien Dolce vita italienne Oxstuni Salento Lecce Otrante Guide: Rosaria Un séjour en Italie du sud Récit de voyage en Italie du sud Carnet de voyage en Italie du sud - Romulus Rémus Rome Lombards carolingienne Francs Arégis II Bénévent Spolète sarrasines Calabre Roger II de Sicile Gargano Benoît VIII Guaimar III de Salerne Guillaume Bras de Fer allégeance Saint-Empire romain germanique Apoulie Hohenstaufen Charles Ier d''Anjou royaume des Deux-SicilesEmpire austro-hongrois Risorgimento Giuseppe Garibaldi Expédition des Mille Victor-Emmanuel II de Savoie Apennins Abbruzes volvans éruption explosion Apulia Lucanie Garigliano Policastro ''''La botte italienne''''apulia puglia - SAN GIOVANNI San Giovanni Rotondo Padre Pio Francesco Forgione Pietrelcina Capucins stigmates Hôpital Civil de Saint François hôpital Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Jean-Paul II Bienheureux Saint François d''Assise latium lazio Monte Cassino Gran Sasso Avellino Grottaminarda Sant''Agata di Puglia O.N.C. (office National des Combattants) blé dur battaglia del grano il ferro alla patriaRenzo Piano Kansaï Centre Georges Pompidou New York Times Zentrum Paul Klee Berne crypte Mimmo Paladino Marko Ivan Rupnik Santa Maria della Grazie Via Crucis Monte San''tAngelo - CASTEL DEL MONTE Cerignola Manfredonia Manfred Frédéric II de Sicile Castel del Monte Parco nazionale dell''Alta Murgia Murgiesplan octogonal épopée Rollon traité de Saint-Clair-sur-Epte Robert Ier le Riche Guillaume le Conquérant Guillaume Ier Guillaume Longue Epée Guillaume le Conquérant Roger Borsa Sybille de Conversano Robert Guiscard Maures Tancrède de Hauteville Roger Bosso Frédéric Barberousse Henri Hohenstaufen - ALBEROBELLO trulli péninsule salentine Salento truddu furnieddhi nuraghi Alberobello BariSan Nicola Masseria Papaperta chiancarelle mozzarella treccia lait de bufflonnes orecchiettes turrula Caterina bellum Arbore Bello selva Ferdinand d''Aragon feudataire Conversano Giangirolamo II Acquaviva surnommé le Borgne Guercio Syrie goubba chiance serraglia tavolato solaio Rione Aia Piccola spaghetti all''amatriciana alla carbonanra maccherini tagliatelle fettuccine cannelloni farfalle fusilli ravioli tortellini salami prosciutto - MATERA Lamarmora Rione Monti Corso Vittorio Emanuele Antonio Curri Cosme Damien Gesu Trullo Sovrano Cataldo Perta Largo Martellotta ânkh menorah chandelier oeil oudjat Horus sasso sassi Gravina Caveoso Barisano Carlo Levi Christ Eboli Vittorio Veneto Governo hypogée Palombaro lungo Spirito Santo Chiesa Mater Donini Liuggi Guerricchio Duomo Angela Via delle Beccherie cucu del Sedile Egidio Romualdo Duni Giuliano palazzi Gradoni municipio Monterrone Pietro Caveoso Maria de Idris Giovanni Casa Grotta di Vico Solitario Ridola Corso Piazza Giovanni Pascoli Calata Domenico Ridola Lanfranchi Stefano de Putignano Philippe Neri Oratoire Clarisses Santa Chiara Museo Nazionale Domenico Ridola Calixte Prospère Lucia Fontana Vico Giuseppe Ascanio Persio Don Giovanni Minzoni Potenza Agri Montecaglioso Picerno Vietri di Potenza Tanagro Battipaglia Pontecagnano Tyrrhénienne Salerne Sorrente Castellammare di Stabia dei Congressi - CAPRI Hervé Vilard Monts Lactarius Pozzano Equense Seiano Montechiaro Massa Bocca Punta Campanella Capo sorrentine Marina Grande Punta Scugnizzo Saut Tibère Salto di Tiberio Villa Jovis Tiberio Chivica Grotta Bianca Maravigliosa Arco Naturale Massullo Adalberto Libera Kurt-Erich Suckert Curzio Malaparte Faraglione Faraglioni di Mezzo Tragara Tuoro Marina Picolla Ventroso Verde Carena dell''Arcera Azzurra Sirana Caterola Tiberius Anacapri Ciro cabriolets décapotables Capri watch Carabinieri Jean Cocteau jet-set Rainier Grace Kelly Richard Burton Elizabeth Taylor Marisa Berenson Penelope Tree David Bailey Valentino Aristote Onassis Jackie Kennedy Piazzeta Limoncello cédrats cédratiers Botteghe Giovannetti Caprese Gioielli Salvatore Ferrugamo Buonocore Massa Richmond La Palma Quisisana Chartreuse Saint Jacques Certosa di San Giacomo Matteotti prussien Alfred Friedrich Krupp Giardini di Augusto bolchevique Lénine stèles intellectuels Maxime Gorki Alexander Bogdanov Belvedere Migliara Camerelle Pigna Citrus medica Anacapri Solaro Colette Moravia Graham Greene Viale Cimetero Caposcuro Capodimonte Axel Munthe San Michel suédois Axel Munthe Suède espadrilles trattoria antipasti primo secondo contorni dolci bressaolapasta di mandor gelati gelateria nouilles millet maccheroni alla norma parmesan parmigiano alle sarte misto per assagiare gnocchi cavatielli Pouilles paccheri orecchiette pizza margherita napoletana bruschetta arancino ricotta parmigiano reggiano ou le grana padano CaciocavalloProvolone caffé caffe capuccino moka espresso caffè con latte moca latte macchiato corretto ristretto lungo lungo ma non americano - AMALFI côte amalfitaine mafia mûafât omerta silence pizzo Sacra Corona Unita Cosa Nostra Stidda brigade squadra catturandi Procida Ischia Seiano Sant''Angelo Monte Crocione Amalfi Atrani Cava de Tirreni Cetara Conca dei Marini Furore Maiori Minori Positano Praiano Raito Ravello Sant''Egidio del Monte Albino Scala Tramonti Vietri sul Mare Cap Scannato Coqs Isolotti li Galli Giuseppe Arcimboldo maniériste di Masina localité Vettica Maggiore Maria Assunta majoliques Sottile San Gennaro Fiordo di Furore Praia ravins vertigineux corniche Conca Azzura Marini Pancrace Corso Salerne code maritime Tabula de Amalfa Flavio Gioia raz de marée Marinella paccheri entrelacés néomauresque Paradis sarcophages Pélée et Théti Crucifix mitre lutin bronze Michelangelo Naccherino marqueté plan basilical Castiglione Cosma Marmorata e Mare Castello Thoro-Plano Arechi Salerne Barone Schola Medica Salernitana Posidonia Longomare Lungomare Luiggi Gerci Fiume Irno Tibero - POMPEI Pompéi Vésuve Vesuvio subduction tribus osques lainier foulons blanchisseurs teinturiers tisserands vespasiennes Vespasien dégraisser urine chrysargyre Pline le Jeune Tacite l''Ancien Vulcanalia nonum kal septembres calendes cendres scories pierre ponce bombes volcaniques nuées ardentes paroxysme moulages plâtre pétrifiée Gianni Tramparulo Esedra Viale delle Ginestre acanthes marine Herculanum Nola Sarno Nocera Stabies Cardo Decumanus Mercurio regio insula Caserne Gladiateurs velarium velum Odéon Lattari graffitis stuc Temple d''Isis thermopolium auberge bistrot comptoirs Cithariste Ceii Ménandre Menandro pompéiennes Maiuri atrium laraire impluvium auvent tablinum octostyle pavements exèdres Diane macabre Etrusques Samnites Phéniciens Stabies Abondance Abbondanza vicolo di Tesmo Rapinasi Optati Maison de M. Epidius Rufus palestre frigidarium tepidarium caldarium vestibule vestiaire apodyterium Giuseppe Fiorelli Siricus bistrot caupona débauche plèbe bordel lupanar Balcon Suspendu Balcone Pensile taverne louve lupus Priape Forum Jupiter arcs honorifiques triomphe decurions duumvirs Tribunal Bourse du Commerce Laine Capitolium triade Jupiter Junon Minerve Tempio di Giove Germanicus ordres Eumachia Pietas Livie Auguste Concordia Augusta atelier-boutique Cellini camées - NAPLES Massa Sebastiano saupoudré cendres Ottaviano caldeira caldéra évacuation Champs Phlégréens brûlants îlots Vivara Procida Nisida panache de fumée secousses apocalyptiques Pouzzoles Monte Nuovo Vedi Napoli e poi muori Goethe Stendhal Dumas Père Elme Sant''Elmo Vomero Pizzafestival TTT Lines il peso non si pesa obèses MSC Spendida Nuovo Trieste i Trento Carlo Caffe Gambrinus Plebiscito dell''Ovo Oeuf Mascalzone Latino skipper Vincenzo Onorato Fondatzione Mascalzone Latino America’s Cup Lungomare Caracciolo Giardini del Molosiglio Cesario Console Riviera di Chiaia Consulat des Etats-Unis Sannazao Francesco Posillipo Rione Lauro stade San Paolo Sebeto Aragonais Aragon Anjou Angevins Tunnel della Vittoria Umberto Ier Toledo Ferdinand Fernando Gran Caffe Gambrinus Art Nouveau Arts Déco Palazzo Real San Francesco di Paolo calabrais Joachim Murat Maschio Angioino Nuova Marina bénédictine San Giovanni a Mare del Mercato Spinelli Erasmo ai Granili Maddalena Trivigliano - FIUGGI minéraux goutte maladies rénales Boniface VIII Michel-Ange Alcide de Gasperi Giulio Andreotti Sparagato Garibaldi Burba Luigi Moretti Anticolona Pantano Mont Ernici An Mille Grandi Martini Alessandrini Anticoli di Campagna colles ante Fonte Bonifacio VIII Grand Hôtel Palazzo della Fonte SPA Festival delle Città Medieval Prenestina Notre-Dame Reine de la Paix Regina Pacis Marsi père capucin Domenico Arsenio Garibaldi Burba Alfredo Tosti Cesare Aureli Ugolin da Belluno Hymne à la Création Vecchia Fiuggi Pensione Villa Gaia Giovanni Battista Giovenale Galimberti italo-américain Sir Charles Forte Soeurs Faoili Teresa, Cecilia Antonia Porta della Portella Luigi Ridolfi Alfredo Tosti Gran Grand Hotel San Domenico di Cocullo Porta dell''Olmo Vetere Maggiore Pietro Saints Apôtres Pierre et Paul Saint Blaise San Biagio il ghetto ebraico di anticoli bulle Paul IV Cum nimis absurdum Sermoneta Terracina lois mussoliniennes racistes Statut Civic Anagnino Piazza Spada Léonard de Vinci - 2014 ouzbekistan oUZBEKISTAN Uzbekistan Guide: Lora (Dilora) Russes Etat Sibérie bronze bactro-margienne Oxus indo-aryens autochtones indo-européens Tazabagyab Khwarezm Iraniens Turkestan Scythes iraniens OuzbékistanSogdiens Samarcande Boukhara Bactriens Bactres Balkh Maracanda achéménide Bactriens Khorezm Syr-Daria Amou-Daria Zeravchan Afrasiab légendaire Huns Hephtalites Qarakhanides Karakhanides Cyrus II Parthie Mer Caspienne zoroastrisme Mésopotamie macédonien Alexandre Grand Darius III Transoxiane Séleucos IerSéleucides Parthes Scythes 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Congrès Soviet Arts Décoratifs Blanc Moradov Octogonal turbans chalma ikat soufi Naqshbandiyya tronc mort un vieux mûrier mosquée femmes Abdoul Faïz Khan chapeliers Tim Tok-i-Tipak Furuchon rue Khakhikat Kakikat Po-i-Kalon Mir-i-Arab joailliers Tim Tok-i-Zargaron Khodja Nouroubod piédestal fureur destructrice Alim Khan Mosquée Kalon dôme bleu Kok Goumbaz mihrab pavillon mollah prêche gouldasta bleu turquoise Ouloug Beg Abdoul Aziz Khan coupoles Mogok-i-Attari koch Gichduwan torsadées changeurs Tok-i-Sarrafon Nadir Divan Begi Koukeldach tympan fabuleux colorés simurgh simorgh Nasr-Eddin Hodja Eshoni Pir mannequins Ovatsiya créatrice Irina Sharipova khan atlas adras zardouzi Ismaïl Samani Tchachma Ayoub Mouhammad al-Boukhari mazar archéologue Chichine pillage faravahar ange gardien trompe pendentifs Job Modar-i-Khan Reghistan Regiisthan Registan Bolo-Haouz citadelle Ark chapiteaux muqarnas peints Old House calotte couvre-chef national dopa dobpa dopy doppilar encore doppe Ouïgours Ouyghours tiubetek toki terme dérivant turc tülbent toki tchousti nom lieu Tchoust Kourban Uraza-hayit cornes bélier kouchkorchor motifs kalampour bodom piltadouzi takhya Badahshan Badakhchan yourte iourte Karakalpakistan démontable feutre esgui murs khana treillis bois orte xalag haalga thoone toono perches hunnu piliers bagana toile imperméable berdzine armature tündük kirghiz shanrak kazakh laine grise boz üy Kizilkum Vobkent Koufa divani Moyen-orient Abdullah Narzullaev Ibodullo Narzullaev céramiste Alisher Abdoullah Narzullaev Narzoulayev maître Moustabchira Barakaeva Dilorom touneurs caravansérail Rabat-i-Malik qarakhanide Shams-al Mulk Abdullah ibn Iskandar II karis Serafschan Karatau Guissar-Altaï gorges Sarmish pétroglyphes animaux localité Debaland lœss Kerbala mémorial mont Hayatbashi culmmine pelmini manty sacrée Tchachma Chashma marinkas Koshrabad Aïdarkul cheik camp yourtes Yangikazgan Yangi Kazgan chameaux dromadaires Camelus dromedarius bactrianus coussinets bât paupières narines fourrure bosses graisse ouïes dombra dotar feu camp Chang''an Xi''an Hans Tang soldats pilleurs convoitise brigands bandits turco-byzantines karakalpake ouzbeke courges potirons katlama tchorek tandir Och plov vodka wódka pilaf chachlik kébab tovuk kabob samsa somsa samoussa sanbosag  laghman manty pelmini chuchvara ragoûts kovuram nakhot tchurak dimnama bechbarmak kovum saili mastava mashhurda chourpa tchorba lagman tchutchvara tchorba mampar pistache cumin  loy moy chaï tasses carafe bouilloire Navoï Dehibaland Debaland Ziadin Mirbazar Katta-Kurgan Nexia Samarcande Samarkand Samarqand Maragand papetiers Ulugh Beg khanat Djaghataï persophone Karim Bek rue Gagarine hôtel Konstantin ko''chasi Mirzo Ulugbek Gour-Emir magasin Gou Gum Orient Finans Bank stade Dinamo dorixona statue Tamerlan Amir Temur Haykali Roukhabad Old City rue Jomly nougat Chir Dor Tilia Kari Registan Plaza corniches muquarnas céramique glaçurée mo''arraq Chir-Dor Oulough Beg Yalangtouch dakhma Cheïbanide Tchorsou Tchorsu Toshkent Bibi Khanoum Saray Mulk Khanum princesse masjid-i jami'' grand Coran Osman Saray Mulk Khanoum Sharq Shirinliklari kovurma pot-au-feu butternut Chah-i-Zinda Koussam-i-Abbas timouride Davlet Kouchbegi Qadi-Zadeh Roumi Koussam Ibn Abbas Khazret Khizr Voyageurs Mir Saïd Barakah Chah Rokh Miran Chah Mohammad Sultan archéologique Afrasiab Observatoire astronomique Ali Quchtchi Jai Singh II mahârâja Jaipur à Delhi Jaipur Mathurâ Ujjain Vârânasî sextant géant russe Viatkine mâché dégustation cave Khovrenko Kanagan Association Konigil Meros Zarif Mukhtarov kogozgars pilons roue godets aubes arbre cames foulons Khorassa Balkhi bombyx maître polisseur mukrakash Kashgariy Qoshg''ariy Dimitri Filatov chimiste œnologue russe Michael Khovrenko Pierre Roy Boiseaumarié Office international Kiev exposition concours Prodexpo-2014 Shirin dégustation Rkatsiteli Bayan-Shirey cognac vins dessert brandy Tables sultaniennes zij-e soltâni alcool recueil Al-Jâmi''us-Sahih études international Dorus-Hadith Khortang Khartank Pushkin Platan Chakhrisabz Karshi Kyzylkarvan Sarikul Dzham Gulistan Charvadar Nakhchab Ashkhabad Termez Termiz Qashqadaryo barrage-réservoir Chimkurgan Kesh Kash Kish Mish complexe Dorous Siadat complexe Dourout Tivolat Kok Gumbaz Jahangir Omar Cheikh crypte Hazrat-i Imam Shah Rukh descendance Barlas Cheikh Chamseddin Koulyal Taraghay Goumbaz-Sayyidan Arbat cyrillique G''allaoraol défilé Djailanouti graffitis Djizak Jizzax Steppe Faim Golodnaïa Step Xovos Guliston Chinoz Tachkent Тошкент massif Chalka Tchatch Chach-tépa City Palace Markaziy Hyatt Regency comme vis-à-vis Dedeman Sylk Road restaurant al-Aziz rue Abdulla Qodiriy canal Burdjar Monument Courage complexe Kast-Imam Bibliothèque nationale Ma''Rifat Markasi Centre Lumière Simpoziumlar Saroyi Congrès Mémorial Hazrati Imam Khazrat Imam Institut Imam al-Boukhari Nomzgokh Kokand Khan Mirza Ahmed Kushbegi Abou Bakr Mohammed Kaffal Chachi philosophe poète docteur Islam Barak Khan Teliachaïakh Muyie Mubarak Mufti fatwas National Arts Ozbek Liboslari Galereyasi Centre Barkamol Avlod Chorsu Tchorsou Torzou avenue Beruniy Khodja Akar Vali Ozbek tsar Alexandre III tour panoramique centre ville Musée Arts Appliqués Métro Place Amir Timu Khamza Turkeston Mustakillik Maidoni Ministère Finances Moliya Vazirligi Sharof Rashidovsalle Opéra ballet Alisher Navoï Lotte City Tashkent Zaravshan Matbuotchilar Agat hongrois Lewckuu Mustafa Kema Ataturk Rakatboshi Appliqués Décoratifs Polovtsev diplomate russe Novoiy marché Alay Bazaar Alaisky Bazar dit également Oloy Bozori restaurant Tarona rue Kari Niyazov Qori-Niyazi Métro ligne Chilonzor stations Amir Temour Khiyoboni Lénine Staline Karl Marx fontaine jets Tours Uzbekistan Uzbetchka Musée Amir Timur Timourides Amir Timur Museum Bek Mirzo Ulug''Beg Dormition Assomption matin  ertaleb outro rakhmat spassiba sou vada khona nomiér Qui ? 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Kto ? un bir adin dix on diécit'' cent bir yuz sto ming tyciatcha bardes sôzanda khalifa hâfiz banquets (toy ou tuy) beshkarsak rythmique frappement épaules buste méditation destan dastan ballade épique dotâr ghaychak narrant héros turcs kata achoula appel récitatif solo duo improvisé mélodie non mesurée assiette hâfiz porte-voix khalqui chant lyrique ghazal ou gazel munâjât soufi dhikr yalla terma féminins doyre Musique savante Shashmaqom mâgom interpréter maqôm cycle suite irakienne azérie ouïghoure tadjike Shashmaqom Shashmaqam vocales instrumentales urbains multiculturels transoxanienne Mâwarâ-al-nahr Shashmaqom dont l’origine remonte à l’époque préislamique théorie musicale poésie mathématiques islamique talentueux Shashmaqom vocale instrumentale idiomes mélodiques rythmiques littérature concepts solo archet cordes vent percussionsluths dotâr tanbur vièles sato ghijak cadre tambourins dayereh karnai surnai instrumentale œuvre partie vocale (nasr) séries complexe Shashmaqom répertoire pièces instrumentale (magom) musiciens système notation standard structure musicale élémentaire richesse splendide transmission orale élève préserver valeurs spirituelles Vents nay qarnay surnay Cordes pincées dombra dotâr rabâb tambûr târ Cordes frottées satô ghaychak kobyz Cordes frappées tchang daf doyre nagara - 2015 YUNNAN, capitale Kunming carnet de voyage Guide: Delphine MORAUTHELI Récit de voyage au Yunnan Carnet de voyage au Yunnan Séjour au Yunnan récit de voyage, carnet de bord, carnet de route, gastronomie cuisine nourriture climat patrimoine mondial humanité universel UNESCO, ni hao, ville de l''Eternel Printemps, royaume de Dian, général Zhuang Qiao, Chu, ressources minières, mines, Nan-Chao ou nánzhào, Song, tang, Ming, Qin, Yuan, dynastie, Tibet, tibétains, dai, bai, miao, yao, yi, hani, hans, naxi État Pyu Laos Thaïlande vietnam Birmanie Burma Bamar Myanmar Shenglong Duan Siping Mongols Hui musulmans arabes perses ouighours Asie centrale, d''Europe orientale et centrale par Gengis Khan Jin Kubilai Khan, le frère de Möngke empire impérial règne successeurs Qing chemin de fer voie ferrée Hanoï Kuomintang dont Tchang Kaï-chek Sun Yat-sen les communistes à la tête desquels Mao Zedong invasion japonaise en Mandchourie Mandchous nationalistes soviétiques Reusses Russie URSS la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les Alliés Guerre anti-japonaise USA Américains Chinois Tchang Kaï-shek provinces comptés régions Kham Grand Bond en Avant et de la Révolution culturelle relief montagnes montagneux relief climat tropical tropique du Cancer forêts tropicales du Xishuangbanna plateaux arides des contreforts de l''Himalaya cols Hong-La fleuves rivières Mékong (Lancang Jiang), fleuve en fureur ou Salouen (Nu Jiang), fleuve bleu Yangtse Giang-Tse (Jinsha Jiang) fleuve rouge (Hong Jiang) topographie gorges canion saisons pluie mousson ruiniforme Yuanyang Shilin Guizhou subtropical pluvieux ethnies minorités ethniques folklorique touristes touristique moines monastères thangka culture langue Zhuang écriture Dongba propriétaires terre fertile Kaiyuan maraîchères fruits légumes élevage moutons chèvres yaks tabac cigarettes cigares manufacture Hongmei Honghe Baisha minerais minéraux ressources charbon commerce trafic Triangle d''Or Dapuan et Sutsong architecture hameaux villages villes portes fortifications enceintes TO T.O. Arts et Vie réceptif Road travel accompagnatrice guides Delphine locales Jenny Linda compagnie aérienne China Southern Lucky Air passagers flotte Boeing 737 Airbus CZ348 porte embarquement photos interdites interdiction soie broderies batik thé pu''er pu''erh renminbis kuais jilaos maos fenscarte bancaire change conversion bureau tours operators fêtes tritionnelles festivals nourriture gastronomie mets repas restaurants baozi raviolis táozá jiaozi paludisme malaria moustiques société sociales scolarité écoles études cycles université inscription gratuit gratuité primaire enfants lycée obligatoire service militaire loyers sécurité sociale retraite vol CZ3415 Canton Guangzhou télévision TV CCTV chaînes retard Changshui International Airport Yunnanfu Cité arbres fleurs roses camélias azalées mahayana véhicule Yuantong si, Temple de la Compréhension Putuoluo déesse Guanyin Bouddha de Mile Milefo Maitreya, un Bodhisattva Bouddha Shakyamuni déesse féminine divinité aux Mille Bras sampai prosternations bouddhiques Marché aux Fleurs et aux Oiseaux Xi''an Zheng He amiral Islam grandes expéditions maritimes hôtel Long Way Palais du Gouvernement Provincial édifices New Camellia Hotel établissement Jin Jiang déjeuner dormir chambre dîner Luyu Tea Wholesale Centeralta, Centre du thé Luyu nationalités Haigeng sheng cha lao bing infusion théière briques couronnes caravannes caravanier galettes wulong à l''osmanthus oolong plantations feuilles cueillette art théâtre danse musique spectacle danseuses Yang Liping Wu Sangu Mingfeng phoenix Mingfeng phénix gouverneur Chen Yongbing Zishi pavillon Baoyun montagne sacrée Jizu Harmonie Suprême (Taihe Dian) tuiles Tongwa charpente Lingxing bronze Grande Cloche ère Xuanhua Hubei Yongle diamètre tonnes hauteur altitude surface périmètre Chongzhen Shunzhi traitre bonzaïs hectares palmiers bonzaïs Dengwen convives marches escaliers CZ3408 incidents Paris Roissy Charles de Gaulle dégustation mosaïque population Forêt de Pierres Noires de Naigu cérémonie funéraire enterrement obsèques incinération crémation réincarnation funèbres dépouille défunt éclater pétards cérémonial karst kras karstique érosion calcaire lolo Tsingy Bemaraha Madagascar Slovénie hulusi bijoux Monnaie du Pape ou Lunaire (Lunaria annua) tortue buffle lions gardiens Jing Hua Shi Fu copieux Hong Yan Fleuve Rouge bouilli sautés nouilles Yuanyang Kaiyuan habitants population individus manganèse hydrocarbures industries Malipo masures épiceries tenue vestimentaire costume coiffe coiffure bébé culotte fendue Shadian militaires contrôles policiers police Chang''an infiltrations terroristes attentats mosquée fidèles Gejiu table ronde plateau tournant Yan Zhu Abang Hmong Thaï grand marché forain de Long Bon litchis terre crue adobe pisé malodorants durians cochons porcs viande séchée baie Halong Lào Cai Nansha crête pics Ailao Qingkou plan esthétique admirer panorama belvédères Longji Guangxi sangle front charge Xinjie Yunti mariage arrangé fiancés amoureux mariée robe rouge blanche Lao si chuan odeurs mouches étals vendeurs travail charrue araire Laohuzui Shengcun Wangdian Jianshui Zhu Family Garden Hotel ceinture Butou Jinli Nanjie Jianxin Nanjie Jianxin Sichuan Zhu Weiqing Guangxu frères Chengzao Yuan Shikai Xiangmanglou temple de Qufu Kong miào philosophe philosophie religions grand maître Confucius péninsule Shandong lettrés exil perfection hommage jouer joueurs Mah-jong taïchi gymnastique Shiqikong qiao pont Tachong Lujiang chef-d’oeuvre architecture Tuanshan Tushou résidence palais ancienne famille Zhang marchands négociants chevaux familles pauvres expropriation expropriés explusés Huang Lory Yuan riz délices sésame pâtes Lujianghe Lu Jiang toilettes rivière souterraine stalagtites stalagmites colonnes piliers assemblages bois Chao Yang Lou balade pied Jinliman rue avenue ruelle Xianmon Xingmeng Fenghuang district Tonghai Kublai calife abbasside Ibn Affan Xian Zhu Yuanzhang Kubilai Kubilaî famine corruption monuments stèles kiosque chapeau conique paille trigrammes divination du Yi Jing (Yi King) médecin médecine traditionnelle acupuncture taoiste Najiaying céramique golfe persique Yuxi Hongtashan groupe cigarettier porcelaines blanches bleues bleues orgue bambou instruments masque paléontologique archéologiques anthropologie Yangtsé Siddhartha Gautama Vajrayana Bouddhisme tantrique Diamant Illumination Eveil nirvana dharma samsara roue vie Padmasambhava fondateur ordre secte Guru Rimpoche cultes bonpos bons lamaïsme Nyingmapa Bonnets Anciens réformateur Tsongkhapa chef spirituel Dalaï-Lama Panchen Lama Tashilhunpo Shigatsé Sonam Gyatso pouvoir théocratique gouvernement appelé Gaden Phodrang traité de Chö-yon succession Gedhun Choekyi Nyim prisonnier emprisonné indépendance révolt manifestations Gyancain Norbu parti armée révolutionnaire libération nationale Jhator Ciel vautour eau démembré charognards zoroastriens Parsis taôisme voie Lao Tseu Laozi contemporain astrologue astrologie alimentation yin yang Kongfuzi Han Wudi doctrine préceptes principes canons monnaie Bananiers lotus ananas Musella lasiocarpa Xiangyun greniers grains séchoirs Laozhangying tombes tombeaux battage moissons récoltes Yunnanyi Longxinghe Wud sandales Tengchong Baoshan escadrille aviaterécoltes ail oignons indigotier (Indigofera tinctoria) motifs décors ornés Admiration Chongsheng Santa toits empilés pagodes Qian Xun Ta stûpa zedi Chongsheng reliques reliquaires Fengyou période époque combattants célstes démons diables enfers Lokapalas Yakshas Virudhaka Vaisravana Dhritarashtra Virupaksha Juying Chi (étang réflexion) Kai Yi’s Kitchen Lù Shibao Shan Trésor Pierres Jiangchuan Niujiexiang ShibaoShan rupestres gravures effigies Baoxiang chemins randonnées randonneurs mules muletiers Jianhu Lijiang Palace Mu Mus Mexiezhao jade Yulong Xueshan Heilongtan Kailash Pumi Peter Goullart Forgotten Kingdom Jenny Dayechang Dayan Cité Interdite Mosos tunique jupe mille plis guêtres animistes peaux société matriarcale parc jardin Wangulou Guangmen place Sifang Yuhe Voeux Xuyuanpai Noir Yulong Xueshan Alequi Fish Na-Xi Concert Hall Show Ancient Music tambours gongs cymbales luth (pipa) cithare (erhu) flûte traversière (dizi) orchestre dirigé Xuan Ke Yuhu Qin Shi Huang immortels Xu Fu vie éternelle élixir Japon Shingu Kumano cinabre Yorinobu seigneur féodal Kishu hématite longévité Joseph Rock austro-américain géographe Botanise National Geographic Shangri-La ShangriLa Baisha Yufeng fresques Dabaoji chef Tusi bengshi Tuiles Vernissées (Liuli Dian Liuli Gong) Kwan-yin pengshizhi Yingxiang Xin Dajie Fuguo tableau estampes Yulong Haba Mishixiang graines sarrasin infusion tisane Lashihai Yangzi Jiang Jinsha sable méandre courbe coude Shigu Lancang Nu Jiang (Salouen) Thanlwin Myit commémorant Morts Laojunshan voitures Peugeot Porsche Cayenne berlines SUV Volkswagen Santana taxis voitures modèle Jetta grand-mère Yang-tse Hutiào Xiá Saut du Tigre bonjour tashi delek Shambhala Yulong Xue Shan Haba Xue Shan canyon rives rapides Zhongdian drapeaux drapeaux Gyalthang Sakurakim Shangrila Old Town détruites incendie brûlée Deqin Nujiang Mékong Sumtseling Dongzhulin Songzanlin) Chongchonggang Kagyupa Gelupa Gulugpa Baimang Dratsang Tsongkhapa disciples adeptes fidèles pèlerins Damarenqing Kezhujie Samantabhadra, Drolma, Manjusri (Wenshu) Qingba Yama mâlâ égrène chapelet svastikas beurre rance pâtisseries beignets fourrés bol breuvage choux potirons Zhaxidele Baiji Coq Blanc Cent Poulets Guishan Si Zhuangjing Tong moulin géant androgyne Dukezong Qianlong - 2015 ITALIE DU NORD TRENTIN HAUT ADIGE SÜDTIROL LOMBARDIE GRANDS LACS VERONE INSSBRUCK LOCARNO MORAUTHELI Récit de voyage au nord de l''Italie Carnet de voyage nord de l''Italie Récit voyage en Italie nord Carnet voyage en Italie nord MORAUTHELI 2015 ITALIE du nord: Dolce vita italienne Dolomites Grands lacs Südtirol Trentin Haut-Adige Vérone Innsbruck Suisse Autriche Col du Brenner Bergame Brescia Milan Vénétie Dolomites HautAdige Südtirol Tentin Trente Concile Pères Gaule cisalpine Triple Entente traité Saint Germain en Laye WelschTirol Venezia Tridentina italianisation germanophones allemand régime fasciste AnschlussHitler nazi Troisième Reich Bolzano Befreiungsausschuss Südtirol Comité libération indépendance Tyrol Sud statut autonomie région canton Grisons Isarco relief territoire montagneux sillon longitudinal fleuve rivières rude climat PIB falaises vallées systèmes karstiques Déodat Gratet Dolomieu géologue minéralogiste roche calcique carbonate calcium magnésium océan Téthys fin Trias sédiments plissement dépôts Fréjus bénédictine Sacra San Michel Suse Susa pics Pustertal Val di Pusteria Brixen Bressanone Rio Terenten Terento Famille Volgger airbnb domysil billet sites circulation transports San Giorgio langue maternelle école enseignement randonnée Sentiero circolare dei Piramidi di terra e Vecchi mulini Sentier Demoiselles coiffées vieux moulins balade marche promenade Mulini di Terna Cheminées Fées Pyramides terre torrent Terner Maso Flitschlof Lago di Braies Tre Cime di Lavaredo crochet Vénétie Cortina d''Ampezzo Rienza a Per Dolomites Bruneck Brunico Prags Braies Sant Veit Croda del Becco mètres altitude chapelle hôtel Pragser Wildsee cabane ponton pilotis sentiers LandroToblach Dobbiaco parcours Auronzo et Misurina refuges Cima PiccoLocatelli Santissima Trinita Castello Zanna Eisack Isarco BRIXEN Bressanone Grödnertal Val Gardena Neustift NovacelCongrégation chanoines réguliers Saint Augustin Engelsburg Puits merveilles scènes peintes Nicholas Schiel Croce So soleil domus maison dôm Hôtel villas Bianca Convento di Sabiona Sankt Ulrich Ortisei Sant''Ulrico e dell''Epifania del Signore Antoine Cristina Selva WölkensteinCol Grödner Joch Passo  Gadertal Val Badia Ehrenburg Casteldarne Sterzing Vipiteno MERAN Merano BOZEN Bolzano plateau Ritten Renon Reifenstein Castel Tasso Jaufenpass Monte Giovo Passeiertal Val Passiria Saltaüs Saltusio fête tyrolienne costumes chapêaux plume traditionnels Schloss Tirol Castel Tirolo Adige Etschimpératrice Sissi Nicolo Barbara polyptiques Sarentina Chiesa dei Domenicani Giovanni retabpanneaux orgues Soprabolzano Klobenstein Collalbo INNSBRUCK Franzensfeste Fortezza François II Stift Wilten Nostra Signora sotto Quattro Colonne Immaculée Conception avenue MariaTheresienStraße Arc Triomphe Triumphpforte Léopold II Marie-Louise Servitenkirche Joseph AnnasäuSainte Anne Rathaus l''Hôtel vilSpitalskirche Hôpital SaintEsprit Marktgraben Burggraben Golden Dachl Petit Toit d''Or Maximilien Ier balcon somptueuse maison Helbling Hofgasse HofkirchePalais Impérial Kaiserliche Hofburg cénotaphe Godefroy Bouillon Clovis Roi Arthur Artur Chapelle d''Argent Jardin impérial Hofgarten restaurant menu Fischerhausl Herrengfasse Dom Sankt Jakob Saint Jacques Innpont Innbrücke berges rivages Stadtturm beffroi Matrei am Brenner oriels foins fenaison clochers bulbe Ahrntal Val Aurina Tures Aurino éperon rocheux château médiéval Castel Taufers Prettau Predoi Kasern hameau Source Rocher Trinkstein Giorgio Lungo alpinistes Schloss Casanova TRENTO Tridentum Saint Vigile Concile Trente Crucifix concilium assemblée évêques cardinaux prélats protestantisme Martin Luther Calvin ContreRéforme œcuménique Vatican pape papauté guerres Vigilio Bologne Pretorio Palais prétorien résidence fortifiée Neptune Francisco Saverio ordreJésuites fronton reine NeachiDiego LainezVia Rodolfo Belenzani Padergnone Lasino et Arco itinérairetrajet distance Riva del GardaMonte Rocchetta villégiature Lombards Longobardi Pavie capital duché Milan Hohenstaufen communes libres ligues lombarde famille Visconti Sforza Habsbourg Risorgimentosoulèvement irrédentisme Piémontais Piémont Préalpes Magenta Solferino Villafranca province autonome fleuve Pô lacs glaciaires glaciers Ligures et Gaulois berghem Romains Barbares Goths Huns Attila Vandales Lombards Francs Charlemagne BERGAME CittBassa Piazza della Repubblica parti Guelfes Colleoni Rivo Bonghi Gibelins Suardi patrimoine humanité mondial Unesco funiculaire Città Alta Vecchia Nuova fontaine Alvise Contarini Palazzo delRagione palais raison tour torre civica remparts murailfortifications forteresse portes Campanonenuovo Scamozzionovecchio chapellle Colleoni marbre polychrome basilique Santa Maria Maggiore baptistère Lac Garde Lago di Garda Lago di Benaco Limone sul Garda plateau Tremosine panorama rives tunnels Gargnano Toscolano Gardone Salo presqu''île Sirmione Rocca Scaligera Scaligere créneaux Sant''Anna alRocca Lac Majeur Lago Maggiore Verbano Arona château Angera statue creuse bronze Saint Charles Borromée San Calo Borromeo surnommé Sancarlone citadelles sculpteurs sculptures Siro Zanelet Bernardo Falcoli FrédéricAuguste Bartholdi Statue Liberté NewYork Isola isole Borromée IBorromées Belgirate excursion Lago Maggiore Express Stresa IsoPescatori et IsoBelembarcadère bateauRegina Palace villasBavano Verbania et PallanzaIsoSuperiorel''Ile île Pêcheurs gothique romane style époque San Vittore Saint Ambroise Milan Saint Gaudenzio Novara Saint François SaetSaintCharlesBorromée portraits bustesIsoInferiore Carlo III Borromeo Galleria Berthier peintures murales murailles tableaux maîtres jardins italienne Mottarone téléphérique Conelli Cairoli Carlotta Fontana église paroissiale baroque rococo fresques stucs compagnie publique navigation Gestione Governativa Navigazione Laghi Maggiore di Garda e di Como abbaye couvent monastère ermitage Santa Caterina del Sasso Carciano Baveno Verbania Pallanza Intra néo Luino Malpagga Cannero Riviera Madonna della Pietà Cannobio Brissago Isola di San Pancrazio Ascona Santi Pietro e Paolo Santa Maria delMisericordia Cardada pique-nique trains Express Cents Vallées Centovalli Express Val Vigezzo Melezza viaducs Tegna Intrana Camedo Re Santa Maria Maggiore Ribellasca Trontano Masera Val d''Ossogare quai Domodossola Brig col Simplon ToceCastello Visconteo Vogogna Castel Lac Côme Lago di Como Lario Autosilo Valducce thermes romains cathédraSanta Maria Assunta Duomo Dôme Broletto opéra ThéâtreTeatro Sociaarca piliers corniches Cavour Garibaldi Mafalda di Savoia Alessandro Volta Tempio Voltano Cernobbio San Vicenzo clocher campanile Argegno village Ossuccio Santa Maria Maddalena in Ospedaletto soComacina Lenno Tremezzo avec VilCarlotta parc fleuri fleurs Flaubert Stendhal Reine Victoria Menaggio Cadenabbia ferry Bellagio bac voitureSan Giovanni Battista Salita Serbelloni Giacomo VERONE Vérone Corso Porto Nuova avenue Scaligers Porta Brà place rue Palazzo delle Grande Guarda Barbieri arènes amphithéâte Arena Castelvecchio pont Ponte Scaligerodei Borsari Portoni Borsari Horloge Torre del Gardello façade Maffei Piazza del Erbe forum romain lion Saint Marc Madonna Verona colonne monument Tribune Capitello Via Cappello Arco del Costa Piazza dei Signori passerelles Mercato Vecchio Lamberti Loggia del Consiglio o Palazzo del Governo nécropole mausolée Anastasia Santa Maria Matricolare bossu gobbo vestiges ruines séisme tremblement terre 1117 Gorgetto messe office cérémonie Ponte Pietra Stefano Giorgio in Braida Santuario Madonna di Lour Seconde Guerre mondiale autrichienne Casa di Giulietta Roméo Romeo Juliette légenhistoire tragédie Capuleti et MontecchiDivine Comédie Dante Montaigu Crémone rivalité conflit jalousie Mathieu Bandello Arthur Brooke auteur anglais William Shakespeare dramaturge drame romantique Romeo and Juliet amants malheureux Rosaline mariage union amoureux Pâris frère Laurent Tybalt duel meurt mort otion poison filtre balcon Mercutio amour exil Mantoue narcotique bien-aimée poignardé BRESCIA Santa Giulia zone archéologique Capitolium Capitole temple colonia civica Augusta Brixia Auguste empereur brica briga roi Didier Désirée Ermengarde Pépin Bref Empire carolingien quartier Carmine Renaissance horloge astronomique jaquemarts marteaux Paolo VI Popolo del Pégol Rotonda paléochrétienne édifice Vittoria Il Torrione premier gratte-ciel Pallata médiévales Moyen Age soulèvement unité unification San 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Toscane Florence Rome Grazie Medeghino mercenaire Gian Giacomo Medici crypte Saint Barthélémy écorché maître-autel Trésor tefano alla Fonti Crucifix d''Alibert Croce di Ariberto d''Intimiano Jacopino da Tradate vitrail vitraux salTintoret peintre Gaspare Vismara Galerie Victor Emmanuel II Scala théâtre lyrique Léonard Vinci - 2015 - JAPON capitale Tokyo Notre guide: Naomichi Récit de voyage au Japon Carnet de voyage au Japon Récit voyage au Japon Carnet voyage au Japon MORAUTHELI zori jika-tabi Yukata kimono tabi geta NéerlandaisKoshichi Tawayara Dôtonbori Minami Namba Shōwa URSS Nagasaki Pearl Harbor Hawai Guomindang Canton Shanghai Nankin Mandchoukou Shōwa Russie Corée Taiwan Mandchourie Philippines Mutsuhito tsuyu akisame cyclones Kanagawa commodore Matthew Perry shogunat Tokugawa Ieyasu Ashikaga Mongols Minamoto Mikado shogun bakufu régents Fujiwara Tohoku Kobe Kubilai Khan Jimmu Amaterasu Ojin Yayoi Yi, Hani Dai Wurm Aïnou période Jomon Tōhoku Kantō Chūbu Kansai Chūgoku métro train Rapid Express Yamanote Shinkansen Japan Railpass Japan Railways Hokusai Hiroshige El Niño typhons pluies réchauffement climatique gai-jin Otori Jade Paravent mangas Stupeur et tremblements Amélie NOTHOMB dames cour Fukushima réacteur énergie électricité centrale Yamato Bouddha Bouddhisme moines prêtres o-jigi san sama consensus chrysanthème sabre avril sakura automne ramen printemps momiji érables feuilles cerisiers fleurs Honshu Hokkaido Kyushu Shikoku en Okinawa Kansaï genkan tsunami Osaka toire hai ie arigato gozaimasu domo arigato gozaimasu gomen nasai sumimasen onegai shimasu hajimemashite ohayo gozaimasu konnichiwa konbanwa oyasuminasai sayonara mata ashita itadkimasu kanpai hashi okome mizu cha (kocha) ryokucha toire en Meiji Taisho Heisei Shiragaraki Nagaoka-kyo Hiejo-kyo Kuni-kyo Kizugawa Asuka Ootsu Jomon Kofun Fukuyama Mahāyāna keijidosha Hatsukaichi shashi-gawara kinshachi shachihoko chiwen Shirasagi-jō podotactile Himeyama Kōkoen Banshu Shamo Nojo JAL Sky Building Dai-Itchi Florentijn Hofman Tadao Ando Kita Umeda Yodo Kumano Kamaikaze Shingu Xu Fu Qin Shi Huang Di Juncus effusus hanao dai ha igusa Miyajima Hiroshima Kyoto Nara Fujisan gofuku Lolita jeunes filles Anglais Français Lacs Ashi Kawaguchi-ko Kamakura Tokyo ikko Chuzen-ji hikikomori sekaini Okinotorishima Senkaku Tōhoku Shinzō Abe Forces japonaises d''autodéfense FJA Shinkansen MacArthur MITI METI Rinno-ji Tosho-gu Taiyuin-byo Futara-san Kegon Asakusa Senso-ji Lusée Edo Hakubustukan Nagoya Mont Norikura-dake Takayama Ogimachi Koumokuten et Tamonten bodhisattvas kondo Chu-mon Nandai-monmacha Todai-ji Ginkaku-ji, Heian-jingu, Fushimi-Inari, Ninna-ji, Chishaku-in, Kodai-ji, Byôdô-in, Eikan-dô, Daitoku-ji Maruyama Hageten Shin Nishi Hongan-ji Higashi Hongan-ji jinrikisha Otowa-no-taki Sakanoue Tamuramaro Kiyomizu DeraKiyomizu Dera kannon tempura Satsuma go kamon horigotatsu Ninjas fenghuang phœnix Nijô Karamon Yoshimitsu tsukubai kuchi Ryôan-ji Kinkaku-ji Myōshin-ji rinzai kapuseru hoteru Jodo Dai-ni Tower Yasaka Matsunoo-taisha Shijo-dori sanmon Chion-in tanukis chiens viverins (Nyctereutes procyonoides) Pontocho Gion Kawaramachi Chang''an geikos Xi''an Little Boy Kurashiki Itarian Viking Pulizia BBQ Kenzō Tange origami Dôme Genbaku no ko no zō Sakado Sasaki Ujina Motoujina Park shochu awamori shinto Dan-no-ura pagode gojū-no-tō stūpa shintoisme cerfs sika (Cervus nippon) torii Itsukushima-jinja Miyajimaguchi Haikai Hokku Basho Haiku Dogen Sugaruma Kanazawa Omicho Kazue-machi Higashi Kenroku-en Naga-machi geisha maiko Sekigahara YSagami Wakamiya Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū Hachiman Sanetomo ginko biloba Sanetomo Kugyo Hokuzan Namerikawa koto Kaidō Sagami Daruma Shin-ji Ike Koizumi Junsaku ibuki Linear chuo Shinkansen densha-otaku Kencho-ji gozan Daigaku Zenji Tanuki-mon Bonshō Hōjō Butsuden Senju-Kannon danka seido tennösei Tsuru, Otsuki, Uenohara Otsuki Maglev kakebuton futon shikibuton tanto ren et li yi xin zhi cheng ryokan Ryōbu shintō Kūkai sensei yosegi-kaeizu Hakone-Machi-ko Ashinoko Hakone-jinja Seki-sho fumerolles Owakudani Togendaiko Kokka shinto caldeira Hakone Izu shinbutsu shūgō korokke Nagita wasabi Yaizu Hamana bundai ou chabudai zabuton agura wo kaku seiza Candeo Hotel Yorono-taki yuba Aspergillus flavus var. oryzae kōji-kin amidon Piago Handa Shop Hanakomichi Konishicho Handa Onishi Aijira Tenri Kenkyukai ratooning rice Tenri Honmichi oshinobu Pindola Bharadraja ou Binzuru arhats Kasuga Taisha matsuri Setsubun Mantoro Obon Mantoro Kasugayama Shikinen zôtai Kofuku-ji Fujiwara-kyo Hijo-kyo (Nara) Fujiwara no Kamatari Kiyonori Kikutake Nihonbashi théâtre kabuki Nakamuraza nabemono Hakubustukan Ryōgoku Kokugikan sukiyaki shintô Asakusa-jinja Sanja Sama Sanja Matsuri,sumos Katsura Chugushi Keihan Ginshachi shimenawa nemuri-neko Yomei-mon  kana hiragana katakana kanji Omizuya Mizaru Iwazaru Kikazaru Omote-mon ou Nio-mon Nio Shinyosha hanzi Chan Hidetada Ishidorī Gojūnotō daimyio Rinnō-ji Shōdō Shōnin Amida, Senju-Kannon Sanbutsudō Shōyō-en Sorinto Homotsuden Joso Kinugawa Kasukabe, Koga, Toshigi, Kanuma Tone Kinugawa Koshigaya Tōbu nihongo Zaibatsu Hachiko Kototoi-dori Love Hotels Shibuya Crossing Jingumae Omote-sando Kiddy Land Oriental Bazaar Altea Plaza Softbank robot Pepper Aldebaran Gothic Lolitas Chuo Sumitomo Building, Mitsui Building, Keio Plaza Hotel et NS Building Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower Takeshita-dori Unagi no kabayaki Awashima Hokyoin-to Tatsumi-ya Avalokiteshvara Guānyīn mikesai Nijubashi Skytree Shitamachi Senso-ji Kaminarimon Hōzōmon Nakamise-dori Joukoro Kototoi-dori Uotami azuki uki yaki mochi Ueno japonica Rakuzo  Sanco Inn Tsuruma ou Tsurumai Gokiso Biyo Toyotomi Minamoto no Yoritomo, bushi bushidō Shoku Nihongi wushi saburau buke kuge Toyotomi Hideyoshi Oda Nobunaga Mode Gakuen Nikken Sekkei Ryounkaku Uguisudani hanami Aum Shinrikyō Chiyoda, Marunouchi et Hibiya Sotokanda Akihabara Tsukiji Aneda, Minaoto ku Ginza Tapas Taps Amida Gojū-no-tō Tō-kondō Nan''endō Hokuendō Chū-kondō hirahata achiki Kannon Aizen-do Aizen Myōō Maha Vairocana Godai-do Fudo, Kosanze, Gundari, Daiitoku et Kongoyasha-myōō Jizô Ôjizô-sama Cercis siliquastrum Sanjūsankasho Utaga-hama Bandō Daiyagawa Chuzenji-ko Yukawa Akechidaira Icha Asian Grill Nagasaka Shinkyo Yamasugeno-jabashi Daiya manju daifuku Haiden Okunoin pinyin Futara-san jinja Ōkuninushi, Takiribime et Ajisukitakahikone Chuzen-ji Mont Nantai Yasha-mon ou Botan-mon Umarokya (bleue) Kendara (blanche) Abastumara (verte) et Bidara rouge) Taiyu-in-byo Iemitsu Nio-mon Niten-mon Jikoku Komoku Bisha-mon ZochoJinja Maruyama Inari Maiden hinzen shiki kannushi miko Kazue-machi Kaga Toshiie Maeda Ohori-dori Chaya kimusuko Asanogawa Ohashi Naka-no Hashi Higashi magasin Hakuza Hikarigura takenoko shiitake binzasara waraji makura Caffe Karyudo Kamitaira Nanto inekari koï Doburoku momi genmai hakumai doburoku uruchimai mochigome Vigna angularis sakazuki koshihikari et akitakomachi Morus alba L. Broussonetia papyrifera Shokawa washi Ainokura Shirakawa et Gokayama Gassho-zukuri yukatabira Gion Matsuri Chichibu Matsuri haori  tokonoma shōjigami oshiire washitsu Seiryu Nakabashi Takayama Kami Nomachi, Kami Sannomachi akadaru ou kazaridaru sakabayashi Marishiten-dake Tsurugaike Fujimi-dake Hida Mae-Hotaka, Kita-Hotaka, Karasawa-dake, Yarigatake, Oku-Hotaka terminus Tatami-daira yoshiki washlet Hongu Ginrei Zhuang et Baiyun Zhuang onsui senjô benza Koban Nohi Hirayu / Shin-otaka line Honokidaira seiketsu JR Limited Express Wide Gifu Gero Nagara Oasis21 Hideki Casai d''Obayashi Corporation, Spaceship Aqua Suehiro Sakae Nakanokuchibeya, Genkan Oroka Nagoya-jô Kisoji N''EX (Narita Express) Sunroute myrica rubra Shoya hanakatsuo karebushi kezurikatsuo Onosho mono no fu komo koga rōnin eta hinin yamabushi shugendō yagura SHashizume-ichi-no-mon Kahokuzaka Kahoku Saigawa Naga-machi Nomura Takada Sanjikken nagaya Kenrokumachi Kenroku-en Kasumigaike yukitsuri Nishiki shabu-shabu kishimen yuzu gomadare ponzu nabe shuan yangrou Yuan Wakamiya-oji jinrikisha shari neta makizushi nori Gin no sara demae aga renkon Kanazawa Hongan-ji Danmaya Suisan Tsuzumi-mon Aokusa-machi Omicho-Ichiba Mystays mino zushi Honmaru Owari kinshachi ou shachihoko Ninomaru Shoin Kano Sadanobu et Kano Tanyu fusuma - 2016 - Inde du nord, vallées sacrées du Gange et de la Yamuna entre Delhi et Bénarès (Varanasi) Guides: Mahipal, Hanuman et Sohan Récit de voyage en Inde du nord, vallée du Gange Carnet de voyage en Inde du nord, vallée du Gange Récit voyage en Inde du nord, vallée du Gange Carnet voyage en Inde du nord, vallée du Gange Uttar pradesh Madhya Pradesh AGRA Agra taj Mahal Empire Moghol Mughal Nâdir Shâh Jahan Muntaz Mahal empereur Akbar Jahangir Aurangzeb pietra dura marbre blanc noir patrimoine mondial humanité UNESCO palais mausolée pavillon temple pavillon Diwan-I Am cénotaphes tombeaux chhatris minarets funéraire portail pistakh épouses concubines chapiteaux consoles grès rouge spectacle Kalakriti Cultural & Convention Center bollywood coupoles dômes GWALIOR Gwalior Shvetahuna royaumes rajputes rajpoutes statues monolithiques Tirthankaras jains Man Mandir Rao Man Singh clan Tomar Chandella temple Bandichor Gurdwana guru gourou Sikhs Hargobind Teli-ka Mandir lignée Shisodia Rathor râja Padmapâla frère Mahîpâla Sas-Bahu Teli-ka-Mandir grottes temples rupestres prophète Adinath Mahâvîra réincarnation transmigration mantras prières pardon éveil moksha Jai Vilas lustres Datia palais Govind colline citadelle fort forteresse Rajgarh ORCHHA Orchha castes varna jati ruines vestiges dieux jungle dévotion divinité dieux déités Vishnu Vishnou shikhara Jhansi Shiva Kshastriyas nobles Vaisays dalits Intouchables discriminations tribus populations tribales constitution Bundelâ Bundelkhand fleuve rivière affluent Rudra Pratap Singh capitale Tikamgarh Orchhâ architecture construit bâti édifié défaite victoire Chaturbhuj temples sanctuaire saint des saints Bir Singh Deo raja maharaja rao Lakshmi Narayan Ramayana barattage mer lait shikhara KHAJURAHO Khajuraho temples érotiques Kamasutra sexe sacré nudité statues pornographique nues nus orgie orgiaque dimorphisme sexuel ambivalence Kâma Manmatha chef Eros Brâhma Tantra tantriques postures positions caresses préliminaires Pârvatî védisme amour grâce beauté nymphes courtisanes Padmini amantes embrassent copulation coit aphrodisiaques art masturbation fellation cunnilingus missionnaire levrette 69 cuillères enclume roseau charrue Andromaque union crabe grand 8 suspendue sodomie zoophilie Varâha avatars démon Hiranyaksh nagas génies Lakshmana rajâ Chandelâ Yasovarman incestueux Linga lingam forme phalliques phallux pénis vulve lèvres clitoris bouche sexe féminin yoni Krishna désir accouplements souvent acrobatiques exploits partenaires postures bestiales triviales formes voluptueuses courbes sensuelles désirs séduction attributs beauté jeux amoureux shakti Narasimha Kandarya-Mahadeva Vidyadhara Devi Jagadamba déesse Devî tétons aréoles mamelons pubis mont vénus shakhas médaillons registres panneaux panthéon Mahâbharata Râmâyana frises gopis naïves bergères jouant flûte grandes épopées scènes reliefs tantrika prostitution plaisir 64 positions amoureuses caste Mallinga Vatsyayana maîtres Bhabhravya Gotamukha Gonikputra aninaux mythiques féminité masculinité adhikaranas texte obscène immoral mariages unionsjains Parshvanath parc Panna jeep Mahindra tigre Bengale Panthera tigris tigris forêt singes langurs gris langurs antilopes nilgaut Boselaphus tragocamelus vaches bleues sambars Cervus unicolor Rusa unicolor chitals cerfs axis Axis axis cervidés tortues étoilées Inde Geochelone elegans gavial Gange Gavialis gangeticus rivière Ken léopard indien Panthera pardus fusca lynx sangliers cascades Pandav Pandava VARANASI Bénarès Varanasi crémation incinération Ghâts Maa Ganga Mère Gange impur purifier pollué pollution bain se baigner baignade libérer âme défunts morts cadavre macabre spectacle bûcher bois feu enflammer prières prêtres transewer égout Varuna Asi aéroport Lal Bahadur Shastri arti Aarti Godowlia mendiants pauvres pèlerins pèlerinage marches escaliers sâdhus renonçants barques coupelles bougies Dashashwamedh Vishwanath autelsbrâhmanes foule fidèles flammes fumées odeurs couleurs bruits embouteillage trishaw rickshaw tuk tuk Ahalya Bai Munshi Rana Raja Someshwara Manasarowar Kedar Harishchandra immersion Man Mandir Lalita Manikarnatika Doms concessionnaires Scindia Ghât rani satis veuves sacrifice vieille ville Chowk oratoires Skanda Purana écrit Gyanvapi Masjid Panchganga émeutes mutinerie Révolte des Cipayes thé lait épices chaiwallah  Durga Shri Guru Ravidass campus Université Babaras Hindu University Bharat Kala Bhavan Durgakund musée Bharat Mata Mandir Shiv Prasad Gupta Durga Prasad Khatri Mahatma Gandhi SARNATH site bouddhique sermon prêche naissance Lumbini Bodh Gaya éveil illumination Kushinagar nirvana communauté Shanga doctrine Dharma croyances décès brahmanisme Jagat Singh dîvân ministre pradakshina) ombrelle Stupa DharmarajikaColonne Pilier d''Ashoka Mulagandha Kuti Vihara reliquaire Dhamek Dharma Chakra monastère Chaukhandi Bhadravargiya métier Jacquard quartier de Godoulia Jalsain cinq éléments linceul civière cendres sanyasin combustion brûlés DELHI Patna Pataliputra royaumes rivaux Pallava Ska Vakataka MagadhaChera Chola Pandya Gupta Patan Ujjain Kânauj Pala Chalukya Qûtb ud-Dîn Aibak dynastie Esclaves Mamelouks Muizzî Khalji Tughlûq Sayyîd Sikandâr Lodî Dilli Sher Shahi Shahjahanabad invasion afghano-moghole Lal Kot Qila Rai Pithora Siri Tughlaqabad Jahanpanah Ferozabad Dinpanah Purana Qila Shahjahanabad New Delhi Shanti Vana Meena Urdu bazar bazaar iwan salle prière cour haram minbar plutôt petit mihrab Patel Gali Dariba Kalan Chandni CHowk Gurudwara Bangla Sahib Gourou Harkrishan doctrine Maharaja Ranjît Singh Amritsar massacre incendie 5K Khalsa sikhs amritdaris Kesh Kangha Kachera turban pagri Kawra Kirpan keski chuni Bhagat Giani Zail Montek Singh Ahluwalia Manmohan Langar cantine communautaire Granth repas bénévoles donateurs repas gratuits Sri Aurobindo ashram CNG Compressed Natural Gas Ala-i-Minar Mehrauli Quwwat ul-Islam Dhilî Râi Pithora architecture Ghurid pylône Chandragupta II script Brahmi Qutb Minar versets Coran calligraphiés cannelures encorbellements muqarnas Îltutmish Fîrûz Shâh Tughlûq Ala-i-Darwaza Imam Zamin kbar Adham KhanMughal Jewels & Crafts triporteurs - 2016 - MALTE nos guides: David, Fabricia, Maria, Jacqueline - 0 -néolithique indépendance Royaume-Uni Angleterre Anglais Français Italiens Siciliens Tunisiens Arabes musulmans islam religion Sicile Italie Tunisie Maghreb achipel maltais îles Malte Gozo immigration colonisation Phéniciens Romains Grecs comptoirs navires flotte navigation ère chrétienne civilisation préhistorique Préhistoire populations vague culture agriculture éleveurs outils âge du bronze fer acier port se Méditerranée bateaux galères colonies Carthage langue sémitique Normands Empire jihad djihad calife Aghlabides Fatimides Ifriqiya archéologie Mdina Medina Rabat citadelle faubourgs vassaux Byzance byzantins berbères esclaves chrétiens pillage razzias dhimmis abid Comte Roger Croisades croisés Saint-Empire romain germanique Anjou Aragon Maltais Espagne juifs pape Clément VII Charles Quint villes remparts fortifications fossés douves murs épidémie de peste Turcs ottomans Constantinople Istanbul Grand Siège 1565 1530 soldats troupe armée Marsaxlokk Jean Parisot de La Valette hommes pertes Chevaliers Bataille de Lépante guerres puniques Patras Venise Vénitiens bataille navale vaisseaux défaite victoire janissaires triple voeu: chasteté, pauvreté et obéissance Révolution française confiscation biens Bonaparte Napoléon Campagne d''Egypte rade mouillage criques souveraineté dissout réformes abolition de l''esclavage Inquisition Roi de Naples britanniques Hospitaliers traités d''Amiens de paris et de Vienne chantiers navals exploitation coloniale émeutes révoltes constitution Seconde Guerre Mondiale Deuxième Mussolini offensive bombardements position stratégique ravitaillement canal de Suez Victoria Cross George Cross maisons édifices morts victimes blessés détruites rasées drapeau défaite 1942 1943 général Rommel alternance nationaliste conservateurs travaillistes partis politiques Commonwealth République Présidente Premier Ministre démocratie libérale 1964 1974 1987 Chambre des députés mandat élections LP PN Joseph Muscat Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca Libye Céphalonie Afrique du Nord Europe Moyen-Orien ''''Botte'''' conteneurs cargots Gzzejjer taSan Pawl St Paul St Luc naufrage jugement Rome Commo Kemmuna Cominotto Kemmunett Ta'' Dmejrek point culminant Histoire géographie géologie sous-continent, l''Apulie épôts de calcaire tendre coquillages fossiles craie 90 millions d''années océan Téthys Alpes collision surrection plaques tectoniques Crétacé Miocène Pliocène relief karstique sismique calanques érosion hydraulique cours d''eau ruisseaux wied oued Chadwick Lakes nappe phréatique saumure dessalement usine osmose climat sec sécheresse aride aridité pluviométrie ensoliellement végétation maquis démographie fécondité Union européenne densité élevée espérance de vie hommes femmes enfants ethnique religions catholicisme romain communauté étrangère etrangers population maghrébine Espace Schengen émigration Lampedusa Somaliens, Erythréens toponymes et patronymes parlers dialectaux siculo-arabes dialectes ifriqiyen alphabet latin insulaires habitants activité active PIB revenu Commission européenne nationalité privatisation entreprises banques adhésion Union européenne en 2004 collaboration URSS Chine négociations référendum Zone euro en 2008 ressources alimentaires agriculture énergie commerce extérieur déficit balance des échanges fret maritime industries main-d''œuvre productive impôts finances fiscalité attrayante touristes tourisme budgétaire chômage inflation seuil de pauvreté critères de Maastricht Jekk joghgbok M''hemmx mn''hiex - 1 - pèlerinages libérer lieux saints Jérusalem royaume États latins d''Orient ordre de Saint-Jean marchands amalfitains hôpitaux patronage de St Jean-le-Baptiste frères moines laïcs convers soins aux malades concile de Troyes en 1129 guerre sainte Reconquête ibérique prêtres ou chapelains statuts frères d''armes ordre religieux-militaire Templiers forteresse de Bethgibelin Krak des Chevaliers Saladin Saint-Jean-d''Acre grand maître de l''Ordre, Jean de Villiers Terre sainte pour s''installer à Chypre Rhodes conquise la chrétienté contre les Sarrasins Philippe le Bel Mehmed II et Soliman le Magnifique trahison du grand chancelier d''Amaral Philippe de Villiers de L''Isle-Adam l''empereur Charles Quint déménage Barberousse  1529 Alger Tripoli noblesse société castes familles nobles aristocates guerre de course pirates corsaires 1792 1798 l''abdication Ferdinand de Hompesch  Paul Ier de Russie Rome Sun Flower Fabricia marques de voitures véhicules trajet trafic pluie températures sources récupération réservoir sources norias irrigation tours de guet Défenses paysans attaques signaux de fumée Marfa forteresses Marsalform oliviers vignoble oliveraies coton vergers d''agrumes amandiers caroubiers c^priers câpres acacias Libye allergies Naxxar, Birguma, Msida (avec l''Université), Marsa et enfin, Floriana faubourg le Grand port presqu''île de Xiberras Contre-Réforme catholique protestants baroque rococo moderne patrimoine mondial de l''humanité univers UNESCO inscrit classé république tours globigérine moucharabieh Opéra théâtre bow-windows balcons oriels Ste-Catherine d''Italie et à Notre-Dame de la Victoire statues Auberge de Castille et Léon jardins d''Upper Barraca panorama belvédère les Trois Cités batterie de canons Merchants Marchands Castellania façade co-cathédrale Episcopat séculier horloge cadrans diable nef chapelles voûte en berceau pavement marbre polychrome marqueterie marqueté boiseries chaire orgues dorures or fin Nicolas Cotoner et Ramon Perellos Antonio Manoel de Vilhena Manoel Pinto da Fonseca vestibule musée princes Altesse Eminentissime l''Oratoire tableaux peintres Caravage (Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio) St-Jérome Fra Michel Angelo livres enluminés et des vêtements sacerdotaux brodés Auvergne Provence Allemagne Bavière Catalogne Navarre Castille Portugal célèbre café, le Caffe Cordina reine Victoria Palais des Grands Maîtres ou Palais Magistral maître d''oeuvre en est le même, Gerolama Cassar porches cours intérieures alcôves blasons armoiries Salle du Trône chambre antochambre Salle des Ambassadeurs Tapisseries (des Gobelins) restaurant Il-Gifen Saint-Paul-le-Naufragé (St-Paul Shipwrecked) bragioli, des paupiettes de boeuf heurtoirs de portes Sacra Infermeria Bastion St-Lazare Ricasoli court-métrage Malta Experience Fontaine des Tritons quais Lascaris embarcadère écoliers île Manoel Sliema Notre-Dame-du-Mont-Carmel archevêché (Triq L-Arcisqof) Aaron''s Kitchen Palais Archiépiscopal Stuffat Tal Fenek ou Fenkata, un copieux ragout de lapin établissement fréquenté piazza plazza Palazzo Carniero Casa Rocca Piccola hôpital Bighi Kalkara rues Lvant et Ste-Ursule Porte - 2 - Machrek bassin Abu ''l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad sultan émir 870 fouille archéologues archéologie libérer liberté rahal, domaine terrien barons Frédéric II expulse convertis conversion communauté Islamic Cultural Centre Tripoili Mouammar Kadhafi Maria mini croisière Gzira salam Sliem ghalik Marija ferrys ferries compagnie Captain Morgan Cruises Sea Below base sous-marine Creek ou Lazaretto Pieta Elisabeth II Baie San-Elmo Barriera jardins et ascenseur d''Upper Barraca paquebots de croisière sont accostés Paola cales sèches commerce Isla, l''ancienne Senglea Claude de La Sengle échauguette Il-Gardjola Birgu, l''ancienne Vittoriosa décor de films et accueille les Studios Cinématographiques Tigné navette traversier Toni sites Vittoriosa (Il-Burgu), Bormla (Cospicua) et Senglea (L-isla) e Marc''Antonio Zondadari Xatt Juan-Bautista Azopardo Claude de la Sengle Citta Invicta Jean Parisot de La Valette rues Pawlu-Boffa et il-Mina-il-Kbira ruelles Jean L''Evesque de La Cassière Grégoire XIII cardinaux Paolo Passionei Hilda Tabone Misrah-ir-Rebha apparat Lorenzo Gafa Ste-Croix Saint Laurent, martyr chrétien espagnol Xatt il-Form ou Xatt ir-Rizq Marine barque dghajsa Carnival Cruise Line (CCL) Constellation Celebrity Cruises - 3 - scolarité études école niforme obligatoire cantine gratuite cours dispensés primaire secondaire maternelle collège baccalauréat université vacances scolaires grève durée hebdomadaire de travail est de 40 heures jours fériés salaire minimum moyen retraite pension taux de cotisations sociales impôts taxe foncière ni de taxe d’habitation ni de droits de succession mais une TVA formation loyer des logements sociaux hôpitaux publics système de santé obésité l''Eglise et la famille mères célibataires adoption mariage arrangé avortement divorce séparation adoption mariage gay tradition nataliste procréer procréation FIV prostitution racolage cohabitation concubinage NAXXAR: Palazzo Parisio Jacqueline Profession de Foi Premières Communions Fête-Dieu Marquis Scicluna pavillon de chasse les marbres viennent de Carrare ou de Sienne escalier monumental corridor salons tableaux galerie armures salle de bal apothéose flore jardin botanique espèces exotiques tropicales Amérique Asie Afrique Ceiba speciosa (ou Ceiba speciosa, de la même famille que le baobab ou le kapokier), le Erythrina crista-galli Sapindus saponaria festas processions course place avenue allée boulevard Peace Band Club jolies demeures MOSTA Ste-Marie (N-D de l''Assomption) au dôme imposant Rotunda de Sta Marija Assunta Georges Grognet Rotonde bombe détonateur coupole ex-votos exvoto ATTARD: jardins et palais San-Anton ornementaux Gouverneur Sir Arthur Borton sculptures sculptures volières et serres d''orchidées fontaines palmiers, cyprès, jacarandas, araucarias, bougainvillées palmier bas Sago du Japon (Cycas revoluta), pied d''éléphant (Beaucarnea recurvata) et autres plantes exotiques ou non: rosiers, yuccas, fleurs de Noël, œillets, pamplemoussiers Argotti Shakespeare Festival chaque été et des récitals de musique de chambre ou de jazz Antoine de Paule maison de campagne résidence d''été maison de campagne têtes couronnées la reine Marie de Roumanie, l''impératrice de Russie Marie Feodorovna, le roi Edouard VII Mikiel Anton Vassalli francophilie TA''QALI: village d''artisanat verre soufflé Mdina Glass céramique et poterie Bristow Potteries orfèvrerie en filigrane d''argent Musée Wignacourt, Grotte de St-Pal, catacombes St-Augustin (Santu Wistin) Ste-Marie-Mère-de-Jésus (Ta''Giezu) Bottegin Palazzo Xara dessert imqaret maqrut pâte de dattes amandes liqueur de bajtra, de figue de Barbarie collégiale St-Paul sur le parvis Alof de Wignacourt Chapelains lieu de culte privé collections Francesco Catania Croix de Malte à 8 pointes huit trésor reliques rosaire urn châsse vitrine Neapolitan Bambino Mattia Preti, Antoine Favray et Francesco Zahra gouverneur romain Publius guérison miraculeuse miracles ermite espagnol Juan Benegas de Cordoba Jean-Paul II et Benoît XVI paléochrétiennes hypogées labyrinthe niches ou loculi abris antiaériens Sainte Agathe de Catane païens fresques MDINA, cité du silence Zondadari parcs hôtels particuliers villas Mesquita stratagème assaillants assaut décisif Howard Gardens, des jardins-promenade Porta Real l''ingénieur français Charles François de Mondion tremblement de terre général Masson l’un des ensembles architecturaux embuscades à l''ennemi architecture siluco-normande (ou sicilo-normande) Casa Inguanez, du cloître des bénédictines Palazzo de Piro Fontanella tea garden Fontanella tea garden siècles Falzon prieuré des Carmélites l''Annonciation et la chapelle St-Roque Sofia Gourgion style éclectique néogothique pierres tombales Mattia Preti - 4 - Marsaxlokk anse sirocco Mustapha Pacha Piyali, amiral de la flotte gondoles barques luzzu luzzijiet œil phénicien à tort œil d''Horus ou d''Osiris oculus Birzebbuga Playmobil SIGGIEWI The Limestone Heritage pierre chaux constructions bâtiments roches sédimentaires couleurs patine couche dépôts accumulation calcaire corallien évolution des techniques d''extraction carrière carrier mécanisation scies camion Dodge D15 tapis roulant élévateur cabane de pierre sèche girma encorbellements matrone artiste britannique Mark Verry falaise de Dingli itinéraire pittoresque Buskett Garden Onorato Visconti Angelo Dorini Verdala Palace Dingli Cliffs île de Filfla îlot abruptes Ste-Marie-Madeleine précipices radôme radar Hugues Louvens de Verdalle L-Imnarja, la fête fêtes familiales, réceptions de mariage, concerts et autres évènements STMicroelectronics située à Kirkop QRENDI mais tout près de Zurrieq moulin à vent , connu sous le nom de Tax-Xarolla meules Wied iz-Zurrieq vallon encaissé pêcheurs des promenades en mer Blue grotto (Taht il-Hejja grottes Grotte Bleue couleurs phosphorescentes cyanobactéries a cucina di Bettina les temples mégalithiques de Hagar Qim et de Mnajdra soleil de plomb Skorba, Ta'' Hagrat et Tarxien hypogée de Hal Saflieni accueil exposition film animation intempéries structure métallique recouverte d''une bâche desquamation des blocs Hagar Qim rilithon ou trilithes piliers ou orthostates linteau tables ou autels époque ouvertures plan polylobé en trèfle sacrifices d''animaux, des holocaustes et des rituels d''oracles solstice d''été absides bétyles pierres sacrées idoles monde arabe sexe masculin féminin statuette Vénus Musée archéologique J.-G. Vance gravures en spirales pierres piquetées d''indentations observatoire observation astronomique ou de calendrier - 5 - Xemxija et Meillieha Bay plage Ghadira Selmun Palace Popeye Village, un décor de film parc de loisirs Cirkewwa Blue Lagoon aux eaux turquoises baigneurs et estivants domination Nadur Mgarr Ghajnsielem localité géants Xaghra temples de de Ggantija monumentales Cairn de Barnenez dans le Finistère superficie dimensions figurines blocs parfaitement équarris menhirs domens cromlec''h tessons de poteries mur d''enceinte Fliegu hippodrome sémaphore de Ta''Kenuna Ghaxaq et Gharghur blé, l’orge, les oignons, les pommes de terre, les fraises murets haies vallée de Kercem voûte Ghajn il-Kbira Fontana Cottage Industry boutique magasin souvenirs Sacré-Coeur Wied ix-Xlendi station balnéaire lovée au fond d''une anse Théâtre Astra collines reboisements L-Ghasri L-Gharb Dwejra Bay: Azure Window et Fungus Rock Triq id-Dwejra, dans la localité de San Lawrenz mer intérieure nommée Inland Sea effondrement tunnel naturel Blue Hole cheminée plongeurs spot emblématique  La Fenêtre d''Azur Victoria (Rabat) aqueduc des fermes Ir-Rabat Ghawdex Ta''Savina Nativité de Marie Hôtel de Ville (Kunsill Lockali) le montage Gozo 360° Gran Castello Sinan Pacha basilique St-Georges bronze moule de John L. Grima Gian Battista Conti Giuseppe D''Arena dais maître-autel Pietru Pawl Azzopardi Santucci meses et office quotidiens franciscains Triq Sant''Indrija (St-André) étal étalage devanture Sicile Cap Carbonara Corse - 2016 - CYCLADES nos guides Nicolas David et Philippe récit de voyage, carnet de bord, carnet de route, gastronomie cuisine nourriture climat patrimoine mondial humanité universel UNESCO, d''Aristote, de Sophocle, de Pythagore, de Périclès, de Phidias, d''Homère ou d''Ulysse, climat méditerranéen , culture des oliviers, Péloponnèse, Mont Olympe, Grèce antique et Grèce byzantine, ROMAINE, BYZANTINE, CROISADES, OTTOMANE, dans le Péloponnèse, Cnossos... récits homériques, guerres médiques (Perses), les Athéniens ,guerre puissance de la Macédoine Alexandre le Grand Civilisation Minoenne en Crète et dans d''autres îles méandres grecs, Mésopotamie et Phénicie , La grande sculpture grecque , le kouros (jeune homme nu debout au repos) et la koré (jeune fille drapée), drapé mouillé, poteries et vases, L''ordre dorique, L''ordre ionique, colonnes à cannelures , chapiteau corinthien à feuilles d''acanthe, l''architrave, la voûte et de l''arc dans l''architecture, les Empires romains d’Occident et d’Orient, Byzance, Constantinople et Istanbul, Constantin converti au christianisme le Grand Schisme d’Orient la naissance de l’orthodoxie, la vénération d''icônes, les iconoclastes les Croisés puis par les turcs de Mehmet II, le Canal de Corinthe de la Mer Ionienne, à l''ouest, à la Mer Egée, à l''est, remarquable théâtre antique l''arc de décharge, la guerre de Troie dans l''Iliade et l''Odyssée, Achille et Hector le troyen, Pénélope, un joli port les Francs puis les Vénitiens à l''époque des Croisades, à flanc de colline, à l''ombre d''une forteresse , la pression croissante des Ottomans, ICONOSTASES et EX-VOTO, POPES, NONNES, la Voie sacrée, classicisme dans la sculpture et la plastique, Propylées, artisanat artisans culture civilisation coutumes traditions histoire historiques géographie géographiques sites monuments paysages costumes langues linguistique dialectes folklore folkloriques traditionnelles habitat habitations déesse Athéna, théâtre antique à Dionysos l''Odéon romain, l''Agora que domine le Temple Vestiges temple de l''Antiquité , la dictature des colonels (Georgios Papadopoulos), Costas Caramanlis et Andréas Papandréou Archipel des îles Cyclades Néolithique obsidienne Milo Milos Asie mineure âge du bronze idoles de marbre de Paros statues modernité tombes tombeaux sépultures millénaire l''Attique petits royaumes guerriers s''organise à partir de Mycènes récits homériques Doriens et Ioniens sanctuaire cités indépendantes Perses (appelés Mèdes) deux guerres médiques première Ligue de Délos roi perse Xerxès trières rade de Salamine, la flotte tribut Philippe II de Macédoine contre la Phocide le règne de Philippe II pirates Asie Mineure querelles théologiques christianisme catholicisme Infidèles musulmans Terre Sainte quatrième croisade, en 1204, république de Venise, Vénitiens États féodaux (duché de Naxos doge les Turcs puissance turque et ottomane grecques amiral Barberousse Barbarossa Sublime Porte tribut occupation gouvernement patriarche évêque soulèvements nationalistes suscités par les Russes traité d''Andrinople accordant son indépendance à la Grèce 1981 Communauté économique européenne (C.E.E., rebaptisée Communauté européenne en 1992 et Union Européenne en 1993) laxisme intégration Zone euro 2001 JO 2004 une grave crise budgétaire a crise migratoire péninsule des Balkans 24 îles sont habitées Syros capitale administrative tectonique des plaques continentales tremblements de terre secousses séismes climat méditerranéen aux étés secs mariage avortement IVG espérance de vie pays d''immigration le phénomène migratoire chômage SMIC religions deux Églises orthodoxes autocéphales superstition mauvais oeil mati talisman endettement abyssal autarcie et d''autosuffisance banques système bancaire une fiscalité défaillante mariée à la corruption cadastre dilapidation prévarication secteur secondaire tertiaire PIB PNB éonomie souterraine boom économique envolée des prix de l''immobilier la crise qui sévit depuis 2008 Tinos le port du Pirée des consortiums chinois touristes destination touristique des mesures d''austérité draconiennes pays émergents les PIGS: Portugal, Irlande, Grèce et Espagne Spain fuite des capitaux catalogue Héliades à l''horizon mythes mythologie croyances cultes une architecture typique de maisons blanches et d''églises aux dômes le plus souvent bleu azur les hordes de touristes et les grandes chaleurs ferries et parfois des bateaux rapides bus locaux le vieux port d''Ormos 212 mètres de dénivelée gastronomie nourriture mets plats auberge restaurant tavernes taverna mezzés euilles de vignes farcies, tarama tzatziki yaourt feta, fava pita sanswich grec galette ou pain moussaka magirevta brochettes (souvli) psari poissons vin au kilo ou litre poulpes, calamars, anchois, maquereau frais ou séché au soleil (gouna) dorade, sardine fromage feta boissons (pota) vins locaux ouzo anis desserts (glyka) boulangeries pâtisseries confiseries zaharoplastio gâteaux à la crème, baklavas ou zadaïf, agmydalota (bouchées aux amandes), loukoums ou halva (nougats) SANTORIN Théra Sainte Irène Santa Irini, nom qui évolue en Santo Rini puis Santorini escouades de quads bateaux de croisières grève des ferries maisons blanches blanchies à la chaux, terrasse, réservoirs et citernes un climat ensoleillé, très venteux et sec l''éruption cataclysmes cône volcanique mythe de l''Atlantide et de celui des dix plaies d''Égypte diamètre et les cendres volcaniques diamètre et les cendres volcaniques AKROTIRI: la vue sur la caldeira, le village perché, le site archéologique préhistorique, la Plage Rouge (Red Beach) les uns en circuit et d''autres en séjour hôtel Atlantida cuisine typique, copieuse, et variée gros haricots blancs (ou yigandes) à la sauce tomate la domination latine nom de La Ponta la conquête turque la forteresse du Goulas marche et balade randonnées les sarments de vigne et les grappes de raisin de la sécheresse et des vents violents l''Assyrtiko vatriété un vin blanc doux, le Vinsanto, câpriers boutons floraux ou caprons Nicals Savid et Philippe nos guides, la civilisation cycladique, rues pavées dalles rue des Telchines fouilles un haut degré de civilisation blocs de tuf ateliers boutiques salles de bains à l''étage, reliées à l''égout mosaïques fresques des scènes de la vie de tous les jours pêcheur de dorades scènes des marines et des paysages coryphènes la pierre ponce et la pouzzolane construction toit et toiture hangar archéologues St-Helens Vésuve Pompéi décombres fuite fuir coulées pyroclastiques, refroidissement climatique la cave Venetsanos à Megalochori, PYRGOS Kallistis Tourde Kallisté le rocher de Skaros stockage de l''eau de pluie une usine de désalinisation d''eau de mer produit l''essentiel de l''eau courante un labyrinthe de ruelles concentriques, coupoles bleu azur ou grenat représentations du Christ pantocrator inspirées de l''art byzantin le Jugement Dernier le kastro (ou kastelli) enceinte fortifications muraille des grottes et des ermitages le monastère fortifié Profitis Elias le prophète Elie panorama belvédère point de vue vignobles un village pittoresque et authentique muscat un jeu de cartes ou tavli (backgammon) Venetsanos Winery route en lacets serrés vue plongeante saisissante Perissa la colline d''Emborio station balnéaire pentes abruptes du Mesa Vouno déjeuner à Fish Tavern Fratzeskos la très longue plage grotte et ermitage FIRA (ou PHIRA) Thíra Imerovigli boutiques, bars, chemin escarpé à pied ou à dos d''âne, ou un petit téléphérique télécabines mûletiers Firostani le Cap Agios Nikolaos Elia Taverna Olive Tree le rocher de Skaros sur le flanc Théosképasti site exceptionnel d''OIA petit port d''Ammoudi sites troglodytes le séisme dévastateur de 1956 l''île de Thirassía prisé par la jet-set mini croisière dans la caldeira cosmopolite goélette port d''Athinios caïque Pegasus cratère du volcan sur l''îlot NEA KAMENI la Nouvelle Brûlée l''îlot calcaire d''Aspronissi l''île de Paléa Kaméni l''Ancienne Brûlée escale Mikri Kaméni fumerolles instruments de mesure qui auscultent son activité le tangage projette des embruns sur le pont une chapelle dédiée St-Nicolas un paysage lunaire voire martien une petite crique aux eaux tièdes de couleur rouille parées de vertus thérapeutiques port de Korfos appelé aussi Ormos Korfou marches de l''escalier Manolas (ou Manolos) Potamos Hagios Nikolaos rochers ruiniformes blancs sertis de tuf volcanique rouge Ammoudiou ou Ammoudi PAROS Antiparos les îlots inhabités Despotikó et Strongylo calcaire transformé en marbre par métamorphisme le plus translucide au monde hefs-d''œuvre de la sculpture antique (notamment la Vénus de Milo Saliangos embarquement accostons débarquons le Superjet, un navire catamaran la compagnie Seajets Aliki hôtel Galatis buffet Taverna Balcony installée sur une jetée plage de sable doré salines marais salants baie anse garrigue maquis épineux un quartier résidentiel de grandes villas Musée du folklore des Cyclades de Benetos Skiadas autodidacte maquettes et miniatures Folégandros Parikia capitale de Paros Pounta (mentionnons sa chapelle Agios Krios) Revmatonisi, Fira, Diplo, Kavouras bars cafétérias château vénitien (Frankish Castle) le réemploi de tambours de colonnes demeures pleines de charme Panagia Ekatontapiliani (ou Panaghia Katapoliani) bâtiments cellules de moines Musée ecclésiastique Justinien Ste-Hélène, la mère de l''empereur Constantin sanctuaire paléochrétien baptistère ex-votos Naoussa Kolympithres la péninsule de Korakas la Révolution d''Orloff (prémices de la guerre d''indépendance grecque) la cave Moraitis Winery arcades et d''escaliers maintenant fleuris de bougainvillées bougainvilliers les stars du showbiz (Nikos Aliagas ne destination à la mode a localité de Lefkes (ou Lefkos) la mer Egée était infestée de pirates qui pillaient les côtes ''Aghion Pandon (ou Agii Pandes) sommet la Sainte Trinité Agia Triada Pisso Piso Livadi le métropolite Augoustinos Kantiotes halva, un gâteau de semoule à la cannelle caïque Egeostissa le Naxos Star de la Panteleos Cruises Shipping Company DELOS Rhénée ou Rineia la colline Cynthe (Kynthos) inscrit au patrimoine mondial de l''UNESCO en 1990 l''École française d''Athènes le dieu suprême Zeus sa maîtrese Léto ses jumeaux Apollon et Artémis vent de nord (le Meltemi) La mer moutonne l''échelle de Douglas force 5 sur l''échelle de Beaufort brise mal de mer habitants Cariens des fêtes somptueuses avec des hymnes et des compétitions sportives en l''honneur d''Apollon Lac Sacré asséché tyran Pisistrate le trésor de la ligue purification port franc commerceMithridate, roi du Pont décime la population et détruit tout Malte refuge le quartier dit du Théâtre mosaïques remarquables ornent le sol des riches demeures d''époques hellénistique et romaine maisons de Cléopâtre Dionysos Trident Mont Cynthe vestiges ruines gradins l''Agora puis la Voie Sacrée portiques colossal Kouros Naxiens torse et bassin l''Allée des Lions symboles deux socles supportant de colossaux phallus la Société archéologique d''Athènes pour accueillir les découvertes une remarquable collection de statues et des stèles Diadumènedes poteries, des ustensiles et des armes la Terrasse MYKONOS la communauté homosexuelle gay un promontoire rivage un dédale de ruelles où l''on se perd héros Mycon, fils du roi Aniou la nymphe Rios Phéniciens conquise par Hayreddin Barberousse, amiral de Soliman le Magnifique navires britanniques (HMS Romney) et français (Sibylle) l''héroïne nationale, Manto Mavrogenous chef-lieu Chora l''avant-port de Tourlos paquebots pigeons mouettes pélicans mascottes de Mykonos Agia Anna à coupole grenat le restaurant En Plo Panagia Paraportiani et la Petite Venise (Mikri Venetia) Agios Nikolaos (St-Nicolas) Panagia Paraportiani (dédiée à Notre Dame) ses escaliers entièrement chaulés une colline fortifiée par les Vénitiens de la famille Gisi les maisons de capitaines et riches marchands embarcations bateaux navires Alefkandra les moulins (Kato Myli) la meunerie farine blé 28 moulins placettes proprettes la Maison de Léna rue Panachrantrou Agia Panachra Agia Kyriaki les îles d''Ios, Sikinos, Antiparos et Paros, Kithnos, Kea, l''île étirée de Makronisos Airbus A320 la compagnie lituanienne de charter low-cost Small Planet Airlines la rivière Acheloos Potamos et le lac Thessalia sterea Ellada la côte albanaise au niveau de Saranda le lac de Lugano et le nord du Lac Majeur (Cannero, Juino). La Suisse le glacier Grosser Aletschgletscher qui descend de l''Eiger Brest St-malo Fort la Latte Cap Fréhel Presqu''île de Quiberon et Belle-Ile - 2017 AFRIQUE AUSTRALE Guides Michèle et Siaka Fungai rangers Erika Bernard Richard Lio Cape Town Montagne de la Table Table Mountain Lion''s Head hyrax ou daman panorama visite tour Waterfront quais City Bowl Hout Bay Duiler Island île aux phoques otaries à fourrure Péninsule du Cap de Bonne Espérance Parc National Boulder''s Beach plage aux pingouins les Manchots du Cap la route des vins Franschloek Stellenbosch Paarl Simon van der Stell protestants huguenotss vigne vignoble cépages vins pinotage prison de Robben Island Victor Verster quartier malais diamantaire Diamond Wholesalers taille prospection tanzanite pierre précieuse diamants Slave Lodge Gardens Houses of Parliament quartier Bo-Kaap des esclaves malais cathédrale anglicane Greenmarket Square Durban marché indien mosquée Hottentots Bertha Mkhize Street Market Juma Masjid aux dômes dorés stade Moses Mabhida Stadium Gooderson Dumazulu Lodge & Traditional village reconstitué ou krall Les zoulous, tout comme les  Basotho, Xhosa, Swazi  et Matabele, sont issus de la peuplade ngoumi huttes circulaires enclos épineux palissade chants et danses musique djembés xylophones dot en bétail pourle mariage costume traditionnel sorcière/astrologue ou sangoma et le guérisseur/herboriste ou inyanga guerriers sagaie zèbres Réserve Zulu Nyala d''Hluhluwe girafes guépard robe pelage vitesse roulades rhinocéros noirs et blancs herbivores BIG FIVE phacochères sangliers marcassins koudou kudu mâle femelles buffles dangereux impalas vautours gnous antilope naine dik-dik Madoqua, des singes gris cercopithèques bleus poste frontière Lavumisa-Golelaprovince Gauteng Mpumalanga Malelane Malalane Crocodiles River Matsamo/Jeppe''s Reffe cobe waterbuck hippopotames plongées apnée grognement jardin botanique Lowveld National Botanical Garden de Nelspruit Hazyview Casa do Sol Hotel Kruger la plus grande réserve animalière e Parc national Gonarezhou au Zimbabwe et avec le Parc national Limpopo au Mozambique dans le grand Parc transfrontalier du Limpopo cyclone Dineo rangers EchoAfrica guides African Eagle afrikaans afrikaners lycaon léopard singes grivets ou vervets aire de repos, Rest Camp de Skukuza pistes tortue lion et sa lionne oiseaux jabiru échassier rollier multicolore rugissement féroces manaçant touraco hyènes tachetées montagnes Drakensberg magnifiques lys blancs et arums sauvages excursion au site de Blyde River Canyon vêtements imperméables capes déluge averse grès de Wolkberg les chutes d''eau Bourke''s Luck cascades cataractes Three Roundavels lac Blydepoort Dam Middleburg The Corn & Cob village ndébélé reconstitué pour les touristes couleurs perles de verre colliers ruban femmes-girafes murs peints de couleurs vives motifs géométriques ville minière or terrils gisement aurifère du Witwatersrand Transvaal aéroport international O. R. Tambo casino Emporium Emperor''s Palace faubourg résidentiel Fourways à Sandton buffet de grillades barbecue dîner boma boeuf biltong bobotie Pretoria Voortrekker Monument un boer chef voortrekker Blood River jacarandas quartier d''Arcadia ambassades Union Buildings présidence monument aux soldats morts au Bois Delville Soweto SOuth WEstern TOwnship politique d''apartheid ségrégation raciale maisons de brique bidonvelles tôles coupe du monde de football vuvuzelas Orlando west restaurant Sakhumzi. un ancien shebeen, bar illégal rue Vilakazi archevêque anglican Desmond Tutu (prix Nobel de la Paix) Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela Madiba (1918-2013) ANC African National Congress partis Mémorial Hector Pieterson émeutes massacre policier tir à balles réelles la conscience noire créé par Steve Biko Cry Freedom héros Street Art, le niçois Pignon Ernest Pignon Sam Nzima, sérigraphie SIDA Kliptown Warwick Nasrec FNB (First National Bank) Stadium Peermont Metcourt Rosetta''s Queen of Nil colon colonisation Bantous Bochimans Khoïs Ngoumis xhosas Mapungubwe royaume empire Portugal Hollande Pays-Bas France Angleterre Portugais Diego Cao Bartolomeu Dias Cap des Tempêtes les Hollandais des Provinces-Unies Compagnie néerlandaise des Indes orientales (VOC) Révocation de l''Edit de Nantes populations khoïsan Guerres Cafres Britanniques Settlers Sans KwaZulu-Natal avec à leur tête le roi Shaka Grand Trek Etat libre d''Orange république Indiens autonomie colonies lois ségrégationnistes Péril Noir discrimination désobéissance civile boycott manifestation de Sharpeville vagues de grèves manifestations arrestations emprisonnement Pieter Botha Frederik de Klerk embargo sur les ventes d''armes négociations élections multiraciales Commonwealth Commission vérité et réconciliation Thabo Mbeki Jacob Zuma populiste corruption scandales famille d''industriels Gupta échec des réformes clandestins immigrés victimes bilharziose malaria moustique paludisme mousticaire répulsifs Malarone taxis Rikki''s Baz Bus tie & dye (tissus teintés) boerewors brochettes marinées breddie braai viandards he Capetonian la Cie Turkish Airlines Nation Arc-en-ciel trois capitales Bloemfontein Lesotho la dérive des continents (en lien avec la tectonique des plaques) côtes plaines sous-sols ressources minéraux Kimberley désert du Kalahari oint culminant étant le Thabana Ntlenyana Mafadimassif montagneux zone volcanique, Pilanesberg faune et flore de grande diversité climats et saisons hiver type méditerranéen mais venteux vent Sutherland dans les Montagnes Roggeveld froid mégadivers biodiversité mammifères Vasco de Gama religions colored métis sepedi sesotho zwazicultes syncrétiques issus des religions animistes africaines chômage pauvreté classes moyennes criminalité meutres viol cambriolages sociétés de sécurité clôtures barbelées ou électrifiées émeutes xénophobes pandémie affirmative action ou affirmative aksie (discrimination positive) fermiers réforme agraire redistribution PIB salaire Tourisme 4x4 chauffeurs tout terrain. - République du Botswana est un pays d''Afrique australe enclavé Namibie Zambie Parc de Chobe étrange appendice qu''est la Bande de Caprivi langue de terre Angola rivière Kwando traité Heligoland-Zanzibar entre l''Empire allemand et le Royaume-Uni différend frontalier Cour Internationale de Justice de La Haye en 1996 indépendance Commonwealth Gaborone plateau désertique avec le Kalahari religion chrétien SIDA peuplement les San (communément appelés Bushmen) et les Khoïkhoï Tswanas Ndebeles tribus clans colons Boers gouvernement britannique met le Bechuanaland mines diamant et or compagnie sud-africaine De Beer PIB PPA miracle africain exception du continent Suisse de l’Afrique moitié du Parc Kruger 450 espèces d''oiseaux (aigles pêcheurs, aigles martiaux, calaos, marabouts, vautours, martins-pêcheurs, aigrettes, oies, cormorans…) luxuriantes plaines inondables et forêts denses d''acajou, teck et autres bois durs site du Delta de l''Okavango nombreuses hardes d’éléphants d’Afrique hippopotames troupeaux d’éléphants et de buffles quantité d’antilopes est présente: parmi lesquelles les kudus, les cobes à croissant, les cobes Lechwe, les cobes des roseaux, les hippotragues noirs, les antilopes rouannes, les guibs harnachés et les pukus impalas Safari-croisière guide anglophone Richard Zambezi National Park bouses phacochère réceptif sera Kalahari Tours & Safaris 4x4 bateau à fond plat et à plate-forme d''observation Linyanti Kazakii ou Kasikilimarais Waterbuck cornes mâles femelles crocodiles pluvier armé aigle pêcheur ou pyrargue martins-pêcheurs chenaux au milieu des prairies marécageuses éléphantes gigantesque troupeau de buffles querelle cornes aigrettes garzettes et pique-boeufs joli calao à bec jaune troupeau d''une centaine ou davantage de gracieux impalas sauts extraordinaires hippopotames cormorans africains anhingas marabouts oiseaux Reedbuck happé par la gueule d''un crocodile ranger Lio des dizaines d''éléphants: une série de troupeaux de femelles accompagnées de leurs derniers nés et d''adolescents matriarche se baignent et se roulent dans la boue braconniers oies ouettes d''Egypte pâturages agitant ses grandes oreilles en grondant sur un ton grave puis dresse brusquement sa trompe vers le ciel en barrissant baobab africain parfois dit du Sénégal girafe papillons jaunes - Royaume du Swaziland Ngwane petit pays enclavé roi Mswati  Afrique du sud et Mozambique indépendance Commonwealth Grande Épouse et Indlvukazi Blancs colonisation langues siSwazi ou Zwazi pays très défavorisé pauvreté SIDA mortalité espérance de vie Indice de Développement Humain (IDH) poste frontière à Lavumisa/Golela culture du maïs, des patates douces, du coton, de la canne à sucre ananas ville Manzini marché local souvenirs ethniques Malkerns fabrique de bougies fantaisie décoratives atelier Swazi Candles acide stéarique et stéarine Ezulwini et de sa Happy Valley tonnerre orage cyclone Dineo fabrique de verre soufflé Ngwenya Glass Factory  verre recyclé pierre de kisii stéatite pierre à savon saponite sculture cirage finition boutiques Matsamo/Jeppe''s Reffe artistique - République du Zimbabwe pays enclavé au sud par l’Afrique du Sud, le Botswana à l’ouest, le Mozambique à l’est et la Zambie au nord religion  syncrétistes animistes-chrétiens VIH/Sida orphelins British South Africa Company (BSAC ou Compagnie britannique d''Afrique du Sud), Cecil Rhodes premier ministre régime ségrégationniste apartheid Rhodésie du sud Fédération de Rhodésie et du Nyassaland Commonwealth Robert Mugabe est le président crise agraire expropriation fermiers blancs d''où une crise alimentaire minorités persécutées exode massif de populationdéfavorisés hyperinflation visa payant entrées multiples extension de circuit Chutes Victoria Falls survol en hélicoptère bureaux d''agences touristiques locales balade à dos d''éléphant rafting saut à l''élastique pont Livingstone Bridge guide Fungai d''African Eagle réceptif hôtel a''Zambezi River Lodge toits de chaume parc ouvert fleuve Zambèze bras singes vervets ou grivets papillons arghel tulipiers du Gabon embardadère têtes totémiques croisière apéritive au crépuscule soleil couchant sagaie mini croisière fluviale vautours, iguane, crocodiles, pintade de Numidie hippopotames cocktail suivi d''amuse-gueules et boissons à volonté nuage embruns cataracte faille canyon plateau Zambie rive rivage pas assez de recul (cf. Iguaçu et Niagara) David Livingstone, l''explorateur écossais statue crâne d''éléphant blanchi Basses Eaux Hautes Piscine du Diable - Devil''s Pool ou Devil''s Cataract) débit hauteur record 108 m. bungi Main Falls Horse Shoe Falls Rainbow Falls Armchair Falls Eastern Cataract fracas masses d''eau phacochère mangoustes grondement déluge douche capes trempés jusqu''aux os arc-en-ciel tarif options budget - 2017 OUEST AMERICAIN guide québécois Jean Arsenault Far West Wild West Conquête de l''Ouest Ruée vers l''Or tribus amérindiennes autochtones indigènes indiens Montagnes Rocheuses Native Americans Détroit de Béring migration mongoloïdes découvertes archéologiques Mound Builders tertres tumulus Cheyennes, Crows, Sioux, Hurons, Iroquois, Cherokees et Creeks Pueblos Apaches troglodytes Navajos Comanches roquois Saint-Laurent trapeurs de l''Amérique viking Leif Erikson Christophe Colomb Amerigo Vespucci puissances européennes colons colonies colonisation Nouveau-Monde Nord-Ouest Canada Plymouth Pères Pélerins puritain Pilgrim Fathers Mayflower navigateurs royaume de France, Jacques Cartier et Samuel de Champlain Espagnols Mexique Nouvelle-Espagne Californie, Nevada, Nouveau-Mexique, Arizona, Texas et Floride épidémies massacres guerres les treize colonies britanniques persécutions Louis Jolliet et Jacques Marquette Cavelier de La Salle Grands Lacs Mississipi Missouri exploration Acadie Louisiane guerre de Sept Ans Paris Fontainebleau George Washington Utrecht Baie d''Hudson San Ildefonso traite négrière esclaves noirs plantations tabac coton Philadelphie Virginie Benjamin Franklin premier Congrès continental insurgés déclaration d''indépendance 4 juillet 1776 Constitution Fédéralisme dix amendements (Déclaration des Droits) Boston Tea Party Thanksgiving Day Compagnies démocratie Destinée manifeste Mythe de la Frontière Texas Fort Alamo San Jacinto Guadeloupe Hidalgo l''Oregon Farwest Grandes Plaines L''Oklahoma traite des Noirs planteurs abolition Abraham Lincoln États confédérés d''Amérique Fort Sumter lieutenant-général Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee les lois Jim Crow introduisent la ségrégation raciale filons mines afflux aventuriers chemin de fer transcontinental coolies chinois Wounded Knee chef Big Foot l''armée de Custer à Little Big Horn Sitting Bull et Crazy Horse carnage scalpés exterminés Réserves révolution industrielle Eldorado New-York Chicago San Francisco séisme de 1906 (faille de San Andreas) puissance américaine Triple-Entente présidence de Woodrow Wilson Roaring Twenties Prohibition Ku Klux Klan (KKK) suprémacistes Dust Bowl Wall Street krach Franklin Delano Roosevelt New Deal Franklin Delano Roosevelt Calvin Coolidge et Herbert Hoover chômage Pearl Harbor Alliés Axe Harry S. Truman superpuissance Conférence de Yalta l''ONU plan Marshall Organisation du traité de l''Atlantique nord (OTAN) NASA crise des missiles de Cuba John F. Kennedy embargo mouvement afro-américain des droits civiques Martin Luther King ou Malcolm X scandale du Watergate Richard Nixon Gerald R. Ford Jimmy Carter pour un mandat Ronald Reagan Guerre froide échecs en Corée, au Vietnam, Afghanistan ou au Proche-orient Union soviétique Guerre du Golfe ''attentats terroristes islamistes George W. Bush 11 septembre 2001 Twin Towers du World Trade Center terrorisme Afghanistan puis en Irak subprimes Barack Obama Afro-Américain Donald Trump Hillary Clinton Denali Whitney Alaska Badwater supervolcan Saint Helens, mont Rainier sismique Alaska, Arizona, Californie, Colorado, Hawaï, Idaho, Montana, Nouveau-Mexique, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington et Wyoming Hautes Plaines Black Hills Elbert hauts plateaux Grand Bassin (Great Basin) Sierra Nevada Pacific Coast Ranges Puget Sound bzird estuaires mosaïque de climats d''Hawaï Cascades aride gulf stream courant froid du Labrador ouragans (hurricanes) perturbations pluies neige la Californie connaît un climat de type méditerranéen nappes de brouillard Le phénomène El Niño L''immensité reliefs Appalaches tornades immigrés clandestins clandestins d''Hispaniques WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) métissage prolifération des sectes protestantes armes à feu délinquance, criminalité et exode en milieu rural chimie, l''informatique (Silicon Valley),grenier de le planète fuseaux horaires Pacific Time Mountain frenchies swabbing scanner corporel formulaire ESTA (Electronic System for Travel Authorization) passeport électronique biométrique visa l''utilisation ludique récréative usage thérapeutique (douleurs chroniques, soins palliatifs cannabis marijuana autodéfense milices Walgreens, Duane Reade, CVS ou Rite Aid drugstores bus kneeling Interstate Highways autoroutes pick-ups et par les trucks limitations vitesses MPH (miles per hour) infractions amendes sévères transport ferroviaire motels Starbucks café américain obèses obésité OGM stérilisation beurre de cacahuètes steackhouse doggy bag taxes pourboire service gratuity tip hug (l''accolade) serviabilité entraide SAB cartr banciare Indian reservation réceptif go west tours francophone compagnie Silverado Phoenix - CALIFORNIE: aéroport tolérance communautés gratte-ciel buildings quartier Broadway Street Transamerica Pyramid Salesforce Tower hôtel Sam Wong Dragon''s Gate Market Cable Car California Today special limousine pont Oakland Bay Bridge île-prison d''Alcatraz île de Yerba Buena île artificielle de Treasure Island fameux Golden Gate Pacifique Fog City style Art Déco Sausalito bohème hippies bobos Angel Island parc Japanese Tea Garden Music Concourse et le Spreckels Temple of Music San Francisco De Young Museum maisons victoriennes de Haight Ashbury homos gays LGBT drogués et des nudistes La Maison Bleue Maxime Le Forestier Castro Mission Dolores Park grands magasins (Macy''s) (Disney Store, Apple, Nike, Zara...) Hyatt tramway restaurant Cathay House croisière quais Fisherman''s Wharf conserveries Al Capone évadés détenus prisonniers otaries ou lions de mer de Californie (Zalophus californianus) rue pentue et serpentiforme de Lombard Presidio et Embarcadero Hyde Leawenworth lacets Coit Colombus Avenue Berkeley embouteillages Modesto boeuf vaches Black angus abeilles amandiers buffet du Shangri-La Days Inn YOSEMITE National Park cultures légumières, vergers et vignobles trajet Merced et Mariposa musée de la mine Great Smoky Mountains Miwok et Paiute Patrimoine mondial de l''humanité cascades séquoias Half Dome El Capitan chute Bridalvell Falls San Joaquim River pinèdes humides pique-nique Dogwood Blossoms (Cornus nuttallii) papillons Adelpha californica Wawona Road avec un arrêt à Tunnel View glacier érosion Fresno et Bakersfield vallée de San Joaquim HomeTown Death Valley Vallée de la Mort degrés Fahrenheit Celsius Ridgecrest moisson puits de pétrole fermes isolées rouillées pickups Mojaves le chaînon Amargosa à l''est et le chaînon Panamint désertique Mesquite Sand Dunes série Star Wars buissons de créosotier et de prosopis (Prosopis juliflora) oasis de Furnace Creek Wrangler Junction - NEVADA: prostitution prostitution Festival Burning Man Black Rock Brigham Young président de l''Église de Jésus-Christ des saints des derniers jours Mormons missionnaires mormonisme barrage Hoover mafias Sin City ville du péché casinos comme Circus Circus The Mirage ou Excalibur scandale lac Lake Mead Las Vegas Blvd Fwy Strip Wynn Encore, du Casino Treasure Palazzo Venetian pont du Rialto, de la Place Saint-Marc palais vénitiens pastiches Caesars Palace dont l''image est liée à la chanteuse Céline Dion Paris-Las Vegas avec réplique de Tour Eiffel Casino Bellagio fontaines musicales Mandarin, MGM, Tropicana, Excalibur Luxor, Mandalay Elvis Presley spectacle sur Fremont Street Experience près des casinos Four Queens et Golden Nugget pépite d''or tyrolienne SlotZilla chapelles de mariage express (Wedding chapels) Valley od Fire couleur flamboyante des rochers de grès pétroglyphes laissés par les hommes de la Préhistoire Arch Rock, Piano Rock, Windstone Arch et les Beehives Seven Sisters, Visitor Center faune (tarentule du désert, les serpents Gopher et California Kingsnake lézard Chuckwalla et des animaux naturalisés: mouflon canadien Bighorn, puma Basketmakers Anasazis White Domes Atlatl Mesquite - UTAH: BRYCE CANYON Saint-George poids lourds et transports en commun pesage Virgin River Cedar Ruby''s Inn cité ouvrière (company town) famille Syrett Bryce View Lodge. Dîner BBQ (barbecue) au Ebenezer''s Barb & Grill visiteurs amphithéâtres naturels hoodoos Paunsaugunt pinacles cheminées de fées ou Demoiselles Coiffées colonnes piliers roches calcaires sédimentaires calcification Pink Cliffs, Gray Cliffs, White Cliffs, Vermillon Cliffs et Chocolate Cliffs hématite oxyde de fer limonite sentier falaise Rim Trail Inspiration Point grandiose panorama boucle Navajo Loop chandelle comme Thor''s Hammer Sunrise Bronze Evening Primerose (Oenothera biennis L.) écureuils dorés Golden-mantled Ground Squirrel sapins pins épicéas Salt Lake City Veterans Memorial bourgade Red Panguitch Sevier Yuba Parti démocrate au sein d''un État républicain conservateur temple Square centre-ville downtown lynchage de leur prophète, Joseph Smith Bible Amish Grand Lac Salé Tabernacle Great Salt Lake City Union Pandora, Apple, Gap Assembly Hall bibliothèque The Family History Library archives généalogiques microfilms bureaux Church Administration Building centre communautaire Rodeway The Mormon Conference Center Tabernacle Choir bénévoles choristes orchestre symphonique orgue Music and the Spoken Word émission dominicale hebdomadaire cantiques chants Grammy Award spirituals, chansons du folklore américain apostolat l''Ange Moroni révélation The Mormon Battalion Monument Capitole Logan steak seafood salad restaurant Sizzler Lac de l''Ours - WYOMING: Idaho Bear Lake plaques d''immatriculation minéralogiques Famous Potatoes élections poste de gouverneur Afton Afton arc de triomphe bois de wapitis ou elk (Cervus canadensis) trophées cervidés élans (Alces) cerf hémione Mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) l''antilope d''Amérique ou Pronghorn Antilocapra americana refuge saloon vins californiens Folie à Deux - Ménage à Trois alerte météo Extreme Urgence Weather trou de Jackson ou Jackson Hole station de shi sports d''hiver Million Dollar Cowboy satatues diligence Wells Fargo Davy Crockett El Abuelito Mountain Modern Hotel orage Grand Teton Pic Gannett trappeurs les autochtones Shoshones Chapel of the Transfiguration, une minuscule chapelle rondins feuillus et conifères se partagent les bosquets Jenny Lake Colder incendies tempêtes altération hydrothermale du fer grêle caldeira Caldera effondrement d''un volcan sur sa chambre magmatique magma coulée éruption couche de cendre hiver volcaniq MONTANA Livingston Econo Lodge Sport Family Dining Historic Setting Gardiner Mélissa, Jean-Baptiste Mac Tyer Angel Terrace, Canary Spring, Grassy Spring cafétéria de Canyon Village chutes Lower Falls Lookout Point, Grand View mares de boue de Mud Volcano, à la source du dragon Dragon Mouth inhalation de sulfure d''hydrogène émanant du chaudron Sulfur Caldron col enneigé de Sylvan Pass William Frederick Cody, alias Buffalo Bill exterminateur affameur capitale mondiale du rodéo hôtel Irma décor tournée théatrale viande rôtie fondante spécialité huitre bacon Holiday autoroute monotone reliefs tabulaires school bus sheriff Greybull shérif Safety Glass éclatement du parebrise Devil''s Tower médicaments église catholique du Sacré-Coeur image pieuse de Nuestra Señora Virgen de Guadalupe gare grands silos à céréales trains chemins de fer Gillette Pilot car Safety car Tenslep Creek barrières anti-congères des mouflons canadiens Pokey''s Rapid City monolithe intrusion de magma roches phonolite Arapahos Kiowas, Lakotas - SUD DAKOTA: Spearfish centre géographique des Etats-Unis USA United States of America Travelodge Keystone Mont RUSHMORE traité de Fort Laramie monument Mount Rushmore National Memorial présidentiel (South Dakota) le président Calvin Coolidge têtes sculpteur Gutzon Borglum sculptures monumentales Thomas Jefferson Theodore Roosevelt John Adams Abraham Lincoln cérémonie naturalisation serment d''allégeance au drapeau Pledge of Allegiance Korczak Ziólkowski Ziolkowski Rosebud Little Bighorn cavalerie de Custer clan Oglala Indian Museum of North America (Musée indien d''Amérique du Nord) Native American Cultural center (Centre culturel amérindien) Thunderhead Mountain sacré Henry Standing Bear Peaux-Rouges sacrilège Shiv Smarak - retour en WYOMING: Lusk melting-pot avant-poste militaire ravitaillement Fort William Fort John Red Cloud défaite casernements bâtiments de l''Etat-major Cheyenne Terry Bison Ranch (voisin du The Senator''s Steakhouse) Microtel - COLORADO: assurance Obamacare le général William Larimer nomma la ville Denver City Kansas James W. Denver capitale United States Mint (16th Street) piétonne orthogonales quadrillage visite niveau One mile above sea level granite blanc feuilles d''or l''onyx marbre rose carrière de Beulah marbre blanc la rotonde, un magnifique escalier d''honneur balustres dôme coupole Chambre du Sénat Représentants Congrès Colfax Avenue free piano Temple des Francs-Maçons (The Masonic Temple Building) Daniels and Fisher Tower immeubles Colorado Convention Center The Big Blue Bear diplômés encore coiffé mortarboard mortier ou toque de forme carrée SDF mendiant Denny''s Vail Dillon Reservoir  charmante et paisible arcades et maisons peintes. Du kitsch qui ferait penser à la Bavière ou au Tyrol Grand Junction Ramada centre commercial Rimrock Market Place, au restaurant Golden Corral - retour en UTAH: Arches Park Canyonlands une zone semi-désertique fortes amplitudes thermiques Park Avenue Viewpoint et Courthouse Towers promenade balade dunes pétrifiées Three Gossips tour de Babel The Organ and Courthouse Towers Balanced Rock North Windows Turret Arch zénith solstice d''été The Parade of Elephants et par la fameuse Double Arch Parc d''Etat de DEAD HORSE POINT corniche canyon évaporation de potasse société Intrepid Potash bassin du Paradox Green River localité Tamarik affluent Moab Monument Valley Tribal Park superbe Wilson Arch Monticello lac-réservoir de Carrol Bluff (Mexican Hat) puis à Olijato - ARIZONA: Tsé Bii''Ndzisgaii Indiens Hopis Grès de Chelly en 4x4 des buttes-témoins manganèse inselbergs Three Sisters, Camel Butte et Elephant Butte. Arrêt pour le point de vue John Ford Point John Wayne cheval Rain God Mesa tambour flute hogan maison traditionnelle Page barrage Glen Canyon Dam Glen Canyon, Marble Canyon avions Cessna Grand Caravan vol Air Tours Horseshoe Bend Wahweap Marina Wahweap Bay, Alstrom Point et Gunsight Bay Padre Bay Cookie Jar Butte et encore Last Chance Bay. Sans oublier les îlots Gregory Butte ou Padres Butte. Retour au-dessus de l''Arizona avec Cummings Mesa avec Tower Butte Antelope Island Lechee, Willow Springs Camerone parc national du Grand Canyon plateau de Kaibab collision des plaques tectoniques point de vue de Desert View tour d''observation Tusayan, au sud de Grand Cayon Village compagnie Grand Canyon Airlines équilibrage de la charge compagnie Papillon Tours Lac Powell forêt immenses formations rocheuses comme la Tower of Ra South Rim Trail randonnées marcheurs Mather Point Yavapaï Viewpoint Grandview Grand Canyon Skywalk Hualapai Peach Springs Seligman Route 66 mother road baber shop barbier Angel Delgadillo Kingman - retour en NEVADA: LAUGHLIN surnommée Little Las Vegas imposant hôtel-casino Colorado Belle Tropicana Circus Circus Enterprises également propriétaire du Edgewater Laughlin Mandalay Resort Group MGM machines à sous Aquarius Casiono Resort et par le Golden Nugget Needles - retour en CALIFORNIE: AmboyRoy''s Café & Motel délabré Roy Crowlle tournage de films JOSHUA TREE Josué Dry Bristol Lake Cleghorn Lakes craquelé White trashes Déchets blancs exclus du système rejetés Yucca brevifolia Sud-Ouest des États-Unis espèce de yucca arborescent agaves cactées épineux. pin piñon (Pinus monophylla), le genévrier californien (Juniperus californica), le chêne arbustif turbinelé(Quercus turbinella), le chêne Tucker (Quercus john-tuckeri) et le Chêne Muller (Quercus cornelius-mulleri) la vallée cachée derrière des chaos rocheux, The Hidden Valley le panorama de Keys View vue époustouflante sur la Coachella Valley Golfe de Californie lacs salés (Salton Sea, Laguna Salada) The Big One tremblement de terre dévastateur Applebee''s fermes d''éoliennes (Wind Farms) Palm Springs magasins outlets ou magasins d''usines palmier à jupon ou palmier de Californie (Washingtonia filifera) lieu de villégiature très apprécié des stars hollywoodiennes riches retraités californiens homosexuels Cabazon outlets Norwalk, Los Angeles mexicain Casa Adelita Guesthouse Observatoire Griffith Glendale Berverly Hills superbes et spacieuses villas smog pollution centre des affaires colibri calliope à plastron rouge en vol stationnaire West First Street et de South Grand Avenue. Du Music Center Mairie City Hall Hôtel de ville The Dance and Door Peace on Earth Walt Disney Concert Hall (Frank Gehry) inox Liliane veuve Blue Ribbon Garden A Rose for Lilly porcelaine de Delft ''El Pueblo est enclavé entre Chinatown et Downtown Cathédrale Notre-Dame des Anges (Rafael Moneo) street art l''école des Beaux-arts Ramón C. Cortines - Central High School for the Visual and Performing Arts (Coop Himmelb) El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles l''église de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Angeles Pico House Garnier House rue Olivera marché étals Las Cienegas Avila Adobe Maison de Eloisa Martinez de Sepulveda Hollywood Boulevard Grauman''s Chinese Theatre empreinte des pieds et des mains dans du ciment frais Norma Talmadge Marylin Monroe, Fred Astaire, John Wayne, John Travolta, Clint Eastwood Hollywood Walk of Fame  la Promenade de la célébrité stars vedettes personnalités hollywoodiennes cinéma, de la musique, de la télévision et de la radio trottoir Mohamed Ali Mary Pickford et Douglas Fairbank Joanne Woodwar Stanley Kramer Olive Borden, Ronald Colman, Louise Fazenda, Preston Foster, Burt Lancaster, Edward Sedwick, Ernest Torrance Jennifer Lopez Charles Aznavour doit y trouver place au cours de l''été 2017 Maurice Jarre, Sarah Bernhardt, Maurice Chevalier, Michèle Morgan) Robin William, pour Elton John Mickey Superman Dolby Theatre (architecte David Rockwell - 2001) Oscars du cinéma faillite de Kodak La La Land Cadillac d''Elvis Presley Universal Studios spectacle de cascade Waterworld basé sur le film éponyme de Kevin Reynolds petit train dans le Studio Tour Colonial Street King Kong et les T-Rex 360° 3D effets spéciaux Flash Flood inondation azttraction The Great Los Angeles Earthquake Jaws Lake (littéralement Lac des mâchoires) Dents de la Mer Jaws on fire quartier de villas de Colonial Street film d''horreur scène de Psycho (Psychose) Alfred Hitchcock Norman Bate War of the Worlds La Guerre des Monde Steven Spielberg crash turbines queue sièges Fast and Furious enneigés Hogwarts Castle bâti The Wizarding World of Harry Potter Jurassic Park effets dynamiques Transformers Santa Monica Venice Beach la jetée Santa Monica Piers Bubba Gump Shrimp Company Restaurant and Market chaîne internationale crevettes facsimilé journal Greenbow County Dispatch film Forrest Gump - 2017 TOSCANE et CINQUE TERRE guide accompagnateur Philippe autres guides: Marina, Silvia, Marco, Anna, Chiara Romulus et Rémus Rome Empire romain Byzance invasions Lombards dynastie carolingienne des Francs papes papauté princes Arégis II duc de Bénévent duché de Spolète guerre conflits incursions sarrasines l''Empire Byzantin Normands Calabre Roger II de Sicile croisades Saint-Sépulcre à Jérusalem région du Gargano Benoît VIII Guaimar III de Salerne bataille Sarrasins Guillaume Bras de Fer allégeance au Saint-Empire romain germanique duc d’Apoulie couronne impériale des Hohenstaufen Charles Ier d''Anjou (frère de St Louis) royaume des Deux-Siciles Guerre de Succession d''Espagne l''Empire austro-hongrois Risorgimento Giuseppe Garibaldi l’Expédition des Mille Victor-Emmanuel II de Savoie séismes sismique tremblements de terre Apennins sont des chaînes de montagnes Abbruzes volvans éruption explosion Apulia Lucanie Garigliano golfe de Policastro ''''La botte italienne'''' climat méditerranéen misère pauvreté chômage organisations criminelles comme la mafia ndrangheta calabraise racket l''économie souterraine prostitution Montecatini Alto Montecatini Terme Pistoria Prato thermes Piazza Piazzeta Palazzo place Via palais Popolo Bagni Nievole San Santa Sant Saint St Leopoldine Tettuccio Giuseppe Verdi, Giacomo Puccini, Richard Strauss, Pirandello Galilée Galileo Galilei Copernic Renaissance Rinascimento Quattrocento Cinquecento Marches Ombrie Latium plaines et montagnes climat méditerranéen Empire romain d''Occident dodécapole cités-états république grand-duché UNESCO patrimoine mondial humanité Maria Assunta Assomption vitraux marbres de Carrare basilique cathédrale église chiesa chiese Duomo baptistère chaire pupitre pulpito Tamerici Martino Padiglioncino Tamerici Excelsior puis les Thermes Tettuccio établissements funiculaire collines Jacopo et Filippo Torre del Carmine ou Tour de l''Horloge dell''Ore Oro horloge cadran antihoraire Rocca di Castel Vecchio Vieux Pont Ponte Pietro Apostolo Nuovo Le Maschere Monsummano poète Giuseppe Giusti Triplice Autriche austro-hongrois Monastero delle Benedettine Santa Maria a Ripa monastère couvent fleuve Arno Oltrarno rivage Palais Pitti Piazza della Signoria statue David de Michel-Ange Michelangelo vue panoramique esplanade galerie de l''académi Galleria dell''Accademia Forte di Belvedere Jardin Bardini Badia Fiorentina dôme coupole synagogue sinagoga Piazza della Libertà San Miniato al Monte serpentinite verte Porte Porta forteresse fortifications enceinte villas universités Medicea famille dynastie des Médicis San Francesco, San Domenico Schifanoia Mino Romolo Michelozzo pour Giovanni di Cosimo Laurent le Magnifique Fiesole fra Angelico artiste savant toscan peintre sculpteur théâtre Primerana Badini Palazzo Vscovile (le palais épiscopal) musée museo mâchicoulis Fiesolano Nicodemo Ferrucci crypte Senesi Petruccio Betto Maestro del Bigallo Vierge à l''Enfant portrait Madonna coll Bambino Girolamo Florence Firenze Berceau de la Renaissance Guido di Pietro Di Mariano Filipepi dit BOTTICELLI Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci, dit LEONARDO DA VINCI Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni, dit MICHEL-ANGE Raffaello Sanzio, plus connu sous le nom de RAPHAËL Tiziano Vecellio, plus communément appelé TITIEN ou Le Titien florentine Fiorenza fleur Frédéric Ier Welf Guelfes Gibelins empereur pape empire papauté Hohenstaufen monnaie florin corporation des changeurs et banquiers (Arte del Cambio) médecins lainiers medici Grand Duc Jean-Gaston haute couture, comme Roberto Cavalli, Gucci, Ermanno Scervino et Ferragamo), du mobilier (ébénisterie), du travail du cuir (Braccialini), de la porcelaine (Richard Ginori), de la carte décorée, du bronze et de l’orfèvrerie Galerie des Offices tourisme visiteurs voyageurs Galerie des Offices (Galleria degli Uffizi) reçoit près de deux millions de visiteurs, tandis que la Galerie de l''Académie (Galleria dell''Accademia) Arc de Triomphe des Lorraine Santissima Annunziata restaurant-pizzeria Le Botteghe di Donatello pizza portails voûte façade architecture prouesse architecte Arnolfo di Cambio Reparata Giotto di Bondone ou Ambrogiotto di Bondone nefs jusqu’à l’intervention de Filipino Brunelleschi Panthéon Invalides Sophie Constantinople San Giovanni Battista de Nicolò Barabino pastiche portes en bronze immense fresque du Jugement Dernier Vasari campanile clocher Andrea Pisano puis par Francesco Talenti grands maîtres Luca della Robbia symbole Lorenzo Ghiberti porte du Paradis inondation crue catastrophique style byzantin Christ du Jugement dernier Pantocrator Repubblica Orsanmichele d''entrepôt Loge aux Grains Arte della Lana Arti Arts Francesco da Sangallo autel retables l''Orcagna piliers Camimala Mercato del Porcellino (Porcelet) sanglier Vacchereccia maçonnerie pierre bouchers, tripiers et tanneurs Couloir ou Corridor Vasari buste de Benvenuto Cellini Corridoio Vasariano arches pont couvert Anna Maria Luisa collections Lanzi copie Baccio Bandinelli oeuvres éphémères de l''artiste suisse Urs Fischer Two Tuscan Men Big Clay # 4 Persée tenant la tête de Médusede Cellini Hercule Centaure Polyxène Patrocle gradins Jérôme Savonarole, fondateur de la théocratie Borgo dei Greci Croce Croix cloître dell''Antella Dante Alighieri Pazzi Biliothèque Libreria Lungarno Zecca Nicolo Gimignano Cisterna citerne puits Francigena torri chemin route Valdelsa Moen Age féodal murailles peste crise déclin chute guerres hostilités conflits vin vigne vignoble Vernaccia bastion Bastione ordre hospitaliers religieux chevaleresque Geronimo Jérusalem appellation DOCG (Dénomination d''Origine Contrôlée et Garantie) Giovanni Lumi Cugnanesi Becci Diavolo Cortesi Dondoli Omo Rognosa Chigi Salvucci Grossa collégiale Mainardi puis la Via Diacceto granges Azienda Agricola Fontanleoni agroturistico agrotourisme Troiani Sangiovese Chianti Piatto di salsicce toscane formaggio e bruschetta charcuteries fromage Cantucci (ou Cantuccini) al vino santobiscuits aux amandes Sienne Siena capitale province région Palio delle Contrade quartier paroisse jumeaux Senius et Aschius Remus Romulus rois lombards incursions razzia sarazines batailles siennois Montaperti Conseil des Neuf Fortezza Armando Diaz Vespucci Fontebranda vallon vallée brique Mille Cateriniana Sapienza contrada course Opera Metropolitana Salimbeni Sopra Monte dei Paschi Tolomei Cristoforo louve Pubblico Mangia municipalité Quercia piste chevaux cavaliers cravaches vainqueur Cità Cité romano-gothique stylophores acquasantiere astorino de Pastorini béniteirs fonts baptismaux cuve allégorique Piccolimini Cecco marqueterie de marbre polychrome Duccio di Buoninsegna Domenico Beccafumi opus sectile Francesco di Niccolaio e Nanni di Piero Beccafumi appella della Madonna del Votto livres enluminures Liberale da Veronna et Girolamo da Cremona psautiers Chigi Saracini Bar Pasticceria Nannini LUCQUES (LUCCA) principauté souveraine ville punique puis romaine dell''anfiteatro Frédéric Barberousse commune conquêtes Français troupes armées territoire monuments prospérité commerce soie courtines Passeggiata delle Mura premier roi d''Italie Victor-Emmanuel II Antico Corticella pilastres Carrara Napoléon Bonaparte Lorenzo Bartolini in Foro forum antique Raffaello et Baccio de Montelupo transept abside procession Guidiccioni Chiasso Sant''Andrea Saverio Geminiani violoniste compositeur Zita Tindaro Igor Mitoraj artiste Chiavi Guinigi Frediano byzantine Ascension Vierge Marie Fattoria il Poggio Montecarlo Piombinoi industries sidérurgie, notamment Lucchini SpA (Severstal Group) et Sollac/Mittal minerais de fer Ile d''Elbe Elba ferry Toremar isola Palmaiola archipel toscan Portoferraio, Marciana, Marciana Marina, Campo nell''Elba, Rio Marina, Rio nell''Elba, Capoliveri et Porto Azzurro mers ligure et tyrrhénienne péninsule relief mont Capanne altitude carrières calcaire étrusques population insulaire Carthaginoise, Phocéenne Fabricia Ferraja Cosmopoli victoires bonapartistes traités de paix Angleterre Espagne refuge exil Moulins Poggio Martello Linguella Anglese Stella Falcone arsenal rade Terra Mare Sebastiano Lambardi Tentazione Vigilanti Palazzina Napoleonica dei Mulini moulins plages Biodola et de Procchio l''îlot de Scoglietto Napoleonica Pauline Borghese Elisa Baciocchi Royal Clipper voilier paquebot croisière Stato dei Reali Presidi Longone Bianco Nero lemonite hématite magnétite Lavolla Focardo bae militaire caserne Calamita Ginevro Il Fosso, La Fortezza, Il Baluardo village Festa dell''Uva  Flamingo Matteotti Pontedra Piaggio Costruzione Meccaniche Nazionali Rinaldo scooter Vespa scooterss trains avions otocyclettes vélomoteurs triporteur tuktuk ingénieur Corradino D''Ascanio Enrico Innocenti Lambrate Lambretta guêpe Bajaj Gilera Puch Aprilia Guzzi Vespino acteurs célèbres films cinéma Audrey Hepburn et Gregory Peck William Wyler Fellini Sydney Pollack Franca Prosperija Dick Smart designers ACMA années 1950 APE Cassone, Calessino ou Pentaro PISE Pisa Aurelia Charlemagne puissance maritime Venise, Gênes et Amalfi Meloria Cammeo Carlo Salomone et la Piazza Daniele Manin Miracoli poème de Gabriele D''Annunzio arcades propriétés acoustiques écho style roman pisan colonnes porphyre Tino di Camaino Rainier de Pise (Ranieri Scacceri, troubadour) tour penchée Camposanto est le cimetière monumental Riviera de la Versilia, à Lido di Camaiore Manarola Riomaggiore, Corniglia, Vernazza et Monterosso al Mar. Le classement Unesco inclut également Portovenere Val di Vara Podesteria Podestat La Spezia Sestri Levante tunnels viaducs chemin de fer dell''Artiglieria Scalinata Pezzali passerelle long escalier Lardarina Sainte Marguerite d''Antioche ruisseau Buranco Oratoire oratorio pasta trofie ou trofiette au basilic pâtes Volastra Scoglio Galera Grotte de Arpaia dite aussi Grotte Byron villégiature Pitelli Volotea - 2018 Séjour d''un mois en immersion au JAPON FUJISAWA futon tatami ZENGYO banlieue sakuras quartier Oba parc Hikichigawa autour de la rivière Sakai Mankai, la pleine floraison variété somei yoshino, blanche aux tons roses hanami, la contemplation Pique-nique familial dans le parc Obajoshi (ancien château) samurai samourai calendrier hebdomadaire des tris sélectifs bennes pour des ordures dûment triées, contenants lavés campagne paysans aisés cultures champs maraîchage pousses de bambous vaches riz azalées et glycines Enoshima, petite île (38 ha) de Fujisawa en baie de Sagami Temple dédié à Benzaiten, l''une des Sept Divinités du Bonheur Sanctuaire Zuisinmon La déesse Benten fit émerger la grotte d''un méchant dragon...et l''amadoua en l''épousant Sanctuaire Hetsu-no-Miya Jinja Aigle pêcheur (Pygargue) moderne Saifukuji (Énoshima Daishi), le seul temple bouddhiste de l''île Sanctuaire Okutsuno-miya glace granité (kakigori) au thé macha et haricots rouges L''accès aux grottes d''Enoshima Iwaya n''est plus possible depuis le typhon d''octobre dernier Ile aux toursites et aux amoureux KAMAKURA Sanctuaire Goryo-jinja Temple Hase-dera dédié à la miséricodieuse Kannon à 11 têtes Bouddha Amida Erables japonais (momiji) Moulin des sutras Statue de Jizô, bodhisattva protecteur des enfants décédés Grotte Benten-kutsu, déesse des arts jardins zen de mousse de gravier Kotobu-in dédié au Daibutsu, le Grand Bouddha Du temple primitif ne reste que la statue de bronze datant de 1252 suite au tsunami de 1498 Curieux accès au sanctuaire Zeniarai Benzaiten mêlant shinto et bouddhisme On y lave l''argent pour s''enrichir Sasuke Inari-jinja, autre lieu caché au milieu d’une forêt Un esprit à l''apparence de renard (Inari) aurait conseillé Minamoto pour vaincre le clan Taira et établir le shogunat de Kamakura (XIIe s.) Tsurugaoku Hachiman-gû. deux étangs représentent les clans adverses pavillon des fêtes: mariages, Setsubun (Fête du lancer de haricots Discipline japonaise (files) sur le quais de gares files matérialisées au sol queue Kita Kamakura nord village hameau localité Engaku-ji, le grand temple zen (fondé au XIIIe s.) magnifiques pivoines tir à l''arc (kyudo) parc Meigetsu-in bambouseraie porte portail entrée Kencho-ji Tokei-ji Jochi-ji YOKOHAMA 2e ville du Japon (avec 3,7 M d''habitants) et 1er port ville développée après Meiji, détruite par un séisme en 1923 puis par la guerre et aujourd''hui moderne voilier Nippon Maru (1923) en acier sur les quais Mirai 21 Hôtel Intercontinental Yokohama Grand Landmark Tower, le plus haut gratte-ciel japonais (296 m.) construit en 1993 Anciens entrepôts douaniers Yokohama Red Brick Warehouse (1900-13 Breizh Café Yamashita Park Ancien paquebot transpacifique Hikawa Maru désarmé en 1960 Sur la colline de Yamate, les anciens quartiers occidentaux créés après la réouverture des ports japonais en 1853 Ancien quartier colonial français Harbour View Park British House, ancien consulat anglais (1937) Berrick Hall, ancienne maison de commerce import-export (1930) Cimetière des étrangers établi en 1859 avenue commerçante de Motomachi-dori Chinatown Sakuras illuminés au jardin Sankei-en Jusqu''en 1930, il appartenait à un riche marchand de soiries jeunes mariés udons et ramens La résidence de la famille Yanohara est construite dans le style gassho-zukuri et a environ 300 ans. Elle provient du village montagnard de de Shirakawa-go Fubuki, les pétales dispersés des sakuras TOKYO Shinjuku Passages cloutés en diagonale temple de l''électronique Déjeuner à Kabuki-cho jardin Shinjulu Gyoen Ginza quartier du luxe Théâtre Kabuki-za Créé en 1889 et reconstruit après 1945 Un spectacle évoquant le 150e anniversaire de la Restauration Meiji cuisine française Tsukiji Honganji (1931-34) de style indien Cha zen, initiation à la cérémonie du thé moulin à thé macha Bolides Nissan en vitrine Nissan Concept 2020 Vision Gran Turismo Nezu-jinja dans le quartier Bunkyo au nord de Tokyo Réputé pour son immense jardin d''azalées petits torii vermillons Visite du parc du Palais impérial Anciennes maisons de gardes impériaux Yasukuni-jinja, sanctuaire shinto et nationaliste controversé Les soldats japonais morts depui Meiji y sont vénérés, y compris les criminels de la dernière guerre PENINSULE D''IZU train panoramique Ito Panorama vers le Fuji comme suspendu dans le ciel depuis le plateau Darumayama (982 m.) la côte ouest, le port de Heda Shirahama, le sanctuaire près de la plage poisson séchage d''algues La plage blanche de Shirahama, l''une des plus belles du Japon mont Omuroyama, un volcan éteint ancien ryokan Tokaikan construit en 1928 Centre culturel depuis 2001 ryokan Yushindo poisson séché ferry pour l''île d''Oshima Seven Islands Tairyo shima hanto O-shima est la plus grande des 7 îles de l''archipel Les îles sont rattachées administrativement à Tokyo Le volcan actif Mihara-yama culmine à 758 m caldeira plusieurs cratères bouches fumerolles vapeur d''eau La dernière éruptions explosive remonte à 1986 il entre en activité environ tous les 3 ans 40 cônes secondaires se sont formé dans une caldeira de 4km de diamètre Pique-nique de bento, venteux La végétation finit toujours par gagner Atami, sur la péninsule d''Izu en péninsule d''Izu, une ville de onsens pour les Tokyoïtes KYOTO gare moderne de Kyoto, l''une des plus grandes du Japon Fushimi Inari-taisha, le plus grand sanctuaire du Japon Erigé en 711, il est dédié à la déesse du riz Inari Une boucle de deux heures de marche sous des allées de plus de 10.000 toriis Sanjusangen-do (XIIIe s.) aux 1001 statues bouddhiques 33 travées et 118 m. de long, c''est la plus longue structure en bois du monde Kyoto National Museum un des 5 théatres de mikos et geikos, le Miyagawacho Kaburenjo spectacje de musique chant et danse le thème est Les cygnes volant au Paradis Illuminations du parc du château shogunal de Nijo-jo présentation Kimono Roboto la gare, oeuvre de Hiroshi Hara inaugurée en 1997 20e anniversaire ryokan rue Akezu-no-mon près de l''hôtel Lida fameuse baignoire à couvercle pour garder le bain au chaud Ohara, Kyoto champêtre merveilleux temple Sanzen-in fondé en 804 verdure deux jardins de mousses, arbres et statues Hosen-in fondé en 1013, connu pour la beauté de son jardin tranquille lithophone son de l''eau sur des graviers dans un suikinkutsu (un pot en céramique) Méditer, contempler en prenant sucreries et thé macha planches tachées de sang provenant du château de Fushimi après que les guerriers de Tokugawa se soient suicidés losque lee château a été pris d''assaut en 1600 carpes koï chemin menant au Jakko-in à travers la campagne tanukis porte-bonheur toiture traditionnelle en lamelles de cyprès murs en Lattis enduit de torchis Jakko-in établit en 594 Au XIIe s. l''impératrice douairière Kenrei Mon''in du clan Taira s''y retira après la défaite navale face au clan Minamoto salle principale a été incendiée le 9 mai 2000 et reconstruite en juin 2005 Statue en ivoire de Jizo Bosatsu Jizo japonais enfantin portant un bavoir offert par une mère en deuil Higashiyama, vers le Chemin de la Philosophie Ginkaku-ji ou Jisho-ji dit d''argent Le shogun Yoshimasa (XVe s.) n''eut pas le temps de le recouvrir d''argent comme son grand-père avait recouvert d''or le Kenkaku-ji un chef-d''oeuvre de jardin de sable zen toits en bardeau de cyprès Pas un cop mais une sorte de phénix pousse-pousse chaussures jika tabi est la chaussure japonaise traditionnelle que porte l''ouvrier du bâtiment, le jardinier ou le tireur de pousse-pousse autel de pierres habillées dédiées à Jizo qui aide les âmes des enfants décédés Otoyo-jinja des souris qui montent la garde du sanctuaire au lieu des lion-chiens habituels Koun-ji Kumano Nyakuoji Nanzen-ji, temple suprême du zen japonais établi à la fin du XIIIe s. Sanmon, porte colossale du XVIIe s. dédiée aux victimes lors de la prise du château d''Osaka Suirokaku, l''aqueduc de brique construit en 1890 par les Occidentaux pour supporté un canal destiné à la navigation Chion-in fondé au XIIe s. Sanmon, la plus colossale porte du Japon (24 m. de haut) du XVIIe s. Parc Maryama-koen de près de 9 ha Yasaka-jinja Etabli au VIIe s. puis rééeifié mille ans olus tard, il est dédié au kami Susa-no-o, déesse de la mer Romon, le portail vermillon quartier de Gion touristes il ne faut pas toucher les maikos et les geikos Pont Shijo et restaurant chinois Toka Saikan en direction de Pontocho estaurant d''okonomiyaki (ce que vous aimez) Sagano, à l''ouest de Kyoto pont Togetsu-kyo (Lune traversant le pont) sur la rivière Oigawa Réalisé au IXe s., il fut déplacé ici au XVIIe s. Tenruy-ji fondé au XIVe siècle par le shogun Ashikaga entre la rivière Katsura et la bambouseraie, temple principal de l''école zen Rinzai Tenryu-ji et le premier des gozan (5 grands temples) de Kyoto sublime jardin organisé autour d''un étang et de rochers, connu sous le nom de Sogenchi-teien Peinture du dragon des nuages réalisée en 1899 bambouseraie d''Arashiyama dite aussi forêt de bambous géants de Sagano Puisse la Paix régner sur le monde Rakushisha, ancienne demeure (XVIIe s.) d''un célèbre poète de Haiku, Mukai Kyorai Gio-ji, vestige d''un temple plus vaste du XIIe s. la danseuse Gio délaissée par son amant s''y retira Adashino Nenbutsu-ji Adashino Nenbutsu-ji céèbre pour son cimetière avec 8.000 statuettes bouddhiques et stupas forêt de Kimono de la gare de Sagano NAGOYA shinkansen Nozomi bec de canard AOI et Shuri-chan san tours JR Nagoya University of the Arts ISE, haut de la religion shinto brasseries de sake grillerie de châtaignes Shima Hanto site du Grand Sanctuaire, le Kotaijingu ou Naiku dédié au kami Amaterasu, déesse du soleil et ancêtre de la famille impériale Uji, pont de cyprès, passerelle entre le monde profane et le monde sacré site est vénéré depuis 2000 ans au coeur d''un bois de gigantesque cyprès ablutions sanctuaires rebâtis tous les 20 ans sur l''espace contigu le kami trouve refuge dans le petit abri tout au fond du terrain l''''abri du kami cheval messager apportant aux esprits les prières. On attend un nouveau cheval blanc du Palais impérial Shuin-cho, le livre du bon pèlerin à ne pas confondre avec le Gôshuin-chô plus touristique Toyouke ou Geku le Geku est dédié à Toyouke Omikami, la déesse de l''agriculture, des récoltes, de la nourriture... a été fondé il y a 1500 ans les fameux cyprès vieux de 700 ans jusqu''à 60 m. de hauteur trajet par la route Ise Shima Skyline de 16km elle culmine à 555 m. au mont Asamayama Toba, arrivée au ryokan Hidemaru Hangokoro banquet royal pour dîner avant le bain au onsen l''aquarium de Toba, les petits poissons tropicaux colorés et coraux calamars Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) Huso huso (Acipenser ruthenus) Nautilus pompilius un morse (Odobenus rosmarus) crabe bleu étoile de mer anémone de mer Hippocampe (Hippocampus) dauphins requins Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) piranas Piranha rouge (Pygocentrus nattereri) Ibis rouge (Eudocimus ruber) Labre à tête de mouton (Semicossyphus reticulatus) Rascasse japonaise (Pterois lunulata) congre la petite île dans le port de Toba. Pas de démonstration ce jour de pêche d''huîtres perlières par des plongeuses Ama serre tropicale Python vertarboricole (Morelia viridis) chat pêcheur ou chat viverrin (Prionailurus viverrinus) Poissons docteurs à l''oeuvre (Garra rufa) Alligator d''Amérique (Alligator mississippiensis) Meoto Iwa, les roches mariés de Futami symbole des divinités créatrices du Japon: Izanagi (divinité masculine, le gros rocher) et Izanami (divinité féminine, le petit) Entre eux, une corde tendue : la shimenawa, tressée à partir de paille de riz au-dessus du bassin pendent quelques gohei (bandes de papier blanc plié en éclair) le sommet du G7 a réuni ici les dirigeants d''Etats et de gouvernements, les Présidents de la Commission et du Conseil européens les 26-27 mai 2016 Karuizawa, église catholique St Paul chutes hémicirculaires de Shiraito 20 mètres de haut et 150 mètres de large Cette eau issue de la fonte des neiges du Fuji, s''infiltre et jaillit ici après 10 ou 15 ans falls cascades Volcan Asama (2568 m.) Parc volcanique de Onioshidashi es plus violentes éruptions récentes datent de 1108 et 1783 coulées de lave la petite ville (6700 hab.) de Kusatsu ville de onsens dans laquelle des eaux sulfureuses et acides doivent être refroidies ryokan Kojimaya pour prendre le thé l’une des trois sources thermales les plus célèbres du Japon et la plus abondante à la sortie de la source, la température de l''eau varie de 50 à 90°, donc non utilisable telle quelle un établissement présentant un système traditionnel de refroidissement, Yu-momi ou battage de l''eau plus simplement, la technique courammment utilisée est Yu-batake ou champ d''eau qui permet de refroidir l''eau et de décanter les sédiments les bains peuvent se limiter aux pieds. Ca tombe bien car il fait froid par ce temps gris et à 1200 m. d''altitude tThermalistes en yukata (kimono léger) et haori (veste) et chaussés de getas le village by night mascotte petit déjeuner japonais village de Sanadamachiosa près de Ueda Daihakuzan Shinkoji mémorial Sanada Kojo rappelle les luttes de ce clan contre les Tokugawa au XVIe s. grande cascade Yasaka Otaki près de Omachi un filet d''eau Takagaryama, un large point de vue au-dessus de Omachi le superbe château de Matsumoto dit du corbeau en raison de sa couleur (opposée à celui d''Himeji) Construit au XVIe s. (à l''époque du châyeau de Chambord) par le clan Ogasawara un édifice bien conservé car son seul rôle fut une démonstration de puissance face aux rivaux Shirahone Ebisaya à Azumi macaque à face rouge japonais (Macaca fuscata), le singe à l''habitat naturel le plus septentrional Shiojiri (cul salé) dans une brasserie de sake éventail de sake selon la finesse et les degrés Chapelle de mariage 4 des 5 lacs du Mont Fuji (Fuji Goko): Shojiko, Motosuko, Saiko et Kawagachiko Machida en passant par Takasaka et Sakudaira Blindé des Forces d''Autodéfense (FAD) Mont Asamat Obuse (préfecture de Nagano) ville spécialisée dans les confiseries à base de châtaignes Musée Okusai estampes un emblème: les 3 châtaignes la station de ski de Hakuba Happo-one des Jeux olympiques d''hiver de 1998 ryokan Goryukan après le bain en yukata (kimono) et (veste) haori copieux repas banquet bombance repus replets mets savoureux oursin langouste en bus jusqu''à 1433 m à Ogizawa un trolleybus traverse le tunnel Kanden de 6,1 km jusqu''au barrage de Kurobe (1470 m) le seul funiculaire souterrain au Japon pour Korubedeira (1828 m.) le seul téléphérique au Japon sans pylônes le long de sa portée (1,7 km) jusqu''à Daikanbo (2316 m.) un second trolleybus, le plus haut du Japon (2450 m.), passe à l''intérieur d''un tunnel de 3,7 km sous le sommet du mont Tateyama (3015 m.) pour aller au terminal de Murodo (2450 m.) un mur de neige de 17 mètres d''épaisseur (19 début avril et plus de 20 mètres parfois) Tateyama Snow Wall refuges Fumerolles sulfureuses The Tateyama Mountain Range Chubu Sangaku National Park produits frais sacs de riz, produit de base tout est emballé (sur)emballé fruits et légumes viandes rayons de produits de la mer fameuse viande persillée de boeuf wagyu sushi sashimi réductions au supermarché le soir sur les produits frais périssables Emballé c''est bien ! mais après il faut respecter le calendrier hebdomadaire des divers tris sélectifs cordon bleu chefs suisiniers grande cuisine reconnue labellisée étoilée takoyaki à base de petits morceaux de pieuvre (tako), légumes et pâte spécialité d''Osaka mayo et de sauce otafuku mayonnaise des copeaux de katsuobushi (bonite séchée) pique-nique hanami (contemplation des sakuras) riz au curry doux zaru soba (nouilles de sarrasin froides) et algues merlan et sauté de légumes sauce aigre douce champignon maitake, porc, oignon, soupe (pousses de soja et oeuf) salade de mizuma, myoga et shiso yarika (calamar) sauce mentsuyu, champignons eringi et bacon, racines de lotus avec sauce au sésame, sardines BBQ oeufs brouillés et épinards, soupe miso, sauté de carottes, poivrons et miettes de thon, tofu, gombo, copeaux de bonite et sauce soja galettes de pâtes à raviolis déjeuner avec des sardines grillées déjeuner shirasu don (alevins, oeufs de poissons, légumes, riz) saucisse à Chinatown de Yokohama: 126 plats au choix et à volonté pour environ 13,50€ Granité kakigori au thé macha et uji kintori (haricots rouges) menu soy soup, ramen et porc rôti plus riz et thé Sauté de boeuf Langue de boeuf grillée Porc grillé Ecole de Cuisine et Nutrition Hattori Bouillon de Paris enseignes Le Marcasson d''Or tempura... au Marugame restaurants Onioshidashi poisson pour la Fête des garçons Kodomo no hi: le 5 mai, fête des carpes et des garçons japonais (les filles ont la fête des poupées, Hina matsuri, le 3 mars)... fondues - 2018 Voyage sur l''Île de La REUNION guide accompagnateur MAX Afrique continent africaine Dîna morgabin découverte inhabitée navigateurs Vasco de Gama Madagascar Mozambique Portugais Diego Dias Pedro de Mascarenhas Mascareignes archipel Santa Apolonia Maurice Seychelles dérive Gondwana bateaux anglais et néerlandais Jacques de Pronis, gouverneur Français mutins malgaches Saint St Ste Paul Pierre escale Compagnie des Indes orientales esclavage esclaves colons colonie lariages mixtes métissage métis créoles Indiens Chinois ségrégation le Code Noir Marrons fugitifs échappés les Hauts Malouin Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais, gouverneur traité de Paris en 1814 catastrophes climatiques de 1806-1807 (cyclones, inondations), la culture du café canne à sucre St Denis capitale chef-lieu abolissions libres libérés 1802 Le 20 décembre 1848, l’abolition de l''esclavage est finalement proclamée par Sarda Garriga engagés Tamouls crise économique héros aviateur Rolland Garros département d’outre-mer Michel Debré devient député répression de la culture créole et des actions autonomistes ''''déportation'''' d''enfants dans la Creuse mouvements sociaux manifestations autonomisme indépendantisme régions ultrapériphériques de l’Union européenne aides Fonds européen de développement régional (FEDER) réseau de fibre optique (Fiber to the Home) ADSL internet toponymes océan Indien relief accidenté Piton des Neiges (3070 m.) culmine point culminant Col cratères bouches cônes effondrements érodés érosion éteint actif Cilaos, Mafate, Salazie escarpé falaises ravines végétation villages hameaux îlets rivières cascade grottes tunnels de laves littoral climat vents alizés saisons été austral hiver dépressions tropicales trombes d''eau déluge précipitations diluviennes températures douceur faune et flore espèces endémiques lagons ceinture récifale récifs coraliens départementalisation ETHNIES, LANGUES ET RELIGIONS Cafres Tamil Nadu(les Malbars) et le Gujarat (les Zarabes) Petits Blancs ou Yabs Métropolitains Zoreilles ou de Métros langue vernaculaire le hakka, le cantonais, le gujarati, l''ourdou, l''arabe, le tamoul, le malgache, le mahorais et le comorien christianisme hindouisme islam judaïsme Guan Di rites africains animistes et de nombreuses superstitions PIB habitant économie croissance Maldives coût de la vie sous le seuil de pauvreté transferts financiers perfusion assistanat généralisé (RSA, CMU, ASSEDIC...) l''économie souterraine important chômage population active L''agriculture subventions sucre (premier producteur européen) vanille orchidée fécondation manuelle riz lentilles ou grains zone économique exclusive (ZEE) boom touristique épidémie de chikungunya, attaques de requins baleines et dauphins revenus ressource économique grands groupes réunionnais comme Quartier Français, Groupe Bourbon ex-Sucreries Bourbon, grande compagnie Grand Trail plus connu sous le nom de Diagonal des Fous randonnées ou des activités aquatiques plongée surf spot plages réceptif sera PASSION Outremer Editions Dominique Auzias Hachette Gallimard Loisirs les saisons sont inversées records d''ensoleillement nombreux microclimats orientation degrés mm d''eau Leu Rose Philippe Benoît André Jardins d''Héva Hell-Bourg (Salazie) Etoile de Mers Relais Commerson Le tampon Gilles Auberge Restaurant Ti''Bonheur Chez Céline et Josian à Entre-Deux (Accueil paysan) Chez Aliette et Paris Farandole (tranche d''espadon rôti, camarons et coquilles St Jacques avec une délicieuse sauce aux agrumes et accompagnés de gratin de citrouille, caviar d''aubergine, frites...) L''Isabelle Hôtel Le Vieux Cep cuisine plat typique est le cari massalé sauce saveurs d''épices: gingembre, de curcuma, de girofle, de piment, de cannelle et de poivre accompagnement haricots rouges, lentilles, pois du Cap ou fèves poulet cari de poulet au jacquier, cari de poulet au gingembre, cari de crevettes à l''ananas, gratin de citrouille, gratin et tartelette de chouchou légumes feuilles bouillis les brèdes: lianes de chouchou (connu ailleurs sous le nom de chayotte ou de cristophine) ou de citrouille, feuilles et tiges de morelle ou mafane, feuilles tendres de mouroungue ou mouronge, feuilles de cresson, de radis ou de navets, cœurs de choux plats de boucané, une viande fumée au feu de bois lard L''aubergine, la bringelle rougail saucisse sauce très piquante à base de piment, gingembre et échalote dessert patates douces samousas, bonbon piments, piment farci fritures rhum ordinaire est le rhum agricole Charrette Isautier production artisanale grande diversité de punchs bière est notamment produite par la brasserie de Bourbon vin de Cilaos traditionnel, est un apéritif transports chemin de fer routes réseau interurbain Cars jaunes Transdev Citalis Kar''Ouest AlterNéo CarSud Alizé NLR (Nouvelle Route Littorale) GR1 GR2 dengue paludisme malaria moustiques décalage horaire volcanisme dorsale centrale indienne plaques tectoniques Point chaud dit de la Réunion millions d''années Trapps du Deccan perforer la croûte terrestre îles volcaniques plateaux sous-marins l''enclos Fouqué planèzes exutoires de la caldeira Grand Brûlé glissement de terrain chambre magmatique sous-jacente Rivière des Remparts Plaine des Sables sommet sommitale Cratère Dolomieu Chapelle de Rosemont Formica Leo sismicité observations mesures capteurs intensité secousses tremblements gonflement émanations de gaz l''imminence magma brûlant type volcan bouclier hawaiien plasticité fusion boudins lave cordée laves pahoehoe lave à gratons (laves aa) morphologie colonisation végétation lichens mousses arbustes plateau continental classement patrimoine mondial de l''humanité par l''UNESCO desserte routière isolé isolement sentiers toponymes ravitaillement La Possession marrons fuyards chasse électrification énergie solaire panneaux photovoltaïques défiscalisation La Nouvelle technologie Microgrid pile à combustible hydrogène cyclones GISELLE GAMEDE HYACINTHE incendies avion Dash 8 utilisé pour épandre des produits retardants explorateurs austronésiens créolité criollo café arabica originaire d’Ethiopie Bourbon café caféiers production plantation planteurs culture épidémies crise concurrence Antilles Bourbon pointu arabica Ethiopie moulins à canne balances centres de Réception (collecte) le pesage et l''échantillonnage camions baleines cétacés coproduits paille chaume résidus bagasse mélasses rhumeries fourrages course Grand Raid est un ultra-trail Diagonales des Fous inscrits participants course coureurs arrivés abandons classés Trail de Bourbon Zembrocal Trail vainqueurs Jocelyne PAULY ex-æquos à Benoit GIRONDEL et François D''HAENE dénivelé positif bovins boeufs Mon prochain voyage nos prochains voyages avec Salaun Holidays Vacances Transat Capitales Tours Nouvelles Frontières
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Center for Bible Code Research-Bible Code Research Website Quantum Analysis of the Bible and especially the Torah to generate Codes allowing us to better understand the scriptures and the power of God.
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Armageddon Online - Learn about Super Volcanoes, Nuclear War, World War III, Viruses, Mega Tsunamis and more Learn about Super Volcanoes, Nuclear War, World War III, Viruses, Mega Tsunamis and more
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ISRAEL BIBLE CENTER - Dr Eli Lizorkin-Eyzenberg The Certificate in Jewish Context and Culture program consists of 24 mini-courses. It covers topics including: Hebrew Language, and much more!
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COL - Chabad On Line \\ " - " Chabad-Lubavitch news: judaism, jewish, jew, torah, jewish education, chasidus, chassidus, hasidim, hasidism, learn, talmud, library, rebbe, lubavitch, chabad, habad, moshiach, mashiach, messiah, rabbi, parshah, parsha, holidays, god, faith, israel, spirituality, bible, education
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Illuminati News Welcome Page All this chaos, genocide, ethnic cleansing and disaster we see in this world have a genuine purpose. It is all very carefully planned by a few “invisible”, super-rich people behind the scenes, high above any power structure that the ordinary citizen knows about. They want to create a One World Government with themselves in charge, making the rest of us slaves in a Super Socialist State that would make former Soviet Union look like Paradise, in comparison...!
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Sites for Helping Find Sex Research Dedicated to the propagation of Bnai Noach in the world through the auspices of Agudat Bnai Noach in association with Vendyl Jones Research Institutes.
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Christian Friends of Israeli Communities CFOIC Heartland enables Christians to connect with the Jewish communities (settlements) in the heart of Biblical Israel. Judea and Samaria (the "West Bank") is not occupied territory. It is the birthplace of the Jewish people.
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The Two Houses of Israel Information Center Research into Israel and Judah in Bible History and Prophecy from Christian, Messianic, and Jewish Authors
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White Stones Ministries-End Time Messages From the Lord To His Church White Stones Ministries has this web site dedicated to making public prophetic messages from the Lord to the Church about soon coming judgment. End Time Messages.
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More in Sanity The truth you cannot handle, the hot kitchen you should stay out of, the beliefs you cannot admit to having. Become self-aware at your own risk.
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At Easter thousands of pilgrims from all over the world flock to Israel and to the holy land of Christians, Jews and Muslims, Jerusalem, to celebrate Easter, and to visit biblical places like the Wailing Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, the Sepulcher of Jesus, the Room of the Last Supper, the gone by Temple of Salomon, the El-Aqsa Mosque, the magnificent Dome of the Rock and the Mount of Olives. Yes, Jerusalem, Jerusaleim is the center of the world! When the Christian Easter and the Jewish Easter, the Pesach, coincide, it is worth-while to approach the Jewish Quarter through the Arab or the Armenian quarters, to eyewitness as orthodox Jews, dressed to the occasion, are praying by the Wailing Wall, or as the local people call it, by the Kotel HaMa''aravi. The biblical topics and motifs, the venues of the Holy Land from time to time are reflected in my other fields of interest, like the theatre, dance and concert, or portrait photography The Cretan and Greek culture played a decisive role in the history of the Jewish nation. Let’s stop in Rome for a moment. Finally, it is time we returned home to Hungary. To the photo-stories of Hungarian landscapes, villages and towns;
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Conspiracy Fact - Exposing The Agenda! Conspiracy Fact - Exposing The Illuminati New World Order Agenda!
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Real Mount Sinai Visitor's Center - Discover the Real Exodus of the Bible Archaeological and Historical Evidence for the Biblical Exodus and Real Mount Sinai in Saudi Arabia. Mt Sinai is (Jebel or Jabal Maqla) in the Jebel/Jabal al-Lawz Mountain range near Al Bad, Saudi Arabia - some 130km or 80 miles east of the traditional site in the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula.
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courtweek.com - Archives: 2011November 1, 2011The Law of Post-Halloween Legal StandardsToday is All Saints Day or All Hallows, a holy day of obligation for some. To others, it''s just the day after Halloween -- a day they forget was once merely All Hallows Eve. Some spend All Hallows recovering from the revelry of the night before, and some are still on the streets in the wee hours of the holy day. Our Case of the Week examines once such alleged citizen on the streets and the unfortunate lesson she learned about differing standards of legal review in a California appellate decision handed down last week.Let''s Make a DealAngelique Bongiovanni found herself in the legal system in 2009, charged with possession of methamphetamine in two separate cases. In a deal that would come back to haunt her on the day after Halloween, she made a plea bargain in one of the cases. Under the plea agreement, Ms. Bongiovanni pleaded no contest, and was placed on probation for three years. As an added bonus, her 365-day jail sentence was suspended to run concurrently with the sentence from her other drug bust.It seemed like a good deal at the time, and it would have been...if only she hadn''t allegedly been out with the witches, warlocks, goblins, and alleged gang members on the streets of Los Angeles on All Hallows 2009.All Hallows HijinksOn Nov. 1, 2009, Wendy Diaz lived with her husband and three children in a Los Angeles neighborhood with a gang problem. Perhaps not unlike Chauncey and Wadsworth fighting over tee times, the proper procedure for shaking martinis, or the best way to train a polo pony, Ms. Diaz''s neighborhood faced fights from the gentlemen and ladies of the rival gangs, "Vincent Town," and "Columbus Street." Police arrested a Columbus Street gang member for breaking into the Diaz home.After taking her children trick-or-treating on Halloween evening, Ms. Diaz ventured outside at approximately 1:00 in the morning of All Hallows to look for a friend parking on the street. Instead, Ms. Diaz said she saw Ms. Bongiovanni accompanied by a companion in a pumpkin costume.According to Ms. Diaz, Ms. Bongiovanni proceeded to engage in an expletive-laden tirade of threats. To accommodate the gentle readers of Courtweek.com who would rather witness a debate between Chauncey and Wadworth on the best ways to make covert contributions to the Republican National Committee instead of enduring the vile threats of alleged gang members, we will attempt to sanitize the vulgarity of Ms. Bongiovanni''s alleged utterances.Ms. Diaz said Ms. Bongiovanni approached her and called her an [expletive deleted] snitcher, adding, "You been [expletive deleted] snitching.""You and your family are coming down," Ms. Bongiovanni stated allegedly, as she is said to have added for emphasis, "You [expletive deleted] rata," and "[expletive deleted] all biccicletas."To assist our readers in appreciating the full flavor of Ms. Bongiovanni''s supposed soliloquy, we should note that each deleted expletive is a version of the same slang word referring to an act of sexual intimacy. In addition, "rata" can refer to a Soviet fighter plane from the 1930s, plants from the Metrosideros genus in New Zealand, or rat in Spanish. We''ll let you decide which one Ms. Bongiovanni might have meant. Also, biccicletas is a derivation of the Spanish word for bicycles. Seems innocuous enough. However, in Ms. Bongiovanni''s case, People v. Bongiovanni, California''s Second District Court of Appeal noted biccicletas was also a term Columbus Street gang members used as a sign of disrespect (or "dissing" in gangspeak) when addressing the upstanding citizens of the Vincent Town gang.Ms. Diaz reported the incident to police the same day and gave law enforcement a description of the woman who threatened her. She then identified Ms. Bongiovanni from a photo line up. Police knew Ms. Bongiovanni to be a member of the Columbus Street gang for almost a decade and that she went by the gang name, "Diabla." It wasn''t difficult police work...Ms. Bongiovanni sported Columbus Street gang tattoos on her body. If that weren''t enough, police said she also admitted she was a member.Winning 10-2?However, nifty tattoos notwithstanding, Ms. Bongiovanni denied she was a member of the gang at trial. In addition, Ms. Bongiovanni noted she was approximately 50 pounds heavier than Ms. Diaz had described her. Then again, it was Halloween, and with her friend in that pumpkin costume, she probably got a lot of candy. Despite Ms. Diaz''s testimony and police testimony citing various Columbus Street gang activities including murder, assaults, car theft, and narcotics distribution, the jury deadlocked, and it''s vote was 10-2 in favor of acquitting Ms. Bongiovanni. The court declared a mistrial and thus granted prosecutors'' motion to dismiss the charges pursuant to California Penal Code section 1385.So, it was time for Ms. Bongiovanni to do the happy dance. Sure, she was on probation, but the charges were dropped. No probation violation there...or so she thought.At an ensuing probation violation hearing, Ms. Bongiovanni argued she had not violated her probation in the All Hallows morning incident. She claimed the whole thing was a case of mistaken identity, and she argued the jury''s 10-2 vote in her favor showed she hadn''t done anything wrong.Most members of the jury may have believed her, but the judge wasn''t buying it. More importantly, for purposes of sending Ms. Bongiovanni to the slammer for a probation violation, the opinions of those 10 jurors didn''t matter.You see, California probation violation determinations differ from a criminal trial in that the fact-finder in a probation violation hearing is the judge -- not a jury. In addition, where in a criminal trial, the legal standard is proof beyond a reasonable doubt, in a probation violation hearing, the standard is only a preponderance of the evidence. In other words, there can be a fair amount of doubt as to whether you did it, but if the judge weighs the evidence, and there''s more evidence indicating guilt rather than innocence, you lose.In Ms. Bongiovanni''s case, the judge noted the cops testified at trial that she was a member of the Columbus Street gang, a Columbus Street member was arrested in connection with the break-in at the Diaz home, and that Ms. Diaz identified Ms. Bongiovanni as the woman who threatened her. In the minds of 10 of 12 jurors, that wasn''t enough to prove anything beyond a reasonable doubt. However, under the preponderance of the evidence standard, that''s all the judge needed.In upholding the trial court''s decision that Ms Bongiovanni violated her probation, California''s Second District Court of Appeal wrote, "Appellant''s argument that a jury vote of of 10-2 for acquittal supports her credibility is not persuasive because the fact finder in the probation violation hearing was the trial judge, not the jury. Because probation revocation differs substantially from criminal prosecution and the facts supporting the revocation need only be proved by a preponderance of the evidence, we find substantial evidence to support the trial court''s finding that the appellant violated her probation."So, Ms. Bongiovanni had her probation revoked, and it was three years of incarceration for her. The moral of this week''s Case of the Week: if you''re on probation and walking around with a giant pumpkin on All Hallows, study legal standards of review before you go calling someone an [expletive deleted] Soviet fighter plane. __________________________October 22, 2011The Law of Flying DwarfsThose readers who enjoyed -- or perhaps didn''t enjoy -- this writer''s On Trial column in The National Law Journal may remember the saga of Dave the Dwarf. He fought to save the Constitution...while saving his livelihood in dwarf tossing. To commemorate the 10th anniversary of Dave the Dwarf''s epic legal battle--and because a Florida state representative is now trying to do in the legislature what Dave could not do in the courts--we now revisit the Law of Dwarf Tossing...and what it tells us about the 5th and 14th Amendments to the United States Constitution...as well as legislative and regulatory drafting in the state of Florida.Big Fun in a Little PackageDavid Flood is a gentleman of somewhat small stature: three foot two, to be exact. He''s also a Tampa, Fla., radio personality and quasi-celebrity. Known as Dave the Dwarf to his legions of little listeners and big fans on Tampa''s 93.3 FLZ radio, Mr. Flood also has had a side business, and that''s what made him a legal star. You see, for a fee, you could bring Dave the Dwarf to your birthday party, St. Patrick''s Day festival, bar mitzvah, or Millard Fillmore Inauguration Day celebration, and Dave would let you engage in the time-honored tradition of dwarf tossing.That''s right, you could put little Dave in a harness and toss him to your heart''s content. Dwarf tossing was a cultural phenomenon in the 1980s. It was the biggest thing since Members Only jackets. It seemed a good time was being had by all, as tiny torpedoes of humanity went airborne at parties.That was, until the Little People of America and their friends in the Florida Legislature intercepted the toss.Little LobbyistsNot everyone was amused by this zany brand of miniature fun. Among the concerned populace was a public interest organization known as Little People of America, Inc. The non-profit organization provides support and information to people of short stature, and states it is the only dwarfism support organization providing services to those afflicted with all of the over 200 types of dwarfism.Little People and others lobbied the Florida Legislature, and the result was the passage of Section 561.665, Florida Statutes, governing activities involving exploitation of people with Dwarfism in establishments selling alcohol.Not all little people supported the law, and one of them was Dave the Dwarf.Dave the Dwarf sued then-Florida Governor Job Bush in an attempt to overturn the law, arguing the law was an unconstitutional violation of his rights under the Due Process Clause of the 5th Amendment and the Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment.Specifically, Dave the Dwarf argued in Flood v. Bush, No. 8:01cv02261 (M.D. Fla. filed Nov. 28, 2001), that his due process rights were violated because the law failed to properly define those covered by the law, making the law unconstitutionally vague. He argued also that the law violated his equal protection rights because the law treated him differently than others. For instance, you could be tossed, I could be tossed, and Oprah Winfrey could be tossed (with a great degree of difficulty), but Dave the Dwarf could not be tossed...or so he thought.Banned or Not?The governor''s lawyers swung into action in an attempt to toss Dave the Dwarf right out of court. They argued dwarfs needed protection. Dave counted that was hogwash. Also, in addition to maintaining Gov. Bush should be dismissed from the suit, the Florida Attorney General''s Office argued that there was no constitutional violation because the law didnt really ban dwarf tossing.Turns out they were right.The law itself banned only "undertaking or permitting any contest or promotion or other form of recreational activity involving exploitation endangering the health, safety, and welfare of any person with dwarfism" in establishments selling alcoholic beverages. Nowhere did the law ban dwarf tossing specifically.Dave the Dwarf argued dwarf tossing was good for his welfare because he made money doing it. Note the language is "health, safety, and welfare," as opposed to "health, safety, or welfare." Dave the Dwarf might have been better off leaving the law alone, continuing his aerial acrobatics, and arguing he was in compliance with the law because dwarf tossing promoted his welfare.As it was, the trial court tossed Dave out of the courthouse, holding the law did not ban dwarf tossing and that -- although the law mandated that the Division of Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco of Floridas Department of Professional Regulation promulgate regulations on the issue -- they had failed to do it. While the regulators may have been out at the beach listening to Jimmy Buffet tunes and drinking margaritas, Dave the Dwarf could have been spending his days flying through the warm Florida breezes.So why is Florida State Rep. Ritch Workman trying to repeal the law while everyone from Jon Stewart to your short Uncle Freddy is weighing in on the issue?Well, it appears those regulators finally finished getting wasted away in Margaritaville, cruised on back home to Tallahassee, and did some regulating.The Oprah RuleThe Division promulgated Section 3.048 of Chapter 61A of its regulations, entitled, "Exploitation of Dwarfs." Unlike their friends in the Legislature, the regulators did more precise drafting and included dwarf tossing specifically. The regulation provided in subsection (2): "Any activity described as dwarf-tossing is specifically included within those acts of exploitation prohibited by this rule."Of course, there was also subsection (3), which could be called the Oprah Rule. It provided: "Nothing contained herein shall be construed to prohibit dwarfs from engaging in non-exploitative sporting or recreational events of the type engaged in by persons who are not dwarfs."So now we''ve come full circle: Oprah Winfrey can be tossed (if one has a large catapult), but Dave the Dwarf is, once again, left out of all the fun...unless Rep. Workman has his way. His bill, HB 4063, is pending in the Florida Legislature. In the meantime, you can catch Dave the Dwarf on his radio show, What Would The Dwarf Do?, where presumably, he is not being tossed...at least not yet.__________________________August 25, 2011The Law of Wiener WarsOnce the gentleman from New York''s Ninth Congressional District resigned his House seat for exposing his wiener, you may have thought you would be finished with bad wiener jokes for a while. You would be wrong.This week, mighty corporate litigants have been battling it out in the U.S. District Court for Northern District of Illinois in a wacky wiener war. The case of Sara Lee Corp. v. Kraft Foods Inc., features charges of hot dog blasphemy. Sara Lee, the makers of Ball Park Franks, and Kraft, the friendly folks bringing you the venerable Oscar Mayer wiener, both claim the other has disparaged its products in violation of federal and state law.Seriously though, we all read Upton Sinclair''s The Jungle in school. Thus, everyone thinks hot dogs are comprised of animal parts swept up off the factory floor anyway. How can one disparage a hot dog?Oh, I Wish I Were...Sara Lee fired the first shot in the Weiner War, suing Kraft in May 2009, claiming Kraft violated both the federal Trademark Act of 1946, 15 U.S.C. 1051 et seq., known commonly as the "Lanham Act," the Illinois Consumer Fraud and Deceptive Practices Act, and other Illinois state laws.In its federal complaint, Sara Lee alleged Kraft claimed falsely that Oscar Mayer wieners were the "100% pure beef hot dog" when it knew Oscar Meyer wieners contained other mouth-watering ingredients, such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, sodium phosphates, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose. Sara Lee claimed non-beef ingredients comprised approximately 20 percent of an Oscar Meyer wiener. Of course, Sara Lee conceded that most of this non-beef 20 percent was water.Sara Lee claimed Ball Park Franks were disadvantaged becausebeing the honest dudes they are Sara Lee would not compete with Oscars little lies by claiming falsely that Ball Park Franks were 100 percent pure beef.But, Oscar Meyers alleged crimes against humanity and hot dog harmony didn''t end there.In advertising paraphrasing Oscar Mayers famous jingles for its hot dogs and bologna, Kraft claimed, The best tasting beef hot dog has a name. Its O-S-C-A-R, and These days, its Ball Park and Hebrew National who are wishing they were an Oscar Mayer wiener. In addition, Kraft invited customers to Try the taste that knocked the others out of the park.Just as it claimed the 100 percent beef claim was false, Sara Lee claimed these comparisons against its hot dog were false as well.Sara Lees attorney, Richard Leighton of Washington, D.C.''s Keller and Heckman LLP, claimed the evil Oscar Mayer even cheated on taste tests, claiming testers were served boiled Ball Park franks on a paper plate with no bun, no ketchup, no mustard, nothing.It must have been a big taste test error because the bouquet of the sodium lactate and dextrose really pairs well with mustard.Not only were these claims placed in print and electronic media, Sara Lee claimed Kraft even put them on its Wienermobile, a vehicle described by Sara Lee as a hot dog-shaped vehicle that promotes Oscar Mayer and its products in interstate commerce.Have you ever seen the Wienermobile? This writer has. It looks like a rolling phallic sex toy designed to appeal to the prurient interest in violation of the U.S. Supreme Courts holding in Miller v. California.Sara Lee argued that, by making these allegedly false claims in interstate commerce, Kraft violated section 43(a)(1)(B) of the Lanham Act. Section 43(a)(1)(B) prohibits false or misleading advertising or marketing that damages another''s product. In addition, Sara Lee argued these false claims violated the applicable Illinois state laws.Not surprisingly, Oscar Mayer saw things differently.My [Fill in the Blank] Has a First NameMighty Oscar fought back, counterclaiming against Ball Park''s protective corporate mother, Sara Lee. Kraft argued the 100 percent beef was accurate because, although Oscar Mayer contained additives, beef was the only meat in Oscar Mayer. In addition, Kraft believed it needed to illustrate Oscar''s beefiness because of the public perception that hot dogs contain mystery meats.Damn you, Upton Sinclair!In addition, Kraft argued Sara Lee had its own hot dog advertising shenanigans.In a corporate legal battle example of Pee-wee Hermann''s famous retort, "I know you are, but what am I?," Kraft argued Sara Lee made its own false claims about how much beef there was in Oscar''s tubesteak. In addition, Kraft argued Sara Lee mislead consumers with taste tests by professional chefs proclaiming that Ball Park was America''s best franks.All jokes aside, the Wiener War in Sara Lee Corp. v. Kraft Foods Inc., may change the way companies market their products and establish limits for what merchants can say about their products and their competitors in advertising.Meanwhile, the court battle continues with weighty questions, such as "Do a bunch of San Francisco chefs know anything about Chicago hot dogs?" and, if you thought hot dog litigation was bad, just wait until companies start suing each other over other meats lots of people hate.When commenting on the litigation, Sara Lee''s Ball Park product director, Chuck Hemmingway said, "Simply put, we believe that these untrue statements are a bunch of bologna."First, they attack Oscar''s hot dogs, and now Oscar''s bologna? Mr. Hemmingway may want to watch out for the speeding Wienermobile. Oscar is not happy.____________________________August 12, 2011The Law of A&E''s Reality TV TroublesReality television tends to get lots of people into lots of trouble. From going to the slammer for failing to pay taxes on reality winnings to shooting sweet, innocent puppies with arrows, reality TV contestants have often been models of bad behavior. But what happens when it''s the reality show''s network getting in trouble? Our Case of the Week examines what happens when a reality show insinuates falsely that a woman tried to smuggle drugs into a jail via her vaginal cavity.Family DayMarlorita Battle was minding her own business visiting her husband, an inmate at the Riverbend Maximum Security Institution in Nashville, Tenn. Little did she know she was about to become a big, big star.On the day she chose to visit the prison, the A&E Television Network reality show, The Squad: Prison Police, was there, too. The Riverbend facility apparently had a drug problem, and there were allegations the contraband made its way into the prison compliments of visiting family members.It was time for some riveting reality TV drama.The episode of The Squad: Police Prison entitled, Conspiracy, began with Tennessee Corrections Special Agent John Fisher describing the Riverbend prison''s drug problem. He noted that an informant had indicated a woman was smuggling drugs into the prison on a regular basis."We''re expecting this lady today," Agent Fisher said, as A&E splashed Mr. Battle''s face on the screen.As Ms. Battle began what might have been a pleasant visit with her husband and small child, the A&E cameras moved in, and agent Fisher said, "We''ve identified the female subject and inmate," as a mugshot of Ms. Battles husband is shown to television viewers.Keystone Kops and the Nitty GrittyMs. Battle''s husband had the toddler on his lap, and the couple sat next to each other. Ms. Battle''s husband caressed her, and then Ms. Battle visited the restroom, causing Agent Fisher to use his supposedly excellent cop skills to determine a crime was in progress. Not unlike the Keystone Kops, Agent Fisher and his bumbling band of merrymen swung into action."Hold on now, she''s going to the bathroom," Agent Fisher says, adding, "Typically, these women hide stuff up their vaginal cavity [sic] and then go to the restroom to take it out. Now we are starting to get to the nitty gritty."The camera then shows the doors to the bathroom, triggering more amazingly astute analysis from Agent Fisherthis time its about the size of Ms. Battles bladder and her efficiency in the latrine."There she is, right there. See how fast she went in there. She didn''t have time to pee," Agent Fisher says.Apparently, Agent Fisher, unaware of a bygone era when gentlemen and ladies would not utter the verb, "pee," on national television, has a special mathematical formula for computing travel times for urine through the urethra and into the toilet, hand washing, mirror check, and egress from a restroom.Ms. Battle, allegedly carrying something in her hand, proceeded to kiss her husband, A&E provided a crashing cymbal sound to enhance the reality TV drama, and Agent Fisher exclaimed, "Some [expletive deleted] just happened. I think we got ''em. I think we got them."It was time for the brave men of law enforcement to swing into action with A&E there to capture all the zany fun.First, they conducted a strip-search, and then, they placed Ms. Battle''s husband in a so-called "dry cell." Its called a dry cell because there''s no running water, and thus, no way to get rid of contraband.They kept Ms. Battle''s husband in the dry cell for 24 hours. He neither urinated nor defecated any contraband.After releasing Ms. Battle''s husband from the dry cell, Agent Fisher called the incident a "false alarm," but he added more commentary during the closing credits of The Squad: Prison Police that would become significant in subsequent litigation. This is Courtweek, after allyou know someone''s gonna get sued."If you are dirty, if you are smuggling in contraband, drugs, cellphones, tobacco, then we''re going to catch you. We might not get you today, maybe next week, next month, next year, but eventually, we''re going to catch up with you, and we''re gonna get you. That''s what we do," Agent Fisher said.Reality TV in CourtMs. Battle sued A&E Television Networks, Inc., and Wild Eyes Productions, Inc., the producers of The Squad: Prison Police, in federal district court in Tennessee, alleging defamation and intentional infliction of emotional distress.A&E and Wild Eyes moved to dismiss the suit, arguing on the defamation claim that The Squad: Prison Police was not capable of defamatory meaning, noting that the program doesn''t claim Ms. Battle committed a crime, but instead "accurately reports the results of an investigation."The court didn''t buy it.Noting the camera angles, the ominous music, and the made-for-TV commentary of Agent Fisher, U.S. District Judge Kevin Sharp wrote:"Even though the Program indicates that a search of Plaintiff revealed no drugs, a jury could conclude from the overall way that the Program is presented that Plaintiff was a drug smuggler who just happened not to get caught on September 12, 2009. Such an impression is enforced by Agent Fisher''s parting comments to the effect that while we might not get you today, we will get you sooner or later if you are smuggling drugs into a Tennessee prison."In rejecting the attempt by A&E and Wild Eye''s to dismiss Battle v. A&E Television Networks, Inc., the court cited also the U.S. Supreme Court case of Milkovich v. Lorain Journal Co., and held that statements of opinion were not automatically protected from libel and slander claims on First Amendment grounds."After all, ''expressions of ''opinion'' may often imply an assertion of objective fact," the court said.The lesson we take from this week''s Case of the Week is that, before airing a show, A&E might want to make sure the subject is guilty of genital smuggling--or at least not put a cop on the air insinuating the innocent party just got lucky on that one occasion. After all, they could just put a bunch of people on a desert island, have a some obnoxious people become roommates, or have really untalented people sing.________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: [email protected] 5, 2011The Law of Pig FumesHave you ever had a neighbor who cooked food they may have found tasty and delicious, but that emanated aromas reminiscent of aged Roquefort cheese and dirty baby diapers left in a garbage can in the hot sun? It would be most annoying, but would it be unlawful? Would the pungent aromas be trespassing onto your property?Believe it or not, the issue has been litigated, and, in this week''s Case of the Week, we learn whether various airborne items--chemical particulate matter, sewage plant smells, and pig farm fumes--are trespassing when they waft onto your property. People may disagree, and that''s okay. As we''ll discover, the courts disagree as well.Organic AirOluf and Debra Johnson had decided to get back to nature. They converted their Minnesota conventional family farm into an organic farm, hoping to achieve an organic food certification that would allow them to charge more for their farm fresh products.Soon the Johnsons were ready to enjoy their new organic Eden. As they began their new all-natural existence, they stopped using pesticides, and Mr. Johnson posted signs around the property, letting everyone know that the Johnsons'' new tree-hugging Utopia was a chemical-free zone.There was just one problem. The neighbors hadn''t joined the eco-friendly bandwagon.The Johnsons may have embraced Mother Nature, but their next-door neighbor, the Paynesville Farmers Union Cooperative Oil Company, was still spraying away. Pesticides and herbicides drifted onto the Johnsons farm.Seeing the neighboring farm much like a chinchilla sanctuary might view a petrochemical plant as a neighbor, the Johnsons filed complaints in 1998, 2002, 2005, 2007, and 2008. The Minnesota Department of Agriculture cited Farmers Union four times for violating Minn.Stat. 18B.07, subd. 2(b) (2010), which made it illegal to apply a pesticide resulting in damage to adjacent property.Having had enough of chemicals wafting onto their pristine, virginal, chemical-free land, the Johnsons sued in Minnesota state court in January 2009, alleging, among other things, that Farmers Union committed trespass by allowing its chemical fumes to invade their property.A state trial court was unconvinced. It granted summary judgment to Farmers Union, on all claims, including the trespass claim, holding that trespass by particulate matter was not recognized in Minnesota.Leading the charge for Birkenstock-wearing lovers of fields and streams everywhere, the Johnsons appealed.The Law of Pig FumesIn rejecting the Johnsons'' claim, the trial court relied on the Minnesota Court of Appeals'' decision in Wendinger v. Forst Farms, Inc., 662 N.W.2d 546 (Minn. App. 2003), review denied (Minn. Aug. 5, 2003). The facts leading to the court battle in Wendinger are every homeowner''s worst nightmare.The Wendingers and the Forsts had been neighbors for years. They had also farmed their lands for years, and the Wendingers built a new home on their land in 1984.In 1994, the Forsts entered into an agreement with Wakefield Pork, Inc., to construct and maintain a pig farm to house Wakefields'' pigs. In a design sure to make anyone nauseous, liquid pig waste was stored in an outdoor concrete lagoon. The pig poo was then pumped and spread on the fields each fall.As the scents from farmyard feces filled the ambient air, the Wendingers began to complain. Then, they filed scores of complaints with state and local authorities. Finally, they sued.Among their allegations was a claim for trespass, arguing the pig fumes entering their property constituted trespass.A trial court dismissed the trespass claim, and the Wendingers appealed. The Minnesota Court of Appeals affirmed, holding that the Wendingers'' claim was one for nuisance--not trespass--because the odors of which the Wendingers complained interfered with the use and enjoyment of their land, not with their exclusive possession of it.The trial court in Johnson used the Wendinger decision for the proposition that particulate matter traveling from one property to another could not constitute trespass. However, the appellate court in Johnson held the trial court read too much into the pig fume decision.Pesticides are not Pig FumesAlthough the appellate court in Wendinger used the phrase, "particulate matter," the appellate court in Johnson held all particulate matter is not alike."Nothing in our Wendinger analysis indicates that we intended the term particulate matter to define a unique category of physical substances that can never constitute a trespass," the court said. Basically, the court held pesticides are not pig fumes."Unlike the plaintiffs in Wendinger, the Johnsons do not claim trespass based on transient odors. Instead, they primarily complain that the liquid chemicals that the cooperative sprayed into the air from neighboring fields drifted, landed, and remained on the Johnsons'' organic crops in detectable form, contaminating them." Judge Kevin Ross wrote for the court.Where the Wendinger court said there was no trespass because the pig fumes only affected enjoyment of the land, not possession of it, in ruling for the Johnsons, the appellate court in Johnson held that pesticides can affect both possession and enjoyment."The errant dispersion of pesticides, which contain chemicals designed to affect the land, can interfere with possession," the court said.So, the next time youre cooking your Aunt Betsys Garlic and Sauted Sardine Surprise, youre probably okay--even if it does ruin the ambiance of your neighbor''s garden. But, if you spray Raid, and it ends up in your neighbors Cheerios, he may just lawyer-up.______________________________July 28, 2011The Law of Protecting Celine DionHow important is protecting Celine Dion?After all, she sells millions of records, and many middle-aged women adore her. However, there are millions more who would rather spend a weekend in an Iranian torture chamber than listen to Ms. Dion sing the theme from Titanic for the 4,761st time.The woman may need some protection.Well, in a development that may damage U.S.-Canadian relations and come as a shock to fans of syrupy, schmaltzy pop music, a federal appellate court has held that serving as Celine Dion''s bodyguard does not constitute an original contribution of major significance in a field of endeavor sufficient to warrant the granting of a EB-1 visa.The BodyguardHad the court heard the case of Kevin Costner''s character protecting Whitney Houston in The Bodyguard, the whole thing might have gone differently. Mr. Costner''s character had made a major contribution in the field of celebrity personal protection by serving as a U.S. Secret Service agent. Such a high level of demonstrated skill and accomplishment might have brought him a visa.But what if, instead of being employed by the U.S. Department of the Treasury to be part of elite squad of livesavers, Mr. Costner had been employed to protect the top-selling female Canadian recording artist of all time by the pride of Charlemagne, Quebec herself?Would the United States grant a visa to the man who had protected Canada''s fourth most famous export--next to Keanu Reeves in Bill and Ted''s Excellent Adventure, maple syrup, and those deeply disturbing Sarah McLachlan commercials with the abused puppies and kittens?Nikolaos Skokos thought they should.Mr. Skokos, a security consultant for Celine Dion, applied to the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) for an EB-1 visa, and DHS rejected him. Apparently, DHS didnt think protecting the vocal cords that brought Beauty and the Beast to warm the hearts of little children was important enough.To see what an affront this might be to Ms. Dion''s throngs of adoring fans, it helps to know a little bit about the legal process behind granting visas to enter the United States.Legal TitanicIn addition to establishing a lottery for certain visas and dropping homosexuality as a basis for exclusion from the United States, the Immigration Act of 1990 created the EB-1 visa to attract immigrants with exceptional talents and skills.The EB-1 visa has three types, one for multinational executives and managers, one for professors and researchers, and one for applicants of extraordinary ability. Two of the ways an applicant can demonstrate this extraordinary ability are showing he had made original contributions of major significance to his field of endeavor under 8 C.F.R. 204.5(h)(3)(v) or showing she was paid a high salary compared to others in her field under 8 C.F.R. 204.5(h)(3)(ix).Not only did DHS feel that protecting Celine Dion did not meet this standard of excellence, the U.S. District Court for the District of Nevada agreed with DHS, holding for the government and rejecting an appeal filed by Mr. Skokos.In the legal equivalent of running the Titanic into an icebergwhile listening to Celine Dion sing about it as Leo and Kate flail in the frigid waters of the North Atlantic, Mr. Skokos appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit in Skokos v. Department of Homeland Security, and fared no better.The appellate court held Mr. Skokos failed to establish that his work for Ms. Dion constituted an original contribution of major significance to the field of bodyguarding. In addition, the court held he failed to establish that he was paid more than most celebrity bodyguards.The court noted Mr. Skokos claimed he was far more than a bodyguard--he supervised guards, made security arrangements in the exotic destinations where Ms. Dion shot her mesmerizingly dramatic videos, and provided around-the-clock protection for Ms. Dion and her family. Nevertheless, the court was unmoved that protecting the valuable Canadian export was sufficiently significant to get a visa.The court noted the high standard for granting an EB-1 visa, citing the case of Kazarian v. USCIS, where a physicist who had published articles, written a textbook, and lectured extensively didnt even qualify for an EB-1 visa because his work--although satisfying the criterion for authorship of scholarly articles--did not establish that his work was of major significance in the field of physics.But, is writing scholarly articles and lecturing on physics at universities really as important as ensuring the gaffer and the best boy don''t snag Celine Dion''s Perrier from the buffet table?Of course, some people have managed to prove they are important and accomplished enough to get an EB-1 visa. Golfer Nick Price got one, but--unlike Mr. Skokos--he had won multiple championships, earned over a million dollars in prize money, and he had Jack Nicklaus, Lee Trevino, and Hale Irwin execute affidavits supporting his position.If only Mr. Skokos had managed to get a raise from Celine Dion and recommendations from Gladys Knight and the Pips.______________________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: [email protected] 20, 2011American Idol''s American LitigantMany contestants on the hit television show, American Idol, may believe Simon Cowell is a somewhat nasty fellow. He berates participants, calls them names, and generally makes people wonder if his momma taught him any manners. Nevertheless, most of these verbal salvo victims don''t sue. But, one did, leaving us with the question: Does Simon Cowell''s boorish behavior on American Idol violate Title VII of the Civil Rights of 1964?Effeminate Idol?In what some take as evidence of the decline of Western civilization, American Idol, the American spin-off of the British program, Pop Idol, has become one of the most successful shows on television. Contestants participate in singing competitions to win recording contracts, and the winners, including singers Kelly Clarkson and Carrie Underwood, have gone on to fame and fortune.Some of the contestants weren''t as talented. One of those contestants was Ian Bernardo.Mr. Bernardo first appeared on American Idol in 2006 on the opening show of the season. These season-opening audition shows feature a few acts that will advance in the competition and a few acts that will come close. They also feature performers with no reasonable chance of advancement. These contestants--possessing little or no talent--apparently appear to provide comedic material by making fools of themselves. Apparently, Ian Bernardo was one of these comedic contestants for the 2006-2007 season.Not surprisingly, Mr. Bernardo was unsuccessful in his American Idol audition. However, Mr. Bernardo--who described himself as "having a non-conforming appearance based on gender stereotype," which a U.S. District Court interpreted to mean that "he appears to conform to a stereotype of an effeminate homosexual male"--did make subsequent appearances on the show for the 2006-2007 season finale and for Simon Cowell''s final appearance on the show in May 2010.The Courthouse AuditionClaiming he was an employee of American Idol Productions Inc. on each of his appearances, Mr. Bernardo claimed also that he was subject to discrimination and harassment due to his sex on each of his appearances. He claimed American Idol Productions employees told him to "gay it up" and that producers conditioned his appearance on Mr. Cowell''s farewell show on Mr. Bernardo''s willingness to be "outrageous, flamboyant, and really gay."Claiming he was also subject to epithets such as "fag" and "homo," Mr. Bernardo filed a complaint with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). He obtained a right to sue letter from the EEOC and sued American Idol Productions for violations of Title VII of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 and New York State law.American Idol Productions moved to dismiss the case, making several arguments. In addition to claiming Mr. Bernardo suffered no adverse employment action, the producers argued Mr. Bernardo had failed to make a case for hostile work environment under Title VII. Although the court conceded that--if true--the conduct at the Simon Cowell farewell show would constitute a hostile work environment, the court rejected Mr. Bernardo''s legal argument.Noting Title VII is not a civility code and that discrimination on the basis of homosexuality is not prohibited under Title VII, the court held Mr. Bernardo had not established that gender stereotyping, which is prohibited by Title VII, had so permeated the workplace so as to create a hostile work environment.The court went on to dismiss all Mr. Bernardo''s claims, noting, "He, like everyone else with a modicum of talent (or less) who auditions for American Idol, chose to appear on a program that was famous for its judges'' insulting behavior. Benardo went on the air after being told what was expected of him, and he knew what to expect. Having volunteered to be insulted, he cannot now claim that he was sexually harassed."There was no word as of press time as to any possible Ian Bernardo appellate audition at the Second Circuit._____________________July 10, 2011Suing After Ferocious Puppy PanicPeople are injured in Americas stores, streets, and subways all the time, making personal injury law a big business. Its also one of the most contentious. Some cases may seem easy, but what if youre injured after being chased down a supermarket aisle by a charging dog owned by a store employee? Should the store be liable? Two Mississippi courts disagreed recently. Of course, it helps if you know something about the dog.Attack in the Artichoke AisleLenetra Outlaw decided to do some shopping at her local Penny Pinchers discount grocery store in West Point, Miss., one day in Aug. 2006. An otherwise pleasant shopping day took an unfortunate turn when Ms. Outlaw heard a sound that gripped her with fear and panic.She heard a dog bark.Ms. Outlaw then heard the terrifying sound of dog claws on Penny Pinchers'' floors as the possibly ferocious beast came charging down the aisle. Ms. Outlaw, who said she was extremely afraid of dogs, decided it was time for drastic evasive maneuvers.She ran down the aisle, made a turn, and sought refuge from her brutal foe. Not finding a safe place in the aisle, she ran into a freezer. Thinking that wasnt safe enough--after all, she probably saw the movie, Cujo--Ms. Outlaw leaped on top of the freezer. In her Quixotic quest to escape Armageddon, Ms. Outlaw exacerbated a previously existing hip injury, and decided to sue Penny Pinchers and Cindy Scott, the store manager who owned the attack dog.A Mississippi state court jury found for Ms. Outlaw and awarded her $130,000, finding Penny Pinchers 70 percent at fault and Ms. Scott 30 percent to blame.At this point, you may be wondering, What''s so interesting about this case?Remember at the beginning we told you it would help if you knew a little about the dog?Baby Weiner DogIt turns out this allegedly ferocious attack dog was nothing more than a four-month-old Dachshund puppy. That''s right. A little weiner dog weighing four pounds.It seems Ms. Scott brought the adorable puppy named Sophie to work every day. The pleasant little puppy had never attacked anyone before. Ms. Scott kept Sophie behind the counter--not to protect customers, but so that no one would step on the little thing. Rather than a 150-pound Rottweiler with a spiked collar, Ms. Outlaw jumped on top of a freezer in mortal fear of a tiny weiner dog puppy.Given this fact pattern, Penny Pincher and Ms. Scott decided an appeal was in order. The issue facing the Mississippi Court of Appeals in Penny Pinchers v. Outlaw: Did the presence of the four-month-old Dachshund puppy create an unreasonably dangerous condition at Penny Pinchers that day?The court noted that the Mississippi Supreme Court had held that dogs are not dangerous per se. The Magnolias State''s dog-loving supreme court held in Poy v. Grayson that to impose liability on a dog owner for personal injuries, a plaintiff must show the dog had a propensity for violence and that the owner knew it.The court in Penny Pinchers noted that the four-month-old, four-pound bundle of love, Sophie the Weiner Dog, had a clean record.Citing the Mississippi Supreme Courts 1969 decision in General Tire & Rubber Co. v. Darnell, the court went on to hold that a premises does not have to be completely safe from any hazardonly reasonable safeand that the plaintiffs own actions can be a factor."We acknowledge Outlaw''s extreme fear of dogs. However, we cannot say that it was reasonable for Penny Pinchers to anticipate that anyone, even someone with a great fear of dogs, would have such a reaction to Sophie''s presence in the store," Judge Thomas Griffis wrote for the court.Thus, we feel confident in saying, if you hurt yourself jumping on top of a freezer to escape a four-pound Dachshund puppy, don''t bother suing anyone because its probably your own fault.__________________________June 29, 2011A Defamer''s Guide to ''Dirtbag v. Dirtbag''What does it really take to slander or libel someone? The law of defamation can be complex, but a New York state court recently tried to sort out this weighty issue: What is a "dirtbag," and is the term defamatory?The issue arose after a man named William Schumacher penned comments that another man, John Acheson, was "the biggest dirtbag" he had ever met in his life. Acheson sued Schumacher before Westchester City Court in what, amusingly, could become a seminal case of black letter law. Apparently, no other U.S. court has ever issued a reported decision on the issue of whether it is defamatory to call someone a "dirtbag."Citing a New York precedent, the court in Acheson v. Schumacher said libel or defamation was "a writing or broadcast that tends to expose the plaintiff to public hatred, contempt, ridicule, or disgrace." The court went on to cite the five proving elements of the tort, including the truth or falsity of the statement and whether the complaining party actually sustained damages.Without offering any citation, the court defined "dirtbag" as "an informal term" meaning "a dirty, grimy, sleazy, or disreputable person." The court went on to explain various possible meanings for Mr. Schumacher''s allegedly defamatory statement. Did Schumacher mean that Acheson was the physically largest of the dirtbags he had known? Or perhaps just one of the most powerful? The court surmised also that Schumacher may have believed Acheson to be "just a tad worse" than the other dirtbags he had known.The point the court was making was that -- in any case -- these statements would all be opinions. Citing the case of Gilliam v. Richard M. Greenspan, P.C., the court held that statements of opinion are not defamatory. (In Gilliam, one lawyer penned a nastygram, saying unflattering things about another lawyer. The court held it was opinion and threw out the case.)But don''t take these court decisions as a license to spew any insult you please. In Lund v. Chicago and Northwest Transp. Co., a Minnesota appellate court held that certain epithets -- in that case, the unfriendly word "s---head" -- used alone might be only "unactionable rhetorical hyperbole," but combined with other defamatory words or statements, such words could "take on actionable characteristics."It also matters where and when insults are hurtled. In National Recruiters Inc. v. Cashman, the Minnesota Supreme Court found it slander when a plaintiff was called "a no-good loser; a no-good son of a bitch" in the context of an employment reference.Other courts are more hostile toward such lawsuits. When ESPN posted a photo of daredevil Evel Knievel and his wife with the caption, "Evel Knievel proves you''re never too old to be a pimp," the Knievels sued the network for defamation. They lost on the grounds that a reasonable person would not have taken the photo and caption to mean Evel was literally a pimp and Krystal his prostitute, despite their 29-year age difference and his rose-tinted glasses in the photo.And Florida courts have held that even such insults as "cockroach" and "mega-scumbag" do not constitute defamation, nor do references to a woman''s "poor feminine hygiene." Despite being "crude and indecent," such comments were considered permissible as "satirical hyperbole."The bottom line is that you can freely call someone a dirtbag or a mega-scumbag, but be careful the next time you write a letter of recommendation. If you can''t say something nice, at least don''t say anything that will get you sued.___________________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: [email protected] more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/opinion/op-eds/2011/06/defamers-guide-dirtbag-v-dirtbag#ixzz1Qfc82pzXJune 12, 2011The Law of Ben & Jerry''s and Natural BeansHave you ever wondered just what "all natural" means? There was once a professor who reminded his students that the bubonic plague was all natural. Various merchants--from sellers of cereal to purveyors of popcorn--claim their products are "all natural." Ben & Jerrys claimed its ice cream was all natural, but the Center for Science in the Public Interest didnt agree, so they got someone to sue Ben & Jerry''s.So, we can attempt to discover once and for all just what all natural means, the tale of Chubby Hubby, Chunky Monkey, and Cherry Garcia defending their honor gets to be this week''s Case of the Week.Activist ice creamIn the 1970s, childhood friends Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield took a correspondence course in ice cream making. Then they scraped up $12,000, opened an ice cream shop in an old Vermont gas station, and delivered dairy products in a station wagon. Ben & Jerry''s Homemade Inc. was born, and, as they say, the rest is history.Ben & Jerry''s expanded quickly. Not only was the company known for its tasty ice cream with imaginative names, Ben & Jerry''s became known as a leader in social and environmental activism. The growing company tried to promote world peace, and--from green dairy farms to recycled supplies--Ben & Jerry''s made environmental stewardship a focal point of its operations. In addition, Ben & Jerry''s donated 7.5 percent of the companys pre-tax profits to charity through the Ben & Jerry''s Foundation. In 2000, Ben and Jerry sold the company to Unilever.Although they are now very rich dudes, Messrs. Cohen and Greenfield and their ice cream operation still conjure up images of granola, Birkenstocks, peace signs, and...well...things that are all natural. Of course, the labels of Ben & Jerry''s ice cream read all natural, too. Some people didn''t think it was natural enough.Dutch chocolateAlthough Amsterdam may be more famous for Rembrandt, the Rijksmuseum, and reefers, some people believe the Netherlands is also famous for Dutch chocolate. But, does anyone really know what Dutch chocolate is? Hint: it''s a little more complicated than just being made near The Hague.Chocolate is produced when seeds from cocoa beans are fermented and dried and mixed with fat and powdered sugar. Cocoa powder can be made in two forms: unalkalized cocoa or Dutch-process alkalized cocoa. The unalkalized cocoa is made by merely pressing the beans. The process produces a light brown, very acidic powder.Dutch-process cocoa, on the other hand, is produced by cocoa nibs with a mild alkali solution to raise the pH and thus, lower the acidity. This process improves taste, color and solubility, but it also destroys many of the flavonols, which are believed to have health benefits. Ben & Jerry''s used the Dutch alkanization process.All Natural?The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) doesn''t think alkanized cocoa is all natural, so it contacted Unilever, demanding that the company remove the words all natural from both Ben & Jerry''s and Breyers ice cream, another brand the company owns. Ben & Jerrys agreed to remove the phrase, all natural, from any products containing alkanized cocoa. Breyers did not.CSPI organized a class action with the ice cream-enjoying Skye Astiana as lead plaintiff of a band of ice cream eaters who hate the allegedly unnatural Dutch chocolate, and sued Ben & Jerry''s in the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California in Astiana v. Ben & Jerry''s Homemade Inc. They alleged violation of both federal and California law in the labeling of the ice cream as all natural even though its cocoa contained potassium carbonate from the alkanization process.Specifically, the CSPI plaintiffs argued Ben & Jerry''s committed fraud and engaged in false advertising in violation of California Business & Professions Code 17500. In addition, CPSI claimed Ben & Jerry''s violated regulations promulgated by the federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA).Ben & Jerry''s filed a motion to dismiss the case, making numerous arguments, including debating the definition of all natural.The ice cream makers argued that "all natural" was a term of art under FDA and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulations. Thus, Ben & Jerry''s argued, for the CSPI plaintiffs to have been deceived by the all natural packaging, they would have had to have possessed an intimate familiarity with the FDA''s natural policy as well as the USDA''s regulations about what constitutes a synthetic process.Ben & Jerry''s was taking the position that Ms. Astiana was merely an ice cream lover and not a federal regulatory expert.In addition, Ben & Jerry''s argued a prospective class plaintiff would have had to taken that extensive regulatory knowledge, then actually have seen the all natural phrase on the package, and then made her own analysis that the ice cream was either not alkanized or that the alkali used in the Dutch cocoa process was not synthetic under the USDA regulations.After all that, under Ben & Jerry''s argument, the potential plaintiff would have had to have relied on that regulatory analysis in deciding to enjoy that pint of Chubby Hubby. Ben & Jerry''s argued that when the reasonable consumer bought her Chunky Monkey, she was not assuming all natural meant alkanized with sodium carbonate and not potassium carbonate.The court wasn''t buying it--at least not for now.The court denied Ben & Jerry''s motion to dismiss, holding that the dispute was too fact-dependent to be thrown out at this point."Moreover, the fundamental dispute--what is a natural product?--will likely present some factual disputes. The only FDA guidance appears to be a distinction between natural and synthetic in the policy, but that definition in the Federal Register is qualified as meaning something that would not normally be expected to be in food. Surely, that characterization raises multiple linguistic and philosophical questions, not to mention factual questions," U.S. District Judge Phyllis Hamilton wrote for the court.So, the battle between Ben & Jerry''s and the enemies of Dutch chocolate will continue. What have we learned this week? Well, according to the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, there really isn''t any definition of "all natural"...at least for the moment._______________________________June 5, 2011The Law of Bees and BudsWhat does it mean to operate a motor vehicle? It seems to be a simple question. Get a bunch of lawyers and judges involved, and it becomes anything but. Although alleged drunk driving cases are where this question is asked most often, this week''s "Case of the Week" asks it in a different setting.What about when that motor vehicle is attacked by a swarm of bees?Unhappy HiveOne May day in 2009, Michael Corpus called animal control for the city of McAllen, Tex. It seems he was having a bit of a problem with a beehive.City of McAllen Animal Control Officer Roberto Mata responded to the call, and upon arrival at the scene, Mr. Corpus asked Officer Mata to accompany him to the hive with the swarming army of displeased bees.Possibly remembering what happened to the fools who tried to go into a hotel room with Mike Tyson''s tiger, Officer Mata said something along the lines of: "I don''t think so; Homey don''t play that," and refused. Officer Mata insisted Mr. Corpus accompany him to the hive.So the two gentlemen entered Officer Mata''s animal control vehicle, equipped with animal protection equipment. Officer Mata donned protective gear and approached the hive of danger, but he instructed Mr. Corpus to remain safely in the animal control vessel as the engine remained running.Things would have been just fine and dandy had Officer Mata not done something that may have been somewhat unwise.Insects Attack!Not unlike a Saturday Morning Super Hero decked out in protective gear as he makes Saturday mornings safe for kiddie sales of sugary cereal and overpriced toys, Officer Mata approached the hive in his protective animal control gear. Then, the swashbuckling hero of animal protection began spraying the bees.Guess what happened next?Shockingly, the bees attacked. But, no worries. Officer Mata was protected by his animal control gear. The problem was what Officer Mata did next.To escape the mighty swarm, Officer Mata ran to the truck, opened the door, and hopped in.The only problem, of course, was that, when he opened the door to the animal control truck, he let in a bunch of very angry bees--who proceeded to have a field day biting the [expletive deleted] out of the unprotected corpus of Mr. Corpus.Mr. Corpus was not amused.What do unamused people do in this column? They sue.The Law of Bees and CarsMr. Corpus sued the city of McAllen, alleging Officer Mata''s negligent operation of his city-owned vehicle cased serious injuries to Mr. Corpus.Operating a motor vehicle? What about spraying the bee hive and opening the truck door so the bees could turn Mr. Corpus into a walking, talking pin cushion.Actually, Mr. Corpus had a smart lawyer.You see, government entities are usually only liable in civil suits if they waive what lawyers call sovereign immunity, the government''s immunity from legal actions. Governments waive sovereign immunity for certain activities. Basically, you can sue the government only if the government says you can sue the government.One of the exceptions to sovereign immunity in Texas is for operation of motor vehicles. If Mr. Corpus'' lawyer could show Officer Mata was operating the animal control truck, then he would have a case under the exception to sovereign immunity.So just what does it take to be operating a motor vehicle?If you asked a bunch of convicted drunk drivers, they would probably tell you Officer Mata was operating the animal control truck. That''s because courts have held that, to be guilty of drunk driving, all one must do is sit in the drivers seat with the key in the ignition.Bud or Bees?For instance, in People v. Wood, Andrew Wood had a very unfortunate night at McDonald''s. When he pulled up to the drive-up window in his van, he passed out--with his car running--and, giving new meaning to the phrase, "This Bud''s for you," he had a can of Budweiser between his legs. At least it wasn''t hot coffee. Oh yeah, he also had a cooler full of marijuana on the front seat.The legal story from the bad night at the Golden Arches wasn''t so bad for Mr. Wood at first. Both a trial court and an intermediate state appellate court threw out the evidence against him, holding he was not operating his van at the time of the arrest and search.However, the Michigan Supreme Court reversed both courts and held Mr. Wood was operating the motor vehicle even though his van wasn''t moving, and he had his foot on the brake. Noting that his van was running and in drive, the state''s high court held he was operating the vehicle because he had put the vehicle in motion, was still in control of it, and the vehicle still posed a danger to the public. In doing so, the court reversed two previous Michigan cases that held one could not be sleeping and operating a motor vehicle at the same time.Actual physical control of the vehicle is the standard used by many jurisdictions, and in Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Nevada, that control can be maintained while sleeping.Putting the key in the ignition will get you in some states, including Vermont. In the Vermont Supreme Court case, State v. Helton, one hapless, inebriated fellow was convicted of DUI for merely putting his keys in the ignition to roll up his car windows--after he had gone to retrieve his vodka from the car.Note to self: appoint a designated sober window operator.So what about Officer Mata, was he in control of the vehicle and thus operating it for purposes of Mr. Corpus bee attack case?Departing from the case law of other states, both the trial court and the Texas Thirteenth Court of Appeals said "no.""The animal control truck was not in operation; it was parked. Corpus was injured when the bees entered the cab of the truck where he happened to be sitting. Although we do not condone Mata opening the truck door and exposing a passenger not wearing protective gear to agitated bees, we nonetheless cannot conclude that Corpus''s injuries resulted from the operation or the use of the truck," Judge Nelda Rodriguez wrote for the court.So for this week, we''ve established that you are operating a vehicle in Michigan if you''re asleep at the wheel in the McDonald''s drive-through with weed on the seat and Budweiser between your legs, but that you''re not operating a running vehicle in Texas with a swarm of bees on the seat and between your legs.Either way, its not a Happy Meal._____________________________David Horrigan is an attorney, journalist, analyst at The 451 Group, editorial director at Courtweek.com, and former staff reporter and assistant editor at The National Law Journal. His articles have appeared also in The Washington Examiner, Law Technology News, The American Lawyer, The New York Law Journal, The San Francisco Examiner, Corporate Counsel, Texas Lawyer, Florida Lawyer, and Daily Business Review. E-Mail: [email protected] more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/06/law-bees-and-buds#ixzz1OXOJfS6kMay 29, 2011The Law of Rambo and Air FreshenersOur column two weeks ago about the Fourth Amendment has generated some discussion about just what will negate yourFourth Amendment protections and allow the cops to haul your posterior end to jail. As a public service to help our readers remain free from bondage, we will, from time to time, present our Case of the Week: Fourth Amendment Follies edition.This weeks helpful hint: Don''t use too much air freshener.Druggies from CharlotteRobert Little was traveling through the pleasant North Carolina hamlet of Thomasville early one August morning in 2008. It might not have been any big deal, but it was 4:03 in the morning, and Mr. Little was driving an old Buick with a malfunctioning headlight.Bonus reader helpful hint! If you''re carrying contraband, don''t drive through a small Southern town at 4:03 in the morning in an old Buick with a busted headlight. Bad things will happen. At least wait until 5:00 when the first batch of doughnuts comes off the conveyor belt at the local Krispy Kreme.Because Mr. Little didn''t get the memo on suspicious vehicles lurking through the Bible Belt during the wee hours of the morning, he got to meet Officer Adam Kallfelz of the Thomasville Police Dept.Officer Kallfelz observed three things that made him decide it was time for back-up.First was Mr. Little''s nervous and agitated demeanor. Second, Mr. Little said he was traveling from Charlotte. Finally, Mr. Little had approximately 10 tree air fresheners hanging from the rear-view mirror.Before we get to those pesky air fresheners, please allow us to defend the good people of Charlotte, North Carolina. You''re a fine city with an economy built on good barbecue and Bank of America overdraft fees, and--unlike Office Kallfetz--we don''t think you''re a bunch of druggies. We don''t think people should be stopped by the cops just because they''re coming from Charlotte.But, back to those tree air fresheners.Rambo RaidA nervous dude driving from Charlotte with 10 air fresheners made Officer Kallfelz realize he needed a crime deterrent.It was time for Rambo.At 4:07 AM, Officer Kallfelz called Officer Christopher Leonard, asking him to bring his partner, Rambo.Not unlike Sylvester Stallone searching swamps for sadistic Viet Kong alumni, Rambo, a drug dog, went over that old Buick like a frat boy going through sofa cushions looking for that lost last joint.Rambo signaled for the presence of narcotics in the Buick''s door, and Mr. Little was arrested for being a felon in possession of a firearm.Mr. Little moved to suppress the evidence, arguing the search was illegal, but a trial court denied the motion, holding that the stop and the search were lawful. Mr. Little appealed.Air Freshener JurisprudenceIn his appeal to the North Carolina Court of Appeals, the Tar Heel State''s intermediate appellate court, Mr. Little argued in State v. Little that the search was improper because the cornucopia of air fresheners did not provide reasonable suspicion for extending the stop until Rambo arrived.Unfortunately for Mr. Little, North Carolina has a proud tradition of air freshener jurisprudence. They even go after Santa Claus if there''s air freshener involved.In State v. Hernandez, the North Carolina Court of Appeals held a stop was proper when it was based, at least in part, on Christmas tree air fresheners.In Hernandez, Trooper Jonathan Whitley of the North Carolina Highway Patrol stopped a vehicle when driver Jose Hernandez removed his seatbelt while still operating his vehicle. Not unlike with Mr. Little''s arrest, air fresheners would help lead to Mr. Hernandez''s undoing."I noticed there were several of these Christmas trees, air fresheners in the vehicle. I noticed a strong odor coming from the vehicle," Trooper Whitley testified in defending his actions.Christmas tree air fresheners as a basis for detaining a motorists? Well, the court upheld the stop, and the court in Little followed the court in Hernandez."Facts giving rise to a reasonable suspicion include nervousness, sweating, failing to make eye contact, conflicting statements, and strong odor of air freshener," Judge Martha Geer wrote for the court in Little.And, if you think North Carolina is the only state fighting the war on air freshener, you would be wrong.In Commonwealth v. Watts, the Massachusetts Appeals Court held reasonable suspicion could be based, in part, on the presence of fabric softener drier sheets.The federal courts have joined this attack on pleasant aromas as well. In United States v. West, the Tenth Circuit proclaimed, "The Tenth Circuit has consistently held that the scent of air freshener is properly considered as a factor in the probable cause analysis, and in the Eleventh Circuit held in United States v. Wright that evidence of a drug conspiracy existed based partially on the fact that two persons entered the Winn-Dixie together to purchase carpet freshener and fabric softener; materials known to be used to mask the odor of cocaine.Many other federal circuits, including the Third, Fifth, Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth, have upheld convictions based, in part, on the presence of fabric softener, and in United States v. Edmonds, the Third Circuit upheld a trial court''s refusal to believe a drug mule was a mere unsuspecting courier. Why? She brought along a box of Bounce fabric softener sheets.So, the lesson from this week''s Case of the Week: with a Mountain Fresh scent filling the air, your dorm hall monitor in college didn''t believe you then, and the cops don''t believe you now. If you have contraband and notice Rambo sniffing your car, ditch the fabric softener...Bounce can get you busted.____________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/05/law-rambo-and-air-fresheners#ixzz1Nvzi9iNpMay 22, 2011The Law of Airport TipsHave you ever been sitting in a hotel room, staring at a room service bill, trying to determine whether the service charge added to your bill is the tip? And let''s not even get started with deciphering the cryptic hieroglyphics known as the cable bill.But what if your employer hoisted a sign informing customers there would be a two-dollar charge for your services? Would that payment be your tip? Would posting that sign get somebody sued? Of course, it would. This is the Case of the Week.Air a la carteOur story begins in Sept. 2005, when American Airlines began charging a $2.00 fee for passengers to check a bag at curbside.Before this policy began, curbside check-in was free, but customers tipped the skycaps--usually a dollar per bag--for curbside service. Until American went and messed up things, most skycaps earned most of their earnings from tips.As the airline industry faced significant financial problems, airlines began charging for many services that had been free. This a la carte fee system affected everything from headphones to handbags.Want to watch the in-flight movie? No problem. That''s free. Want to hear it? Two dollars for headphones, please. Want to eat? Pay up.Pay2Pee, the world''s first aircraft pay toilet, can''t be far away.At the moment, we can add curbside check-in to our non-complimentary airline a la carte menu.American--and its subcontractor actually employing the skycaps--made out like Tijuana bandits. The charge was designed to defray the cost of curbside service in a dark and dreary economy, but it actually became a profitable business venture for all...except the skycaps themselves.Many passengers thought American''s $2.00 fee was the tip. Others felt $2.00 per bag was enough to pay for curbside service. The end result was the same: the skycaps lost a significant amount of their income as tips plummeted.Suing SkycapsTwo skycaps at Boston Logan International Airport sued American and the contractor, seeking class certification and arguing that American''s curbside fee violated the Massachusetts statute governing tips, Mass. Gen. Laws, ch. 49, 152A (2008), constituted tortious interference with an advantageous relationship, unlawful conversion, and unjust enrichment under Massachusetts law, and that the skycaps were entitled to restitution under the legal theory of quantum meruit.The skycaps'' employer was dismissed due to an arbitration agreement, and American removed the case from a Massachusetts commonwealth court to federal court.The skycaps argued Massachusetts law prohibited American from charging the curbside baggage fee because the fee qualified as a service charge under the commonwealth law because it was a fee that a consumer would reasonably expect to be given to the skycap.American countered that the skycaps suit was preempted by the federal Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. When a federal law preempts a state law on an issue, the federal statute has sole jurisdiction, and the state statute is preempted and nullified for purposes of that dispute.The District Court held for American on several grounds, but held for the skycaps on the preemption argument. Thus, the claims under the Massachusetts tips law and for tortious interference were tried to a jury.Big TippersIt turned out the jury was a bunch of big tippers. The jury found for the skycaps in April 2008 and awarded damages in the amount of $2.00 to each skycap for every bag handled between Sept. 2005 and the verdict.Thus, the jury awarded the nine prevailing plaintiff skycaps approximately $333,000 in damages plus interest and attorney fees. One plaintiff skycap from the St. Louis airport did not get to share in the bounty because--as a citizen of Missouri--he was not covered by the Massachusetts tip law.But, our story is not over. Cheap tippers can rejoice. American appealed, and the First U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals handed down a decision bound to make Parisian tourists do a happy dance.The First Circuit reversed the district court and ruled for American in DiFiore v. American Airlines, Inc., holding that the Massachusetts tip statute was, in fact, preempted by the federal Airline Deregulation Act.Although the appellate court conceded there was conflicting case law, it relied on three U.S. Supreme Court cases, Morales v. Trans World Airlines, Inc., American Airlines, Inc. v. Wolens, and Rowe v. New Hampshire Motor Transport Assn, in holding that the federal law preempted the Massachusetts tip statute vis--vis the skycaps tips.The court held the commonwealth''s law was preempted when applied to Ameircan because it was related to a price, route, or service, noting that related to and service were statutorily broad terms.The First Circuit rejected the skycaps'' argument that the tip law''s connection to airline price, route, or service was so tenuous, remote, or peripheral as to not trigger preemption under Morales or Rowe."This, to borrow an apt airplane image, is walking into a rotating propeller: the advertising and service arrangements are just what Congress did not want states regulating, whether at high cost or at low. When the Supreme Court invoked the rubric ("tenuous, remote, or peripheral"), it used as examples limitations on gambling, prostitution, or smoking in public places--state regulation comparatively remote to the transportation function," the court said.So, next time you go to the airport, please remember that--because a federal court has ruled that curbside check-in is not like betting on ponies, retaining the services of a hooker, or smoking a joint at baggage claim--these guys aren''t protected by the Massachusetts tip statute.Even if you pay an airline curbside baggage fee, please, folks, tip your skycap.________________________May 14, 2011The Fourth Amendment and the Law of Bongs and BaggiesThe Fourth Amendment provides some of our greatest protections from government. It keeps colonial constables out of our tea, J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI out of our mothers underwear drawers, and seizure-hungry sheriffs out of our Chevys.Yet, as with anything, the Fourth Amendment is not absolute. The Fourth Amendment prohibits only unreasonable searches. Thus, if police have probable cause for a search, its not unreasonable, and the Fourth Amendment won''t stop it. In fact, the Fourth Amendment has a specific clause allowing searches with probable cause.A recent Massachusetts case gets to be our Case of the Week because it addresses the novel legal question: Does the presence of a bong and Baggies constitute probable cause for a search for marijuana?Speeding and SeizingWhen Shawn Smith decided to do some urban drag racing with friends, he probably should have left his bong at home. For readers who may be unfamiliar with the household appliance known as the bong, it is a water pipe--used by some to smoke marijuana.The speeding Mr. Smith was attempting to outduel a fellow motorist when police clocked him traveling 67 miles per hour in a 40 mile per hour zone.When police stopped the Smithmoblie, they noticed a bong and an open box of plastic sandwich bags in the car. The police testified that, based on their experience, a bong and Baggies usually meant one thing...and it usually happens a lot in Cheech and Chong movies. Yes, police thought they were dealing with that plague on humanity: marijuana.Having spotting the offending bong and Baggies, law enforcement swung into action.Police ordered Mr. Smith from the car, and frisked him. They asked him if there were any marijuana in the car, and he said there was not. However, Mr. Smith admitted he had some herbal enjoyment in his pocket. Police seized it, arrested Mr. Smith, and impounded his speedy car. Shockingly, they found more marijuana.However, in a development that will be significant legally later in our story, police did not detect any marijuana smoke or residue in the bong.Evidence Up in Smoke?Sure, police get to do an inventory when they seize a car. In this week''s case, police were arresting Mr. Smith for his weed, so they got to go through his car and inventory everything. However, when police misbehave, there is a judicial remedy known as suppression of the evidence. For those who never have time to watch Law and Order, that means the evidence is thrown out because the cops got it illegally.In this case, because the police failed to give Mr. Smith his Miranda warnings before giving him the Spanish Inquisition, Mr. Smith moved to suppress evidence of the search.However, Massachusetts prosecutors argued the bong and Baggies sitting in the car in plain sight gave the police all the probable cause they needed to search the carMiranda or not. In essence, the Commonwealth argued, it was the probable cause supplied by the bong and Baggiesnot the Mirandaless utterances of Mr. Smith that gave police the pot.Both a trial court and the Massachusetts Appeals Court, the commonwealths intermediate appellate court, rejected prosecutors'' arguments and threw out the evidence--and thus, the case. Citing Massachusetts case law, the court held that bongs and Baggies--and nothing more--do not give the police probably case for a search.Bong and Baggies LawThe Appeals Court distinguished Mr. Smith''s case from two previous Massachusetts Appeals Court decisions where bongs did lead to probable cause for a search: Commonwealth v. Dolby from 2000, and Commonwealth v. Correia in 2006.It is true the facts in all three cases were somewhat similar: cops stop car, cops see bong, cops arrest driver. However, Smith differed from Dolby and Correia in one, key respect. Unlike in Dolby and Correia, in Smith, there was neither marijuana smoke nor residue present in the bong.The Appeals Court said that distinction was critical. In Dolby and Correia, the evidence was not suppressed, but it was because there was residue in the bong--not because police spotted an innocent bong just hanging out, minding its own business, with no nefarious residue or smoke.Baggies get the same constitutional protections.Citing its decision in Commonwealth v. Garcia, the court held, the observation of two lawful items--the bong and the box of sandwich bags--did not supply probably cause. The court articulated its rationale in Garcia:"The trooper''s experience, coupled with his observation of an apparently empty baggie, is not enough to provide probable cause to conduct a warrantless search of the automobile. Benign objects such as spoons, mirrors, and straws are often used in the narcotic trade. To allow police officers, experienced in narcotics investigations, to conduct a warrantless search whenever they observe one of the above items, and nothing more, would permit random searches, which are condemned by the Fourth Amendment and the Declaration of Rights," the court said.So, Mr. Smith got off: the evidence was suppressed, and the charges were dropped. The moral of this week''s Case of the Week: if you''re going to go drag racing with your bong in the back seat, at least make sure it is clean._________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/05/law-bongs-and-baggies-fourth-amendment-searches-probable-cause-miranda-marijuana#ixzz1MKivXiVWMay 8, 2011The Law of Cow Bones and BungeesWhen you buy a product or service, how much information should the seller disclose to you? This week''s Case of the Week examines that issue in a case involving breast implants, bungee cords, a surgeon''s eyesight, and the jurisprudence of cow bone implants...not necessarily in that order.Manmade ChassisDenise Dalien decided she wanted to augment the chassis God gave her, so she consulted plastic surgeon Stanley Jackson of Puyallup, Wash. Dr. Jackson performed breast augmentation on Ms. Dalien in 2000, using saline implants.After a diet and exercise regimen caused her to lose weight, Ms. Dalien noticed some indentation and rippling on what was once her soft and supple upper left bosom.No problem. Dr. Jackson went in again, removed the saline implants, and replaced them with gel implants.Turns out there was a problem. Ms. Dalien was not happy with her new gel bosoms, so under the surgical theory of more is more, Dr. Jackson performed additional revision procedures on Ms. Dalien during 2005 and 2006.Blinding BungeeJust before all this happened, and--importantly for our story--unbeknownst to Ms. Dalien, Dr. Jackson was having issues with a bungee cord. Dr. Jackson went into mortal combat with the killer cord in July 1999.The bungee cord won.Dr. Jackson received surgery on his eye, and took over a month off from his practice. In July 2006, Dr. Jackson reported additional changes in his vision. He retired in October 2006 after unsuccessful surgery.Citing her allegedly unsuccessful surgeries, Ms. Dalien sued the good doctor twice. In one suit, Ms. Dalien argued negligent medical malpractice in the botched boob job.In her second civil action, Ms. Dalien sued under Washington States Consumer Protection Act (CPA). Ms. Dalien argued, among other things, that Dr. Jackson violated the law by failing to disclose his eye injury.Cow Bone LawDr. Jackson argued that the nondisclosure of his eye condition did not occur in trade or commerce and that any alleged professional malpractice or negligence was exempt from the CPA.Ms. Dalien countered that the nondisclosure of the eye condition was, in fact, done in trade or commerce because Dr. Jackson solicited and retained patients by failing to disclose this condition.In siding with Dr. Jackson, Washington State''s Court of Appeals cited the Evergreen State''s jurisprudence on cow bone disclosure and the case of Michel v. Mosquera-Lacy.In Michel, Mystie Michel sought treatment from Lucy Mosquera-Lacy, a periodontist employed by Bright Now! Dental, Inc., and the doctor said Ms. Michel needed a bone graft.When completing her pre-procedure paperwork, Ms. Michel was given the choice of human bone, cow bone, or synthetic bone for her graft. Stating she could not fathom the thought of having animal parts in her body, Ms. Michel declined the opportunity to get authentic cow bone.Well, unfortunately for Ms. Michel, supplies were running low in the dental office that day.When Dr. Mosquera-Lacy ran out of human bone, she finished the job with cow bone.Although the dentist claimed she merely finished up with cow bone--and that cow constituted no more than 10 percent of the graft--Ms. Michel said she now had a McImplant with the doctor having implanted a cow bone in her mouth.Whatever damages or urges to graze on her front lawn Ms. Michel may have experienced, her case wasn''t actionable under the Consumer Protection Act, the Washington Supreme Court held, because the use of cow bone was not an entrepreneurial activity in trade or commerce."Michael failed to show that Dr. Mosquera-Lacy''s use of cow bone is entrepreneurial. It does not relate to billing or obtaining and retaining patients. It simply relates to Dr. Mosquera-Lacy''s judgment and treatment of a patient. There is no evidence that cow bone was used to increase profits or the number of patients. When the supply of human bone ran out during the procedure, Dr. Mosquera-Lacy used her judgment and skills as a periodontist to finish the procedure. This is not actionable under the CPA," the court said.Bovine Bones and BungeesFollowing the Washington Supreme Court''s holding in Michel, the Washington Court of Appeals held in Dalien v. Jackson that Dr. Jackson''s nondisclosure of his eye condition was also an activity that fell outside the scope of Washington''s Consumer Protection Act. Thus, the court declined to certify her class action, and it affirmed a trial court''s dismissal of her case."As in Michel, Dalien has failed to show that Dr. Jackson''s nondisclosure of his eye injury is entrepreneurial. Dr. Jackson''s nondisclosure does not relate to Dr. Jackson''s billing or obtaining and retaining patients. Dalien has presented no evidence that Dr. Jackson represented that he had better vision than his competitors or somehow relied on his vision to promote his business," Judge Russell Hartman wrote for the court.However, the court didn''t say Ms. Dalien didn''t have a case--just that she didnt have a case under the CPA. Referencing her other suit, the court said, "To the extent that Dr. Jackson''s eye injury may have affected his ability to examine, diagnose, treat, or care for his patients, that question is actionable under the negligence theory, which Dalien is pursuing in her original lawsuit."The lesson of this week''s Case of the Week? If you want to sue under Washington''s Consumer Protection Act, make sure they advertise their excellent vision allows them to see your head before they implant a cow bone in it.____________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/05/law-cow-bones-and-bungees#ixzz1Ll8lzZ00May 1, 2011The Law of Bait Car JournalismDavid Broder, Edward R. Murrow, William F. Buckley Jr., Walter Cronkite, and now Bait Car?As the old Sesame Street song said, it would appear that one of these things just doesn''t belong here. Well, that''s not what the producers of the television show, Bait Car, say. They argue their show is real journalism, and--in an attempt to avoid producing evidence in a California court proceeding--they say their photographers are journalists. In recognition of this creative legal argument, their case gets to be our Case of the Week.What is a Journalist?The proliferation of new media sources has created a novel question: Just what is a journalist? Must one possess government-issued press credentials, sending shivers down the spines of First Amendment advocates? How about a requirement that you earn your living from journalism? Perhaps there should be a requirement that at least your Aunt Betsy actually read what you write?This question has taken on real legal significance as the U.S. Congress and many states have tried to implement so-called reporters'' shield laws. These laws attempt to protect reporters and their confidential sources by shielding confidential information from disclosure to courts and third parties.Although there has been substantial progress, a federal shield law has not yet passed. However, 40 states and the District of Columbia have shield laws, with many states enacting them after what some argued were Bush administration abuses, prosecutorial attacks on the press, and the prosecution of New York Times reporter Judith Miller.Some Republican lawmakers cited national security concerns with reporters'' shield legislation, and others had a more fundamental issue: How do you go about deciding which writers get to be journalists in a New Media world vs. Old Media world?Many hipsters sipping lattes at Starbucks like to bash so-called Old Media. As they iPad away their afternoons, bowing before the altar of New Media, they mock institutions such as The Wall Street Journal as the old media of their grandparents, and--bless their little black turtlenecks and Birkenstocks--they weren''t fooled by Rupert Murdoch''s purchase of Myspace. Silly, Rupert, New Media is for hip kids.But, the beautiful world of blogging Brown alumni opining on global warming and Maya Angelous contributions to literature while their conservative brethren blog on banks and hedge funds may be in for a shock to its modern sensibilities. There may be unwanted guests at this post-modern, online clambake, and it may be a sign of things to come.Bait Car as New MediaThe folks at truTV, that network of cop shows that used to be Court TV, have come up with a new show called, Bait Car. In Bait Car, the producers work with local police to place an unlocked car with keys in the ignition out on the street. Its the bait for would-be car thieves. Get it, bait, car?Many unsuspecting citizens, including Joseph Bullard, took the bait.Or did he?In the case of People v. Bullard in the Superior Court of California, San Francisco County, Mr. Bullard argued that he was merely being a good citizen, moving the Bait Car out of its illegal parking spot.He also argued selective prosecution. Mr. Bullard, a gentleman who enjoys cross-dressing, argued it was no coincidence that the unholy trinity of producers, police, and prosecutors arranged for the Bait Car to be placed outside Divas, a well-known, somewhat risque San Francisco transgendered club. Police countered that they just picked an area known for car theft.To prove Mr. Bullard''s Good Samaritan claim, his legal counsel wanted to see the tapes of the filming from KKI Productions, the producers of the San Francisco episodes of Bait Car. Not unlike Judge John Sirica sending an order to the Nixon White House, Judge Gerardo Sandoval ordered KKI to turn over the tapes.Not so fast, said KKI. Arguing that Bait Car was journalism and that the intrepid Bait Car photographers were, in fact, journalists and so under California''s reporters shield law, KKI refused.Judge Sandoval wasn''t buying it. He rejected KKI''s reporters shield argument, and demanded the tapes.Funny thing. You may have laughed at Mr. Bullard''s "I was only helping by moving the car" argument, but prosecutors dropped the charges against Mr. Bullard.Future of Journalism?Bait Car''s producers were working with prosecutors, turning over their tapes to the district attorney''s office, and that cooperation with cops was fatal to their legal argument, according to Judge Sandoval and legal journalism experts."You can''t have it both ways. You can''t cooperate with one side and not the other," said Lucy Dalglish, Executive Director of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press."You can make a very strong argument that the cooperation with one side is a waiver of the privilege," Ms. Dalglish added.People v. Bullard does not decide the law on the contentious issue of who gets to be a reporter in the eyes of the law--although it does put Californians on notice that, if youre in cahoots with the cops, you probably don''t get to be one, at least for reporters shield purposes.The case also illustrates that the cozy little blogging world at Starbucks and beyond is also in the midst of a culture shift. The latter day hipsters may have make room on the Starbucks sofa for Bait Car journalists, Dog the Bounty Hunter, Big Brian the Fortune Seller, and the zany, fun-loving staffs of Ma''s Roadhouse, Lizard Lick Towing, and Hardcore Pawn.Yes, the Fourth Estate is becoming a very big tent in every respect imaginable...and in some not so imaginable.________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-bait-car-journalism#ixzz1LCFs9nEyApril 24, 2011The Law of Gwen Stefani AvatarsAt the time of this week''s legal tale, Gwen Stefani was a big, giant rock star, and Activision Publishing''s Band Hero videogame series was extremely popular. Combine the two - the theory went - and you would have what one of those MBA-types might call, synergy.Activision and Ms. Stefani thought so...until they ended up in court.This week''s Case of the Week illustrates the legal principle of the right of publicity. It also puts us on notice with the following legal poetry: Make Gwen Stefani a dude, and you''re gonna get sued.California Dreamin''In the 1990s, Gwen Stefani and Activision were both living the Southern California dream. Ms. Stefani and her Orange County band, No Doubt, achieved critical and commercial success, including Grammy nominations and huge recording contracts, while hitting the top of the charts with their 1995 single, Don''t Speak.Meanwhile, the friendly folks at Activision were building a videogame empire in Santa Monica with hit games such as MechWarrior 2: 31st Century Combat and Civilization: Call to Power. They also made some money off a game series based on the adventures of skateboarder Tony Hawk.Entering the 21st Century, one of Activision''s biggest games was its Guitar Hero series, which basically allows players to engage in computer-assisted air guitar. Band Hero was a similar, spin-off production.One of Band Hero''s features allowed players to create avatars based on real life rockers.Thinking it would be just nifty to have No Doubt avatars in the game - or at least thinking that it would be just nifty to have some of Activision''s cash -- No Doubt executed its Professional Services and Character Licensing Agreement with Activision, allowing the gamemaker to create avatars -- or computerized characters -- based on the band, and use them in Band Hero.Gwen is not a dudeMuch to their horror, the members of No Doubt learned about a special feature of Band Hero shortly before the product''s launch -- it was a special feature No Doubt may have worried pubescent punksters might manipulate.In their Agreement, Activision and No Doubt agreed Activision would license only a limited number of No Doubt songs for use in the game. However, that provision failed to consider another potential use of Band Hero.When players reached a certain level of the game, Band Hero allowed them to unlock their avatars, changing their song selection and personal characteristics.For instance, Activision licensed only a few No Doubt songs, but if Little Johnny were proficient enough in Band Hero to get his avatar -- say, perhaps, a lasciviously alluring Ms. Stefani -- to reach Level Nine of Band Hero, he could unlock her and free her from the bondage of her current condition, in every way, including gender.No Doubt was most displeased to discover that, once your Gwen Stafani avatar were unlocked, not only could Avatar Gwen be singing Janet Jackson, she could also be singing Tito Jackson.You see, once unlocked, an avatar''s voice could be changed from male to female.Not surprisingly, Ms. Stefani and her bandmates were not excited about the prospect of having their voices replaced with the manly sounds of Boy George.Ska vs. SuitsCould Activision really use the twisted avatars without No Doubt''s permission?No Doubt didn''t think so, and the band sued Activision in California state court. In No Doubt v. Activision Publg, Inc., the band sued for injunctive relief and damages, arguing Activision had engaged in the unauthorized exploitation of No Doubt''s name and likeness.The band sued on several grounds, including Activision''s alleged violation of No Doubt''s right of publicity.The right of publicity gives an individual control over the commercial use of her name or likeness. About half the states have a statutory right of publicity and others protect the right of publicity as part of their right of privacy laws.There has been a movement to extend the right of publicity beyond death. Not surprisingly, this movement is led by the heirs of some very famous dead people, including the heirs of Marilyn Monroe.California is one of those states with a codified right to publicity, contained in section 3344 of the California Civil Code.However, Activision countered that No Doubt''s right of publicity claim was barred as a matter of law because Activision''s actions on the avatars constituted constitutionally protected activity under the First Amendment.A Los Angeles Superior Court judge denied Activision''s motion to strike No Doubt''s complaint, and Activision appealed to California''s Second District Court of Appeal.Citing Comedy III Prods., Inc. v. Gary Saderup, Inc., the appellate court applied the transformative use test, a method to determine whether a use of a likeness was transformed from something more than a mere impersonation.The appellate court sided with No Doubt and the trial court. The court ruled that a transgendered avatar did not qualify as a transformative use. Thus, the appellate court held, the First Amendment did not excuse Activision''s alleged violation of its right to publicity."Nothing in the creative elements of the Band Hero elevates the depictions of No Doubt to something more than conventional, more or less fungible, images of its members that No Doubt should have the right to control and exploit. Thus, the trial court did not err in denying Activision''s motion to strike the right of publicity claim based on Activision''s assertion of a First Amendment defense," Judge Thomas Willhite Jr., wrote for the court,The court compared and contrasted Ms. Stefani''s avatar with the image in another case involving a Sega videogame and the former lead singer of Dee-Light, Kirby v. Sega of Am., in holding Avatar Stefani was not a transformative use. The First Amendment may be powerful, but -- at least in this Case of the Week -- it provides no constitutional protection for a Gwen Stefani avatar in a Boy George voice singing, Do You Really Want to Hurt Me?_________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-gwen-stefani-avatars-band-hero-No-Doubt-v-Activision-Publ-Inc#ixzz1KUS9gVwHApril 17, 2011The Law of Urinal TrademarksTrademarks and the legal disputes involving them may be the most entertaining area of intellectual property law, and a recent Pennsylvania federal court case illustrates just how entertaining trademark fights can be. You might think this fight over the name, "Pint," was a beer dispute. You would be wrong.This week''s Case of the Week examines what happens when two urinal manufactures get into a legal dispute over the names of their products.Pint of Yellow LiquidThe urinal and its bathroom cousin, the toilet, use a lot of water. As people have become more concerned about the environment, manufactures have joined the party, developing so-called green products, and urinal makers are no exception. After all, no self-respecting urinal manufacturer wants to be known as a truck stop eco-terrorist.Among the leaders in the urinal market are Zurn Industries and Sloan Valve Co. Both Zurn and Sloan wanted to help save the planet by making eco-friendly urinals.Zurn developed a urinal Mother Nature would love and named it, The Pint. The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office awarded Zurn the United States Trademark Registration No. 3,389,517 for The Pint, part of Zurn''s EcoVantage line of environmentally friendly "fractional flush" urinals. They''re called fractional flush because they use a fraction of the water regular urinals use when you flush them.Not to be outdone, the nature-loving folks at Sloan came out with their own environmentally sound urinal, the Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System.Not unlike a fraternity pledge spotting someone swiping his pint of Guinness from the bar, lawyers for Zurn swung into action.Urinating ContestAfter noticing a Sloan press release for the Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System on the website, greenlodgingnews.com, Zurn''s lawyers sent Sloan a cease and desist letter, arguing Sloan''s name infringed on Zurn''s registered trademark for The Pint. Zurn demanded that Sloan stop marketing its allegedly infringing urinal with "pint" in its name.In an apparent attempt to maintain peace and harmony in the urinal world, Sloan changed the name of its urinal from the "Sloan 1 Pint Urinal System" to the "Sloan Pint Urinal System."It was a nice try, but Zurn was unsatisfied. Simply deleting the numeral, "1," from the name wasnt enough. Not unlike Carrie Nation on a bar raid, Zurn wanted the Pint the h*ll out of there.Sloan refused, and Zurn''s trademark lawyers did what it takes to become the Case of the Week. They sued.In its case, Zurco, Inc. v. Sloan Valve Co., filed in the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania, Zurn argued Sloan''s use of its name violated the federal Trademark Act of 1946, known commonly as the Lanham Act. Specifically, Zurn argued that Sloan''s name caused a likelihood of confusion among potential customers.Sloan countered that -- despite Zurn''s federal trademark registration --The Pint was not a legally protectable trademark for a urinal because the mark was generic, a trademark legal term meaning the name is a common, general term with no secondary meaning.Sloan argued that pint was merely an identification of a type of urinal -- one that uses one pint of water when flushed. Thus, Sloan argued, urinal purchasers would associate the term, pint, with the flush volume of the urinal, not the maker of the urinal, Zurn.In attempting to decide the dispute between the fighting flushers, the federal court applied the so-called primary significance test, used in many cases, including A.J. Canfield Co. v. Honickman. Under the primary significance test, the court determines whether the primary significance of a term in the minds of the consuming public is the product or the producer.The court illustrated the difference by citing E.T. Browne Drug Co. v. Cococare Products, Inc., where the court made the distinction that cola was generic because it described a product, but Pepsi-Cola is not generic because it describes the producer.Zurn disputed the generic label by noting that, in the toilet and urinal industry, flush volumes are described -- not in pints -- but with the terms, gallons per flush (GPF) and liters per flush (LPF). In fact, Zurn claimed the use of gallon and liter by those other wasteful water-hogs in the toilet and urinal industry was precisely why it chose the unique term, pint.However, Sloan countered that pint had become an industry standard, noting that American Standard has used pint and 1 point since 2008, Mansfield Plumbing Products has used 1-pint for its Brevity line of urinals, and Caroma USA had used one pint for its Cube Ultra line of urinals for two years.Unfortunately for Sloan, the court noted that none of those urinal craftsmen had used the term before Zurn introduced the Pint in 2007. In addition, Zurn argued it had been diligent in sending cease and desist letters to the allegedly infringing urinal producers, a requirement for protection under trademark law.To Be ContinuedIn denying motions for summary judgment on most issues, the court held that there were genuine issues of material fact as to whether The Pint was generic. As a result, the case will move forward, and more evidence about urinals and what people call them can enter the hallowed halls of American jurisprudence.________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-urinal-trademarks#ixzz1K9cmh600April 10, 2011The Law of Chicken HeadsEmotional injuries and related damages may be one of the most contentious areas of the law, especially when -- as in thisweek''s Case of the Week -- that emotional injury is based on an employer''s forcing a worker to wear a chicken head mask in order to get medical benefits. Yes, this week, we go to Massachusetts to bring you the law of chicken head damages.Poultry ProblemsKaren Cappello worked full-time for Cricket Productions, where she processed orders. Because she was a full-time employee, she asked her boss, Victor Grillo Jr., for medical coverage.Mr. Grillo was very happy to give Ms. Cappello the medical coverage she desired, but it seems there was a catch.Mr. Grillo said Ms. Cappello could have the medical insurance only if she wore a chicken head mask."No head, no payment," Mr. Grillo wrote in an e-mail.We''re not making this up. We couldn''t come up with stuff this good.Even with major medical and hospitalization coverage for her young daughter on the line, Ms. Cappello declined to don the chicken head, which was part of a complete chicken costume kept in the office. You see, according to court papers, the employees at Cricket Productions considered themselves a fun-loving group that often socialized after hours.Apparently, none of the production place''s playful pranksters thought there was anything odd about making a session in the chicken head a prerequisite to health coverage.Ms. Cappello did.Saying she became too depressed to work as a result of the alleged harassment, Ms. Cappello sought medical attention and claimed she was unable to work.Of course, this is the Case of the Week, so you know what happens next.Colonel Sanders or Jack Daniels?Ms. Cappello decided to file a claim for her alleged injuries, and an administrative legal action ensued. Cricket carried no workers compensation coverage, but an administrative law judge held that, because Cricket was doing the business of DTR Advertising, Inc., DTR''s insurer, The Hartford Insurance Co., was liable for Ms. Cappello''s claim.Based on the opinion of her psychiatrist, Mark Cutler, Ms. Cappello argued Mr. Grillo''s alleged chicken head harassment was the predominant contributing cause of her adjustment disorder and major depressive disorder. The administrative law judge agreed and held for Ms. Cappello, but The Hartford appealed, arguing the chicken head incident was not the predominant contributing cause of Ms. Cappello''s alleged injuries.Hartford argued there could be other potential causes for the alleged injuries, and -- on appeal to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Industrial Accidents in the case of Cappello v. DTR Advertising, Inc. -- the judges noted that Ms. Cappello had received previous psychiatric treatment for issues related to a divorce and an alcohol-dependent husband.Ms. Cappello rejected the notion that marital warfare or her husband''s close, personal relationship with Jack Daniels and Johnnie Walker caused her injuries.It was all about that chicken head.Foul fowl?Because of her preoccupation with the perceived harassment at work and her disbelief that she was being asked to do what her employer asked her to do, which she perceived as very humiliating, she has been unable to return to any work for which she is reasonably trained by virtue of her education and job experience, Ms. Cappello''s psychiatrist told the administrative law judges.In a legal ruling sure to shock the San Diego Chicken, Mardi Gras revelers, and others who actually enjoy wearing chicken head masks, the judges sided with Ms. Cappello.Rejecting the insurer''s argument that there were other causes for Ms. Cappellos psychiatric issues, the judges ruled Ms. Cappello had shown those problems were not the cause of her present injuries. Although the judges conceded she had past psychiatric problems, they noted she had not experienced her present symptoms until the chicken head incident.The judges held that Dr. Cutler''s medical opinion satisfied the Massachusetts standard for predominant contributing cause of injuries established in the Massachusetts Appeals Court decision, May''s Case, and the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court decision, Robinson''s Case.In addition, citing Bouras v. Salem Five Cents Savings Bank, the judges held that, because Dr. Cutler''s opinion satisfied the predominant contributing cause standard, the chicken head incident was the only legal cause of her injuries."Because the doctor''s opinion effectively ruled out the previous stressors in the employee''s life as causes of her emotional disability, his opinion can be understood to implicate the events at Cricket Productions as the only cause," the judges wrote.The Massachusetts case of the chicken head was remanded to the lower judge on additional claims Ms. Cappello made, but she was victorious on this day...so was her lawyer.For their efforts on behalf of their client and for furthering the jurisprudence of chicken heads in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the judges awarded Ms. Cappello''s lawyer $1,488.30 in legal fees.__________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/04/law-chicken-heads#ixzz1J7TcDYNfApril 1, 2011The Law of April Fools'' JokesFor our April Fools'' Day edition of the Case of the Week, we visit the California Court of Appeal, which supplies us with a case touching on constitutional law, contracts, defamation, and, of course, the law of April Fools'' jokes. Not surprisingly, our case involves Sasha Baron Cohen, known popularly as Borat and Ali G.A 2004 episode of Mr. Cohen''s British television show got his network into a bit of trouble, and it had to pay the alleged target of his jokes $90,000. When the infuriated supposed subject came back for more, it ended up in American court, raising the question: could a reasonable viewer take the show seriously, resulting in a judgment for defamation?The Art of AmendingOn a 1987 youth trip to Israel, Sasha Baron Cohen began a friendship with a woman known only as "Jane Doe" in court proceedings. The friends lost touch over the years, but Ms. Doe followed Mr. Cohen''s increasingly successful career as a comedian, and, apparently, Mr. Cohen never forgot Ms. Doe''s real name.On the Aug. 15, 2004, episode of Mr. Cohen''s television show, Da Ali G Show, Mr. Cohen interviewed the American author, Gore Vidal. Among the topics of conversation were the United States Constitution and the practice of amending it.Mr. Cohen asked Mr. Vidal if it were not sometimes better to get rid of something rather than amending it. As an example, Mr. Cohen referred to Ms. Doe. Using her real name and referring to her with a term also used to describe a female dog, he said Ms. Doe was always trying to amend herself by such means as highlighting her hair, adorning herself with tattoos, and shaving her private regions.Mr. Cohen said Ms. Doe''s amending was for naught because he dumped her after he impregnated her. (Ms. Doe denied her relationship with Mr. Cohen was ever romantic or sexual in nature.)Given what Mr. Cohen claimed were Ms. Doe''s unsuccessful attempts at amending herself, he reasoned that amending anything -- including the Constitution of the United States -- was ill-advised.With no apologies to Vidal Sassoon, the people of the Eastern Hemisphere, or George Washington, in his role as Ali G, Mr. Cohen went on to suggest that Mr. Vidal was an internationally famous hairstylist, that euthanasia was a means of exterminating the elderly in Asia, and that Denzel Washington resided at Mount Vernon.Ms. Doe was not amused.Costly ComedyDa Ali G Show was produced by Britain''s Channel Four Television Corp. and distributed in the United States by HBO. After complaints from Ms. Doe, HBO settled with her in 2004 for $40,000. As part of the settlement, HBO agreed to edit the episode so Ms. Doe''s name would be removed in any future broadcasts.Well, Ms. Doe''s fame -- or infamy, depending on ones perspective -- continued. When HBO presented the episode on Comcast, it left Ms. Doe''s name in the airing of the show, resulting in another settlement with Ms. Doe in 2006 with the same terms as the 2004 settlement, except this time Ms. Doe received an additional $50,000 payday.Nevertheless, viewers of Da Ali G Show had not heard the last of Ms. Doe.When a friend of Ms. Doe''s saw the unedited version -- that would be the one with Ms. Doe''s name -- on YouTube after the second settlement, he contacted her, and they discovered a viewer in Estonia had uploaded the clip from Finnish television, which had received the unedited version from Channel Four.No more settlements. Ms. Doe decided to take her battle to court.The Law of April Fools''Ms. Doe sued HBO and Mr. Cohen in California state court, and later added Channel Four as a defendant. She sued on multiple grounds, including libel, slander, breach of contract, invasion of privacy, and negligent infliction of emotional distress.Channel Four moved for summary judgment -- a legal ruling where one side wins the case before it even gets to trial -- arguing, among other things, that no reasonable person could have understood Mr. Cohen''s statements as factual.The trial court sided with Channel Four."No reasonable person could consider the statements made by Ali G on the program to be factual. To the contrary, it is obvious that the Ali G character is absurd and all his statements are gibberish and intended as comedy. The actor, Sacha Baron Cohen, never strays from the Ali G character, who is dressed in a ridiculous outfit and speaks in an exaggerated manner of a rap artist. Ali G''s statements are similarly absurd," the trial court said.Ms. Doe appealed, but she fared no better with the Californi''s Second District Court of Appeal in Doe v. Channel Four Television Corp. Citing cases involving comedian Robin Williams and an April Fools'' joke, the appellate court agreed that no reasonable person could have taken Mr. Cohen seriously. Thus, the court held, there was no defamation.In the case involving Robin Williams, Polygram Records, Inc. v. Superior Court, California''s Third District Court of Appeal held there was no defamation when Mr. Williams did a skit where a wine distributor complained that there was white wine and red wine, but no black wine.The court noted Mr. Williams said the so-called black wine was tough enough to be advertised by Mean Joe Green, was black in color, tasted like urine, and went with anything it damn well pleased. The court added that no reasonable person could have taken Mr. Williams seriously and that to hold the skit defamatory would run afoul of the First Amendment.Likewise, in San Francisco Bay Guardian, Inc. v. Superior Court, California''s First District Court of Appeal held there was no defamation when, in its April Fools'' Day edition, the San Francisco Bay Guardian newspaper ran a fictitious letter from a landlord stating that he found his tenants who had undergone electroshock therapy where much more cooperative because no reasonable person would take the fake letter seriously.Today''s legal lesson is thateven if it involves an electroshocked tenant with shaved privates drinking black wineits tough to win a defamation action against a comedian.________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/law-april-fools-jokes#ixzz1ISyc57fbMarch 27, 2011The Law of Cantaloupes and Inflatable SharksHave you ever been really impressed by marketing displays constructed at your local store, where industrious employees create displays of commerce only slightly less impressive than the Taj Mahal?Well, Joyce Henderson may have felt that way before she broke her hip falling before a marketing temple of stacked cantaloupes at her local supermarket.Adding insult to injury, Ms. Henderson lost again in this week''s Case of the Week as the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Oklahoma grappled with the weighty issue of whether cantaloupes are the legal equivalent of inflatable sharks for premises liability purposes.Cantaloupes of DoomThe story of Henderson v. Harps Food Stores, Inc., began on a fine June day in 2009 when Ms. Henderson visited the Harps Food Store in Fort Gibson, Okla. Harps employees had created a display of cantaloupes, which was actually a giant octagon of wholesome, fruity goodness.Harps displayed the cantaloupes in large cardboard containers resting on a wooden pallet. The cardboard containers were roughly square in shape with the corners slightly recessed, forming the muskmelon octagon.Ms. Henderson admitted spotting the pallet beneath the pile, and even considered the pesky pallets potential as a pitfall. Nevertheless, she plowed ahead.While examining one of the succulently sweet cantaloupes, Ms. Henderson''s foot caught on the pallet, and she hurt her hip hitting Harps'' hard floor.The stage was now set for Ms. Henderson and Harps to debate the jurisprudence of cantaloupes vis-a-vis inflatable sharks.Ms. Henderson sued Harps in Oklahoma state court in a tort action, alleging Harps was negligent in its dangerous display of the killer cantaloupes and in its negligent failure to warn customers of its alleged fruity booby trap.Harps removed the case to federal court and filed a motion for summary judgment, arguing it was not liable because the exposed cantaloupe pallet was an open and obvious condition.Generally, under Oklahoma premises liability law, which applied even though the case was in federal court, businesses are not liable for damages sustained from these so-called open and obvious conditions. However, there is a possible exception in the law for conditions or defects visible but unseen by a plaintiff.Ms. Henderson and Harps battled over the case law. For instance, both parties cited the Oklahoma Supreme Court case of Phelps v. Hotel Mgmt., Inc., where an unsuspecting patron hit her head on a decorative glass bowl that protruded into the seating area of a hotel lobby.Sure, the thing was open and obvious in the literal sense, but the court in Phelps held a reasonably prudent person might not have noticed the risk of injury from the protrusion of funky art into the seating area and -- for the condition to be open and obvious as a matter of law -- the potential for injury must also be noticeable.The court in Henderson rejected Ms. Henderson''s reliance on Phelps and another court decision, Zagal v. Truckstops Corp. of Am., a case where things went horribly awry in the aisle of a truck stop. The court held those cases did not apply to Ms. Henderson''s case of the killer cantaloupes because -- not only did Ms. Henderson see the open and obvious collection of cantaloupes -- she knew it posed possible danger.However, all hope was not lost for Ms. Henderson. It was time for her lawyers to launch a legal shark attack.But could an inflatable shark really save Ms. Henderson''s case?Shark TaleMs. Henderson''s attorneys cited the Oklahoma Court of Civil Appeals case of Hansen v. Academy, Ltd., where Kimberly Hansen, an unsuspecting customer, was apparently in awe of a large inflatable shark that was part of a boat display on the sidewalk in front of an Academy sporting goods store.So mesmerized by the inflatable shark was Ms. Hansen that she proceeded to walk straight into the tongue of the boat, causing her to trip and break both her arms. Ms. Hansen sued Academy, but a trial court ruled for the sporting goods store, holding that the boat tongue was an open and obvious condition.But, remember...Jaws had a sequel.Ms. Hansen appealed, and the intermediate appellate court ruled for her. Noting an Academy employee testified the purpose of the inflatable shark was to get people''s attention, the appellate court reversed the trial court''s grant of summary judgment to Academy, holding that, although the boat tongue was visible, the plastic, air-filled fish of terror changed the legal outcome."The evidence certainly raised a question of fact as to whether Academy intended for its customers to devote their attention to the merchandise on display rather than to the sidewalk," the appellate court held in Hansen. Unfortunately for Ms. Henderson, U.S. District Judge James Payne wasn''t buying the shark argument in her case.Noting that arrows on the cantaloupe boxes actually pointed to exposed pallet on cantaloupe display, Judge Payne held the inflatable shark case didn''t apply."Because the cantaloupe display actually drew attention to the alleged hazardous condition, the Hansen case is distinguishable and does not provide an exception to the open and obvious rule," the judge wrote.The lesson of our Case of the Week? Apparently, at least in Oklahoma, a cornucopia of cantaloupes provides no exception to the open and obvious rule...but, an inflatable shark does._______________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/law-cantaloupes-and-inflatable-sharks#ixzz1HonZsGj9March 13, 2011The Sixth Amendment and another Texas Chicken Ranchby David HorriganIn the film adaptation of the Broadway musical, The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, Burt Reynolds, playing a Texas sheriff, falls in love with Dolly Parton, portraying the good-natured, warm-hearted proprietor of a local brothel. That theatrical house of ill-repute was based on a real life bordello known as the La Grange Chicken Ranch.Although many local residents supported the Chicken Ranch -- and the entertainment and tax dollars it brought to Greater La Grange -- its closing involved law enforcement at the highest levels of Texas government.For those whove always wanted yet another sequel, we have one for you. It doesn''t have Ms. Parton, Mr. Reynolds...or even Dom DeLuise. What is does have is an intriguing question of constitutional law, which is why it gets to be our Case of the Week.Texas cathouse jurisprudence now considers: Does memory loss render a witness absent for purposes of the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution?Before we get to any of that legal stuff in the case of Woodall v. Texas, let''s take a look at the story of the latest little whorehouse in Texas.Naughty HaremPhyllis Anne Woodall may or may not have a lot in common with Dolly Parton''s Best Little Whorehouse in Texas character, Miss Mona Stangley, but Texas prosecutors alleged they were in the same profession.Ms. Woodall was the co-owner and operator of the Naked Harem, an El Paso, Tex., establishment some would refer to euphemistically as a "gentlemen''s club." Ms. Woodall and her business partner, Jeannie Coutta, ran a strip joint empire, El Paso Cosmopolitan, which not only operated the Naked Harem, but also its sibling club, the El Paso Cosmopolitan Topless Show Bar.Sadly for the ladies and their clients, those Texas prosecutors thought they were having a little too much fun.After repeated incidents of alleged prostitution at the Naked Harem, authorities arrested the ladies, charging Ms. Woodall with aggravated promotion of prostitution and engaging in organized criminal activity.At trial, prosecutors called dancers who testified prostitution was plentiful at the club, while Naked Harem loyalists testifying for Ms. Woodall cited Naked Harem policy forbidding dancers from having sex with its gentile clientele. Ms. Woodall then called a dancer, Lucia Pinedo, to testify.It was a bad move.Forget Me NotMs. Pinedo testified she sustained memory loss after an automobile accident and that she could not remember her prior testimony before a grand jury -- nor could she remember even being part of the Naked Harem. However, when Ms. Pinedo didn''t show up for a subsequent day of the trial, prosecutors -- over Ms. Woodall''s objections -- read her grand jury testimony for the jury.Before the grand jury, Ms. Pinedo had testified she had sex with patrons many times in the club''s private rooms, and -- in an unfortunate turn of events for Ms. Woodall -- Ms. Pinedo testified that, although she lied about her age to Naked Harem staffers, she was only 15-years-old when she began dancing at the club. To make matters worse, Ms. Pinedo contradicted the testimony of one of Ms. Woodall''s managers who said Ms. Pinedo showed a birth certificate as part of her identification upon being hired.Instead, in a moment worthy of X-rated versions of High School Musical or Glee, Ms. Pinedo testified her identification to get her job as an exotic entertainer was not her birth certificate, but was, in fact, her high school ID card.As they did with the La Grange Chicken Ranch, the good people of Texas may turn the other cheek when it was just a bunch of adults having consenting, albeit illegal, fun...prostitution by 15-year-olds is a very different story.After prosecutors made numerous references to Ms. Pinedo''s impressionable youth during closing arguments, the jury sentenced Ms. Woodall to 16 years in prison.Ms. Woodall appealed, arguing, among other things, that introducing Ms. Pinedo''s grand jury testimony was a violation of Ms. Woodall''s rights under the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution because Ms. Pindeo''s memory loss prevented Ms. Woodall from being able to cross-examine her.Constitutional ConfrontationA Texas intermediate appellate court reversed the trial court and sided with Ms. Woodall, holding that allowing prosecutors to read Ms. Pinedo''s grand jury testimony to jurors despite her memory loss violated Ms. Woodall''s Sixth Amendment Rights because the State used out-of-court testimonial statements [the grand jury testimony] about which the declarant [Ms. Pinedo] could not be cross-examined due to memory loss.The state argued also that, because Ms. Woodall refused the trial judge''s offer to issue a so-called writ of attachment forcing Ms. Pinedo to return to continue her testimony, Ms. Woodall was precluded from arguing Ms. Pinedo was absent for Confrontation Clause purposes.However, Ms. Woodall argued that Ms. Pinedo''s memory loss made recalling her futile, and the intermediate appellate court agreed."She did not remember giving the grand jury statement, nor could she remember working at the Naked Harem. A writ of attachment would not have changed Pinedo from an absent witness into a witness available for trial and examination. Her undisputed testimony about the car accident and resulting memory loss established that she was unavailable as a witness regarding the relevant subject matter," the intermediate appellate court held.Yet, in another legal twist, on Mar. 2, the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, the states highest court for criminal matters, reversed the intermediate appellate court on both issues.First, citing three U.S. Supreme Court decisions, California v. Green, Delaware v. Fensterer, and United States v. Owens, the Texas high court rejected the argument that a Confrontation Clause violation could be based on witness memory loss.Second, Ms. Pinedo''s memory loss notwithstanding, the court held Ms. Woodall''s failure to take the trial judge up on the offer to haul Ms. Pinedo back into court was fatal to her Confrontation Clause argument. The court said Ms. Woodard induced the alleged error of which she now complains, and she may not argue on appeal that her confrontation rights were violated.In the movie, Burt and Dolly went off happily into the sunset. It doesn''t look as though thats happening here._________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner: http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/sixth-amendment-and-another-texas-chicken-ranch#ixzz1HaDgOkKeMarch 6, 2011Labor, Lassie, and the LawIts been a tough week for the First Amendment and labor unions, but perhaps not for puppies.In this space, we attempt to look at the lighter side of the law, but there''s just nothing funny about a Marine making the ultimate sacrifice for his country or alleged followers of Jesus thinking the Messiah wants them desecrating other people''s religious services. However, Americas courts never let us down when we need comic relief, and free speech cases are no exceptionThis week, California''s Second District Court of Appeal ruled on a particularly perplexing constitutional quandary. It''s a question not yet addressed in the current labor unrest in Wisconsin:Does labor union speech enjoy greater constitutional protection than speech about puppies?Well give you the court''s answer in Best Friends Animal Socy v. Macherich Westside Pavilion Prop., LLC, in a moment, but let''s start off by saying that -- not unlike fallen heroes and violated funerals -- theres nothing funny about animal abuse or unfair labor practices. Nevertheless, what we''ve got here is an appellate court of law weighing the constitutional rights of terriers versus Teamsters.Puppies and PicketersThe Best Friends Animal Society does good work. Not only does the Utah-based organization have adoption programs for dogs and cats, it has programs for parrots and pigs as well. In addition, it operates an animal sanctuary, and its Pup My Ride program transports dogs from overpopulated areas to places where they are more likely to find homes.Best Friends also operates the Puppies Aren''t Products campaign with the stated goals of fighting against so-called puppy mills and irresponsible breeding.One of the weapons in Puppies Arent Products arsenal is the staging of protests at shopping malls where the evil puppy mills alleged middle men -- the pet shops -- attempt to sell their canine cargo.Although Puppies Arent Products bills its mission as a fight against the puppy mills, unlike more militant animal rights groups, Puppies Arent Products stresses the peaceful nature of its protests...a Gandhi for golden retrievers, if you will.Peaceful or not, one shopping center didn''t want to give the puppy protesters free rein over its establishment. When Puppies Arent Products targeted the Barkworks Pups & Stuff store at Los Angeles Westside Pavilion, the owners of the mall swung into action.Not unlike abortion protesters at a Democratic convention or anti-war protesters at a Republican convention, the puppy protesters were confined to undesirable areas -- in this case, mall space far away from Barkworks. Incidentally, Barkworks denies its dogs come from puppy mills, stating it takes great pride in having built a reputation of bringing healthy, happy puppies to loving families and homes.Look for the Union Label?Westside Pavilion had rules about when people could protest in its common areas. The rules applied to so-called noncommercial expressive activity, and covered various forms of expression, such as political and religious speech, soliciting for signatures on petitions, and the dissemination of noncommercial leaflets and fliers.The rules were what constitutional lawyers call content neutral, meaning the rules didnt vary depending on what a speaker was saying. There was just one catch.Labor unions got special treatment.The mall had special rules for qualified labor activity, which was defined, in part, as activity authorized by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) or applicable state labor laws.Non-labor expressive activity -- such as the puppy protest -- was limited to certain areas of the mall and was subject to certain blackout days, days when no protests were allowed, such as the busy business days of Valentines Day, Halloween, and the Christmas shopping season.In contrast, labor expressive activity had no blackout dates, and the workers'' expression could take place near the targeted, allegedly union-busting establishment.The litigating Lassie lawyers saw this distinction as the way to get the puppy protesters within pawsteps of the alleged villains at Barkworks.Collies in CourtBest Friends sued Westside Pavilion''s owners in California state court, arguing the mall''s restrictions violated the free speech provisions of article I, section 2 of the California Constitution. Specifically, Best Friends argued, among other things, that it was unconstitutional for the mall to give labor union protesters preferential treatment over the Puppies Arent Products protesters.Westside Pavilion countered that the restrictions passed constitutional muster and that the mall was forced to give labor union protesters special treatment in order to comply with state and federal labor law.The mall won the first round when California Superior Court Judge Linda Lefkowitz ruled against the puppy protesters, holding that, under the 1997 California appellate decision, Union of Needletrades, Indus. & Textile. Emp. v. Superior Court, the shopping mall was within its rights to limit the activities of the puppy protesters and that the NLRA and state law required the mall to make special accommodations for labor protesters.But, this dogfight wasnt over.Best Friends appealed and found a more fur-friendly tribunal in California''s Second District Court of Appeal. In a 3-0 decision on Mar. 2, the appellate court overturned Judge Lefkowitz, and ruled in favor of the puppy protesters.The appellate court rejected the holding of the case on which Judge Lefkowitz relied and instead followed two other California appellate decisions, H-CHH Associates. v. Citizens for Representative Government and Snatchko v. Westfield LLC, in holding the mall could not restrict the puppy protesters in the manner it sought, and it rejected the mall''s preferential treatment of labor protesters.The appellate court said the mall suggests that the law compels it to discriminate. But federal and state laws do not require shopping malls to give labor speech more access to common areas than political and other types of free speech.Celebrating its victory and the apparent end of Puppies Arent Products banishment to the dark corners of the mall where one wouldn''t expect to find Jennifer Grey, Best Friends issued a statement entitled, Nobody Puts Baby in a Corner.______________________________________________Read more at the Washington Examiner:http://washingtonexaminer.com/blogs/opinion-zone/2011/03/labor-lassie-and-law
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Rohr Center for Jewish life - Chabad of Bellingham, Whatcom County & WWU The Chabad Jewish Community and Student Center located in Bellingham, Washington Proudly committed Serving the entire Whatcom County, and Western Washington University (WWU).
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ኢየሱስ ይልቃል! | “ከመላዕክት ይልቅ እጅግ የሚበልጥ ስምን በወረሰ መጠን እንዲሁ ከእነርሱ አብዝቶ ይበልጣል!” “ከመላዕክት ይልቅ እጅግ የሚበልጥ ስምን በወረሰ መጠን እንዲሁ ከእነርሱ አብዝቶ ይበልጣል!”
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