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Safarey | managed by experts in tourism, media and marketing. Their first interest is your convenience. We choose the best and put it at your disposal in the form of news in Arabic and English. It inspires you to experience a unique experience of travel and pleasure and encourage you to make the best offers and reservations from hotels, villas, airlines, buses and car rental. Compare them simply, feel free to experiment with us through a smooth, streamlined site and provide you with all the adventure tools at the lowest cost.
Good Leadership Skills - Character - Integrity - Courage Good leadership skills require good character, integrity, and courage. Some can be improved upon yet others come from within!
North American Buddhist Alliance North American Buddhist Alliance shares Dharma resources across Buddhist traditions.We aim to foster supportive networks.We encourage collaboration, communication, and interaction among Buddhists and Buddhist groups.We publicize, sponsor, or coordinate initiatives and activities of interest through NABA’s interactive website and NABA News.
Good Leadership Skills - Character - Integrity - Courage Good leadership skills require good character, integrity, and courage. Some can be improved upon yet others come from within!
North American Buddhist Alliance North American Buddhist Alliance shares Dharma resources across Buddhist traditions.We aim to foster supportive networks.We encourage collaboration, communication, and interaction among Buddhists and Buddhist groups.We publicize, sponsor, or coordinate initiatives and activities of interest through NABA’s interactive website and NABA News.
IP Breakdown | A Legal Blog by Aaron | Sanders, PLLC Who, What, Why AND Where One of the peculiar features of the U.S. legal system is that, while certain fields are governed exclusively by federal law—i.e., law that applies everywhere in the U.S.—others are governed exclusively by state law. That means, obviously, that there are fifty sets of laws governing a given subject, including some of the heavy-hitters, like contract law. And it get's worse. Sometimes federal law coexists with state law. Sometimes federal law tries to push aside state law but doesn't quite succeed. And sometimes state laws try to push up through federal law, with mixed success. Oh, and sometimes federal courts can hear state cases, but the two court systems use different procedures! You can see why law students spend a significant fraction of their time on various aspects of this "federalism." quotidian But I'm here to talk about a relatively simple aspect of having 50 different sets of laws for the same thing. What happens when the people involved are from different states, and the states' laws are significantly different? The Right to Work Where You Want This issues comes up in two different ways in the fairly recent case, General Electric Co. v. Uptake Technologies, Inc.. The basic facts reveal a very common type of dispute. Some of the defendants used to work for General Electric or its subsidiaries ("GE") on some technology involving "connect[ing] heavy industrial equipment to cloud-based software and analytics," and yadda yadda yadda. Over time, they were recruited by Uptake Technologies (also a defendant), which was working on similar technology. When they were initially hired by GE, they promised not maintain certain information confidential, and they promised not to solicit other GE employees if they left. But (GE alleges) those that were recruited first by Uptake helped Uptake recruit the others, which would violate the anti-solicitation provision. But wait! Several of these individual defendants are residents of California. And California law won't enforce non-solicitation provisions! California believes that letting workers take their knowledge and talent wherever they want is most encourage that knowledge and talent to be applied most effectively. Something about free markets. But wait again! GE is headquartered in New York City, or maybe Boston, Massachusetts, or maybe even Fairfield, Connecticut, depending on the date and how you look at it. And in each of those states, non-solicitation provisions are OK, so long as they're "reasonable." How do you tell which law applies to a contract when the contracting parties are in different states? It turns out that's a really, really hard question! And there can only be one law governing a contract (normally). The general rule is the governing law is the law of the "state of contracting," which was developed back before fax machines, when the parties probably met face-to-face to negotiate and execute the contract. But it has almost no application today, when negotiations are carried out by phone or email and the contract can be signed in different states. Fortunately, we don't have to guess. The contracts each had a provision specifying that New York law applied. So, end of story. Sorry to get you excited. Except that's not the end of the story. When you choose the governing law in a contract, a court can override that in favor of another state's law under the right circumstances. But, wait—where does that rule come from? It has to come from somewhere. There's no federal law governing what to do when two state laws conflict, as you might very reasonably expect. No, the source of the law governing conflicts of laws is…state law. New York's? California's? No—it would be the law of the state where the lawsuit was filed, which in this case is… Illinois! So, we're applying Illinois law to figure out whether to apply New York or California law. Illinois law says that it'll go with the chosen law (New York) unless it would be contrary to the "fundamental policy" of the law of another state with an interest in the case (California). Obviously, "fundamental policy" has to be more than just the existence of law that would lead to a contrary result. It's 100% the case that California greatly values employees' right to change jobs frictionlessly. Anyone who has conducted business in California knows this is a key—dare I say, fundamental—feature of California business. Dozen of reported court decisions back this up. And, yet, the court here found that, at least as applied to non-solicitation decisions, this was not a fundamental policy of California. That was because there is a stray mid-level appellate decision from 1985 kind of, sort of suggesting that maybe sometimes a non-solicitation provision might be OK under the right circumstances. The court recognized that this old decision has been well and truly overruled and generally regarded as a mistake. But its existence put enough doubt in the court's mind about California's commitment to employees' freedom of mobility that it's not quite fundamental enough to override the parties' choice of New York law, under Illinois law. Got that? This is an unusual case. Normally, it's a mug's game to try to guess which state's law will benefit you more in case of a breach of the contract. Usually, you don't know until it's been breached, and it's not worth paying your lawyer to guess at every possible breach and compare laws. Besides, even though there are 50 state laws, there's a lot of overlap, since most of them arise from the same legal foundations. Fate and the Law: Inevitable Disclosures We're not done yet. While the individual defendants were focused on attacking the New York choice-of-law provision, they were also attacking GE's claims for misappropriation of trade secrets. Now, at this stage, all we have is the complaint, and trade secret claims awkward to plead. On the one hand, a defendant has a right to know what it's accused of doing, and that includes knowing what alleged trade secrets it allegedly misappropriated (and how). On the other hand, complaints are public documents, and exposing a trade secret to the public is the equivalent of exposing a vampire to sunlight. Courts are slowly reaching a consensus that all the plaintiff needs to do in the complaint is describe generally the trade secrets at issue, with enough detail that the defendant has a pretty good idea what they are but not enough detail that the public can figure them out. This works on the theory that, if the defendant really did misappropriate the trade secrets, it'll recognize the trade secrets with enough hints. GE had another problem pleading its trade secrets claim. Sure, you don't have to detail the trade secrets, but you do need to say which defendants misappropriated which trade secrets. It's not a test, but GE can probably take reasonable guesses about which defendants have done what. GE argued it didn't have to get that specific because, under the doctrine of "inevitable disclosure," it doesn't matter whether a given defendant has yet to misappropriate a trade secret, only that such misappropriation will eventually happen. Thus, all of the individual defendants have effectively misappropriated all of the trade secrets, because they're alleged to all be on the verge of doing so. Inevitable disclosure is one of the most divisive concepts in intellectual property law. It's almost the exact opposite of California's right employee mobility. Taken to an extreme, once you've been exposed to a certain level of your employer's trade secrets, you can never work for a competitor in the same capacity. It was briefly in vogue in the 1990's, but courts have generally shied away from it since then, and many courts have been downright hostile to it. But guess where it the 1990's vogue for inevitable disclosure started? Illinois. The court ruled that Illinois law applied to GE's trade secrets claim. But not because the court happened to be in Illinois. But because Uptake is based in Illinois. Which is also probably why the lawsuit was brought in Illinois, but jurisdiction (judicial power over a defendant) is different from choice of law (which law applies to a given legal question). Defendants can rarely avoid application of their own state's laws! What about those choice-of-law provisions? Wouldn't New York law apply? Maybe! It would depend on the language of those provisions. Typically, choice-of-law provisions are drafted to apply only to the contract, e.g., "New York law shall govern the construction and enforcement of this contract." But rarely, it's broader, e.g., "New York law shall govern this contract and the parties' relationship for all matter related to the subject matter of this contract." In this case, the choice-of-law provision was of the more typical, narrow type. So, to conclude, Illinois law provides that New York law governs the contact claims, despite California's deep fundamental policy, and that Illinois law governs the trade secret claims, despite the New York choice-of-law provision. Thanks for reading!
Home - Warrington History Society The website of Warrington History Society. Established in 1964, our aim is to encourage an interest in all aspects of Warrington's history and archaeology.
Marcel Van Association | Celebrating the life of Marcel Van We place ourselves under the protection of Our Lady and the tutelage of Saint Thérèse of Lisieux. The aim of the Marcel Van Association is to help increase interest in the life and writings of Marcel Van and to encourage the practice of the Little Way of Spirituality, introduced to Van by Saint Thérèse. We look forward to the day, always…
Pacific Western Region | Pacific Western Region staff encourage our congregations to take a deep interest in each other; to consider best practices together; to model spiritual leadership with one another; and to share their stories of doubt, risk and transformation. By cultivating connections among our...
Elgin Model Railway Club | Modelfair Exhibition Description" content="Elgin Model Railway Club was formed in 1987 to promote and encourage general interest in any aspect connected with railways and
Educational and Inspiring News Articles for Students | Articles Hub Articles Hub publishing platform is a treasure trove of interesting news articles for students. Find the most relevant content concerning higher education in one place.
MLLPC – Malay Committee in Singapore The MLLPC is a Malay committee in Singapore comprising community leaders, Malay community organisations and other professional bodies. We aim to further encourage students in learning the Malay language and to develop interest in the Malay literature and culture. Visit our website today!
GSE Belux | Think global - Act local GSE is a non-profit association of companies, organisations and individuals who are involved in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions based on IBM architectures. GSE aims to encourage members to exchange experience and information related to ICT, influence ICT product and service providers, and influence the European standards in Information and Communication Technology in the interest of its members.
Casual Band Blogger - We Blog About Bands Well, the name says it all. We blog about bands. Our goal is to encourage and mentor young people to pursue their interest in music and music media, by giving them opportunities to represent the site as both writers, photographers and general industry folk.
plymouth historical society « Plymouth, Connecticut The Plymouth Historical Society is a membership supported, not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting local and American history. We make Plymouth's rich heritage come alive! Mission Statement: To encourage interest and pride in the history of Plymouth and its surrounding areas. To discover, obtain, preserve and interpret artifacts of local significance. To share information with schools,…
plymouth historical society « Plymouth, Connecticut The Plymouth Historical Society is a membership supported, not-for-profit organization dedicated to supporting local and American history. We make Plymouth's rich heritage come alive! Mission Statement: To encourage interest and pride in the history of Plymouth and its surrounding areas. To discover, obtain, preserve and interpret artifacts of local significance. To share information with schools,…
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TxtMania | The Philippines, a group of over 7,000 islands with combined land area encompassing 300,000 square kilometres, grew into a nation under more than three centuries of Spanish conquest and 42 years of American rule. It is the first country outside the New World that closely witnessed the United States' rise to power following the 1898 Spanish-American War. Situated 800 kilometres southeast of mainland Asia, the archipelago, named after King Philip II of Spain, was discovered in 1521 by Ferdinand Magellan, the same explorer who had discovered the Pacific Ocean in search of the so-called "Spice Islands" and is now widely considered the first navigator to have cruised around the planet. Ironically, the Filipinos, after having been subdued for centuries by foreign colonizers as a result of Magellan's voyage, would emerge as the best seafarers in the world, manning a third of all international vessels today. Some 7.8 million overseas Filipino workers (OFWs) and Filipino migrants would help rebuild cities in many countries and bring back over US$10 billion in annual remittances to their families in the Philippines. The country's geographical location and long exposure to foreign influences has placed the Philippines on a unique cultural base in Asia. It is now the only predominantly Catholic country in the region, with 70 million out of its total population of 85 million (as of 2005) confessing to be Catholic. There are also large numbers of Protestants and Born-Again Christians in the country while the Muslim population is concentrated in southern Mindanao. Early Trade The first inhabitants of the Philippines were the Negritos who traveled from mainland Asia over a land bridge that is now underwater. Migrants from other Southeast Asian countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia later followed and established a Malayan culture that flourished before the Spaniards came. Chinese and Arab merchants helped establish markets at the community level. A sultanate system, first established in the southern island of Sulu in the 14th century, is believed to have reached the islands of Luzon and Visayas, giving way to the rise of the Islamic faith. The Spaniards would later drive the Muslims to the south and establish Catholicism as the main religion in the north and central parts of the country. Local villages, known as barangay, traded agricultural and fishery products with each other. The Igorot tribe in Northern Luzon carved the marvellous Banaue Rice Terraces from the mountains, a proof of their advanced agriculture technology. Communities near the shore exchanged goods with Chinese and Arab merchants, who came aboard large ships. These communities traded slaves, gold, beeswax, betel nuts, pearls, and shells for porcelain, silk, iron, tin and semi-precious stones. The Philippine islands were a part of an extensive trade route used by Chinese merchants as early as the 10th century. By the time Magellan arrived in the islands, regular trade and cultural contact between Chinese traders and local chieftains were firmly instituted. Many Chinese merchants settled in the country and shared their crafts with the natives. Some historians claim that an Italian Franciscan priest, named Father Odorico, was actually the first European to have reached the Philippines in 1324 when his ship bound for China took refuge from a storm in Bolinao Island in northern part of Luzon. Aside from the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Cordillera Mountains, early settlers did not leave any giant monument, and this is what makes conservative historians doubt the existence of the rich kingdoms in the country hundreds of years ago. However, it cannot be denied that early Filipinos were learned individuals who expressed their beliefs and sentiments in rich languages. According to the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), there are actually 78 language groupings and over 500 dialects in the Philippines. Feudal Society Magellan, who claimed the archipelago for Spain in 1521, died in a battle with a group of local warriors led by Lapu Lapu at Mactan Island. It was Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, in the fourth Spanish expedition, who named the territory as Filipinas after the heir to the Spanish throne in 1543. In 1565, Miguel Lopez de Legaspi led an expedition to colonize the islands and by 1571, most parts of the archipelago came under Spanish rule. The Spaniards established the colonial government first in Cebu in 1565 and then in Manila in 1571. Historians claim that University of San Carlos in Cebu and University of Sto. Tomas in Manila are the oldest universities teaching European type of education in Asia. Jesuit and Dominican priests established the two institutions. Under Spanish rule, Catholicism became the dominant religion. Catholic friars not only lorded over the congregations; they enjoyed vast political and economic influence, which they eventually used to repress Filipino peasants' uprisings in the largely feudal Philippine society at that time. The Spaniards also quelled a number of rebellions instigated by the Chinese migrants. The friars distributed lands to Spanish families, who later comprised the landowning class. To perpetuate their economic interests, this class would also rise to become the political elite that would remain in power to this day. This gave way to the hacienda system in the Philippines, where cacique or landowners managed large tracts of lands tilled by peasant workers. Under the system, farmers were supposed to receive half of the harvest, but they usually ended up with much less because they had to pay for large interests on debt incurred from the cacique. This would be later corrected with a system of land reform, which, however, remains to be fully implemented to this day. Galleon Trade The Manila-Acapulco galleon trade became the major trading system between Asia and the Americas for nearly two centuries. Manila became a transhipment point of American silver to China. It was through this trade that the first Chinese silk and porcelain reached the shores of the New World. There were unverified claims that Filipinos helped build the city of Los Angeles in America. The Chinese and Filipinos would later become the two largest Asian migrant groups in the United States. Coconut became the country's top agricultural product, because of Spain's huge need for charcoaled coconut shells used for the caulking of the galleons. In 1642, the colonial government issued an edict requiring each Filipino to plant 200 coconut trees all over the country. By 1910, coconut exports would account for a fifth of total Philippine exports and to this day, coconut oil remains the country's top agricultural shipment. The Galleon Trade lasted for about 200 years until 1815. It is during this period that rice and tropical fruits from the Philippines such as mango and banana made their way to Latin America. Beginning 1750, Spanish priests encouraged the development of plantations to grow abaca (hemp), tobacco, coffee and sugar. Sugar barons from the Visayas would later emerge as among the richest clans in the country. From 1762 to 1764, the British briefly captured Manila during the Seven Years War. The treaty of Paris ended the British occupation and returned the colony to the hands of their original colonial masters. Plantation Crops In 1781, the Spanish governor established the tobacco monopoly in the Philippines, which would become a major source of revenue for the colonial government. From 1820 to 1870, the Philippines would be transformed to an agricultural export economy. Located on the oceanic trading routes connecting Asia to other parts of the world, the Philippines became a transhipment point of merchandise goods from all over Southeast Asia on their way to Europe. The Philippines exported plantation crops such as sugar, abaca, other fibres, tobacco, coffee, and coconut products to China, Spain, United States, United Kingdom and British East Indies. In return, it imported textiles and rice. Historians claim that Spain administered the Philippine affairs through Mexico. Spanish administrators in the country were actually reporting to the Viceroyalty of Mexico. After Mexico gained its independence from Spain in 1821, Madrid directly governed its only Asian colony and even allowed rich Filipinos to study in Europe. The Spanish rule gave way to the rise of a small but highly powerful elite class, which to this day, controls most of the Philippine economy. The elite families, which own large plantations, were able to send their children to Europe for education. Foreign Investors Investors from Spain, Germany, Britain and other European countries laid the groundwork for utility companies in steam navigation, cable, telegraphy, railroads and electricity in the country. They also invested heavily in rice and sugar milling, textile and banking. The local elite developed the brewing industry, which would become one of the most profitable sectors in the economy. Although the educated Filipinos who studied in Europe shunned the use of force to topple the colonial government, their writings provoked nationalist sentiments among young men, who eventually formed a revolutionary movement against Spain. In 1896, the war between Spanish and Filipino soldiers escalated following the death of novelist Jose Rizal and rebel leader Andres Bonifacio. Emilio Aguinaldo, the new leader of the revolutionary forces, forged a pact with US Commodore George Dewey in Hong Kong to defeat the Spanish army. American Colony The Americans entered the scene because of its conflict with Spain over Cuba. With the outbreak of the Spanish-American war in the Pacific, the Philippines had to be taken by the US, lest other European countries such as Britain, France and Germany would fight for their next Southeast Asian colony. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo, first backed by American forces, declared the independence of Kawit, Cavite, the seat of the revolutionary Filipino government at that time, from Spanish rule. The Americans took possession of Manila on August 13, 1898. While armed clashes with Spanish forces continued in other parts of the country, the Americans and the Spaniards were negotiating for the purchase of the Philippines for US$20 million. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded the Philippines, Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Guam to the US. Filipinos felt insulted at the fact that their country has been passed from one colonial master to another for only US$20 million. When the US, which had not conquered any country before, made known its intention to succeed Spain as the next colonizer of the Philippines, Aguinaldo and his men waged a revolutionary resistance that ended with his capture in March 1901. The American soldiers easily subdued the remaining factions of rebellion with the help of their powerful weapons and their divide-and-conquer tactic. As an archipelago of 7,000 islands, the Philippines is home to different ethnic groups which do not speak the same language. The national government's attempt to declare Tagalog (spoken in Central and Southern Luzon including Metro Manila) as the national language would not easily win the support of other regions. The Philippine-American war took the lives of 4,234 American and 16,000 Filipino soldiers. The death toll was much higher on the civilian population, with as high as 200,000 casualties. Although local resistance persisted until 1903, the US ended its military rule on July 4, 1901. American Way Under American civilian rule, the Philippines was introduced to US-type of education, Protestant religion, and later to the concept of democracy. Placed under US control were most parts of the country, except in the southern portion of Mindanao where Muslim rebels held strong resistance. William Howard Taft, the 27th US president, was the first American Civil Governor in the Philippines. Taft was praised for establishing a civil service system, creating a national legislature, suppressing prices, upgrading health standards, and sponsoring land reform and road building in the country. In 1907, the First Philippine Assembly composed of educated and rich Filipinos with vast landholdings. Manuel L. Quezon, who represented the Philippines in the US Congress, lobbied for the passage of the Jones Law, which in 1916 abolished the Philippine Assembly to give way for a bicameral legislature made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. With the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Act in 1934, Filipinos had their first taste of self-rule through the Philippine Commonwealth, a transitional government designed to prepare the Filipinos over a ten-year period for independence. By 1935, the Commonwealth was in place with Quezon as its first president. The Philippines also approved a new constitution in the same year. The United States is credited for helping establish the Republic of the Philippines, the first democratic government in Asia. Economically, the Philippines was ahead of its Asian neighbours, who were still subjects of European colonial powers before the war. Japanese Invasion In December 1941, the Japanese Imperial Army invaded the Philippines and drove the Commonwealth Government from Manila. While Quezon continued to head the government-in-exile until his death in New York in August 1944, the Japanese forces handpicked Jose P. Laurel, a graduate of Yale University and Tokyo International University, to head a new government under their control. The Philippines was dragged into the war because of Japan's military ambition to become the dominant force in Asia and the Pacific. Japan wanted to be the leader of an economic zone in East Asia, which would be the source of its raw materials. The US presence in the Philippines, known for its strategic location in Southeast Asia, was the largest threat to the Japanese forces, following the destruction of the American Pacific fleet at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. While the American forces were regrouping in the United States, Filipino soldiers formed a guerrilla organization called Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army). Some 30,000 guerrillas at that time engaged the Japanese army in intermittent clashes. The Hukbalahap would later adopt the communist ideology and rule in the countryside. Meanwhile, Sergio Osmeña replaced Quezon as the head of the government-in-exile and joined General Douglas MacArthur in the liberation of Manila. General MacArthur returned to the Philippines via the island province of Leyte, along with 174,000 army and navy servicemen on October 20, 1944. The liberation of Manila took almost 20 days from February 3 to 23, 1945 and the fierce battle destroyed much of the city, with its ruins now often compared to the ruins of Warsaw, Poland in Europe. The Japanese army, however, continued to fight in the provinces, until September 2, 1945 when General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya who was believed to have hidden vast amount of treasures during the war, surrendered in Baguio City. It is estimated that the battle of Manila cost the lives of 1 million Filipinos, 300,000 Japanese and 60,000 Americans. The intensity of the US-Japan war would force the former to drop an atomic bomb in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 and in Nagasaki three days later. US Bases By February 1945, Osmeña restored the Commonwealth in the Philippines but it was only on July 4, 1946 that the US granted the Philippines its independence, coinciding with the celebration of the Independence Day in America. However, US military bases would remain in the country for the next 45 years. On March 14, 1947, Manila and Washington signed the Treaty of General Relation, which provided the US to construct military bases for a lease period of 99 years. In 1959, the agreement was amended to shorten the lease period until 1991, after which both sides were to renegotiate the contract. When the US sought a ten-year extension of the lease period in 1991, the Philippine Senate, led by Senate President Jovito Salonga, rejected the proposal in a historic casting of vote on September 16, ending US military bases in the country. With newfound freedom in 1946, Filipinos elected Manuel A. Roxas, leader of the Liberal Party and one of the seven members of the Constitutional Convention who drafted the 1935 Constitution, as the first president of the independent republic in April 1946. His presidency was focused on rebuilding the cities and municipalities torn by the war, redistributing lands as wealthy landowners returned to reclaim their estates, and confronting the Hukbalahap, which by this time was tagged as a socialist-communist organization. The economy grew at a rapid pace, immediately after the war. Special Treatment Close economic ties between Manila and Washington continued after the war on the back of agreements providing for preferential tariffs for American exports and special treatment for US investors in the Philippines. In the 1946 Philippine Trade Act, the Americans were granted duty-free access to the Philippine market and special rights to exploit the country's natural resources. Because of the Trade Act, the Philippines suffered a huge trade deficit with the influx of American imports. In 1949, the Philippine government was forced to impose import controls, after getting the consent of Washington. Roxas' two-year presidency ended with his death, following a heart attack while delivering a speech at Clark Air Force Base in Pampanga province in April 1948. Vice president Elpidio Quirino succeeded Roxas as president and defeated Jose P. Laurel to keep his post in the 1949 presidential race. It was during Quirino's term that the Minimum Wage Law was enacted and the Central Bank was established to stabilize the peso and consumer prices. The country's gross national product grew by an average of 7.7 percent annually in the early 1960s, on the back of the double-digit increase in the manufacturing sector. In the 1953 presidential election, Ramon Magsaysay, who had served as defense secretary under the Quirino administration, won by a landslide. The charismatic Magsaysay initiated peace talks with the Hukbalahap, which would later evolve into a communist organization. He became popular for opening the gates of Malacanang Palace to ordinary people. He died in a plane crash on Mount Manunggal in Cebu in March 1957, which to this day remains a mystery to many Filipinos. While the standard of living in the Philippines was below that of the Western World, the country was often cited as the second richest economy in Asia, after Japan in the 1960s. However, ill-advised economic policies, poor governance and rapid population growth in the country would allow other Asian economies such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand and China not only to catch up with but to leave the Philippines behind in the race towards industrialization. Filipino First Vice President Carlos P. Garcia assumed the country's top government post following the death of Magsaysay. Garcia was known for his First Filipino Policy and Austerity Program, which put the interests of Filipinos ahead those of foreigners. Under his austerity measures, he encouraged temperate spending, which resulted in less imports and more exports. His nationalist policies, however, perpetuated the business interests of the ruling elite in the country and did not encourage local businesses to be competitive. Garcia lost to his vice-president in the 1961 presidential poll. Protectionist policies allowed local manufacturers to control the economy from 1949 to 1962, discouraging them from becoming competitive. Diosdado Macapagal, father of incumbent President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, was the president from 1961 to 1965. Before he became president, he authored the land reform program as a legislator and was vice-president to Garcia. As president, Macapagal began a five-year socio-economic program by removing imports control and liberalizing foreign exchange. It was Macapagal who declared June 12 as the national Independence Day. In 1962, the Macapagal administration began devaluing the peso by half to around 3.90 to the US dollar. Macapagal initiated a shift in investments from the light industries to chemicals, steel and industrial equipment. He was also one of the proponents of the MAPHILINDO, a trade bloc of three South East Asian countries – the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. This bloc later expanded to what is now the Association of the Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). By 1965, foreign capital was present in nearly a third of the country's capital stock. Martial Law Ferdinand Marcos, the Senate president, defeated Macapagal in the presidential election to become the country's tenth president in November 1965. A close ally of the United States, Marcos launched military campaigns against the insurgents including the communist Hukbalahap and Moro rebels in Mindanao. In August 1967, Manila hosted a summit that led to the creation of the ASEAN. With his reelection in 1969, Marcos had to contend with worsening civil strife. An ideologist named Jose Ma. Sison founded the Communist Party of the Philippines on December 26, 1968. It was during the same year that University of the Philippines Nur Misuari founded the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), the armed wing of Islamic resistance movement. In June 1971, the government convened the Constitutional Convention to amend the Constitution. Ironically, Marcos declared Martial Law on September 21, 1972, following a series of bombings in Metro Manila, He abolished Congress, curtailed freedom of the press, imposed curfews, ordered the arrest of his political enemies, prohibited labour unions, and controlled the economy with the help of his cronies. Although his wife Imelda was credited for building some of the country's finest monuments, she was criticized for personal extravagance, a form of which was maintaining a collection of 3,000 pairs of shoes. Green Revolution The so-called green revolution in the early 1970s, which introduced new farming technologies, enabled the Philippines to export rice to its neighbours. The International Rice Research Institute was established in Los Banos town, Laguna province where Thai, Vietnamese and other Asian researchers trained to develop their own rice production. Thailand would later become the world's largest rice exporter and the Philippines one of the largest rice importers. With the introduction of new farming technologies, the Philippines became heavily dependent on importer fertilizers, which are mostly fuel-based. The increase in world crude oil prices also pushed prices of fertilizers, to the detriment of Filipino farmers trying to adopt the modern technologies. Chinese Tycoons On June 9, 1975, the Marcos administration signed a joint communiqué with Communist China to restore official diplomatic relations. The Communiqué recognized that "there is but one China, of which Taiwan is an integral part. In return, China vowed not to interfere in the internal affairs of the Philippines and refrained from providing any substantial support to the Communist Party of the Philippines, the largest insurgent group in the country. The largest success story in the Philippines actually involved Chinese merchants who left China in pursuit of business opportunities abroad. Unlike rich American investors, Chinese migrants came to the Philippines with little money but large determination that the country's democratic society would help them become rich. True enough, they found goldmine in the Philippines. Today, the richest individuals in the Philippines have Chinese names, including billionaires such as Lucio Tan, Henry Sy, John Gokongwei, and George Ty. Together, they are the largest group of investors in the Philippines and control most of the largest companies in the country. Overseas Workers Under Martial Law, one man other than Marcos would singularly define labour relations in the Philippines and the role of the Filipino workers in the world. Labour Minister Blas Ople, a former journalist, authored the Labor Code on November 1, 1974 and launched the overseas employment program in 1976, which would send young and talented Filipinos who could not find work at home to other countries for dollar-earning jobs. Ople obtained the permission of Marcos to deploy thousands of Filipino workers overseas to meet the growing need of Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates for skilled workers and the rising demand for Filipino seamen in flag-of-convenience vessels. Hesitant at first, Marcos later conceded to the proposal, if only to tame the growing militancy building among the hearts of the young and intelligent Filipinos who could not find job opportunities in their own land. The Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) and the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration (OWWA) were established to intensify recruitment of Filipino workers. This would make the Philippines the third largest destination of dollar remittances in the world, next to the more populous countries of India and Mexico. The Marcos administration also tried to court foreign investors, by committing guarantees against nationalization and imposing restrictions on trade-union activity. However, the blatant record of human rights abuses by the military under his administration was a big turnoff among foreigners. Under Martial law, the military and the police killed, abused, or arrested at least 10,000 Filipinos, including some of the brightest students and intellectuals. Many had disappeared without a trace. While Marcos lifted martial law on January 17, 1981 in time for the visit of Pope John Paul II to Manila in February, he maintained most of his powers as a dictator. Benigno Aquino, an opposition senator living in asylum in the US, decided to return to Manila in 1983. His death, from assassins' bullets at the tarmac of the Manila International Airport, sparked adverse sentiments against the Marcos administration. Bankruptcy As the economy stagnated under the Marcos administration because of a mix of bad economic policies, corruption and uncontrolled population growth, the government had to resort to foreign borrowing to finance the fiscal deficit. In October 1983, the Central Bank notified its creditors about its plan to default payment on debt amounting to US$24.6 billion. With the growing loss of confidence by the business community, the peso depreciated by as much as 21 percent in 1983. The gross domestic product shrank by 6.8 percent in 1984 and by 3.8 percent in 1985. Emboldened by Marcos' dipping popularity, the opposition gathered around Aquino's widow, Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who would later challenge Marcos in the 1986 snap presidential election. When Batasang Pambansa (National Assembly) declared Marcos the winner amid allegations of widespread electoral fraud, protesters, buoyed by Manila archbishop Jaime Cardinal Sin, trooped to the streets. Following the defection of Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Armed Forces vice chief Fidel Ramos from Marcos, protesters began converging along EDSA near Ortigas Avenue, which would culminate in the ouster of Marcos from Malacanang Palace on February 25, 1986. The media called the bloodless uprising as the 1986 EDSA People Power Revolution - something that political groups would later thought could be replicated time and again. Democratic Rule After Marcos, his family and his cronies fled from the Philippines, Aquino became president, organized a new government, freed the political prisoners and tried to restore democratic rule in the country. In February 1987, her government approved a new Constitution, which would later be subjected to heated debates over its restrictive provisions on foreign participation in the economy. The 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government with a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court chief justice. To avoid a replication of Marcos' excesses, the Constitution limited the president's stay in office to one six-year term. It also created the autonomous regions of Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera and put agrarian reform as the cornerstone of the government's plan for social transformation. A renegade faction in the Philippine military launched a series of coup attempts against the Aquino presidency. Perception of political instability dampened economic activities and refrained the economy from matching the large strides taken by its Asian neighbors in the 1980s and 1990s. By this time, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand have overtaken the Philippines in the race towards industrialization. The Arroyo administration, while taking pride of having restored democracy, failed to bring the economy on track towards industrialization, and one of the factors singled out was the president's political inexperience and lack of consistency in pushing for economic reforms. In the 1992 presidential election, Aquino endorsed the candidacy of her chosen successor – Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos. In June 1991, Mount Pinatubo's powerful eruption sent tons of ashes around the planet's atmosphere. Subsequent lava/lahar flow buried several towns in Central Luzon and jolted the economy. The natural tragedy also forced American soldiers at Clark Field and Subic Bay to withdraw from their bases earlier than stipulated. The US turned over to the Philippine government the two bases with total assets amounting to US$1.3 billion. The Philippine government later transformed the two bases into special economic zones. Liberalisation In 1992, Fidel Ramos was elected President. He began his term amid an energy crisis, which plunged the country literally into darkness. This he was able to resolve by inviting foreign investors to take part in the so-called build-operate-transfer (BOT) scheme, where they would serve as independent power producers (IPPs) enjoying a lot of incentives and guaranteed market. While it brought light to Filipino households, the scheme would later translate to high electricity rates. In 1995, the Ramos administration also had to contend with a rice shortage, as a result of low agricultural production and poorly managed importation program. Since then, the government has authorised the National Food Authority (NFA) to import rice at will in order to prepare for any shortage in domestic stock. The Ramos presidency was also responsible for economic reforms such as privatisation of government assets, trade and banking liberalisation and deregulation, which would push annual trade growth at double-digit levels and draw in large-ticket foreign investments. By 1996, the Philippines was described as a newly industrialising economy along with the likes of Thailand and Malaysia. It was also under the Ramos presidency that communism was legalised, and some leftist organisations would later join Congress as partylist groups. The government and the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) headed by Nur Misuari would sign a peace agreement that would establish a peace zone in southern Philippines. However, other militant rebel groups such as the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and Abu Sayyaf would continue waging a war against the government for a Islamic state in the south. What Ramos failed to accomplish is the amendment to the 1987 Constitution to remove the restriction on foreign ownership of land and public utilities, which limits maximum ownership to 40 percent. The opposition party accused him of trying to tinker with the charter to remove the six-year term limit of the president and in the process perpetuate his stay in power. In the end, he had to give up such attempt under the weight of public opinion. Financial Crisis With the outbreak of the Asian financial crisis, the Philippine economy contracted by 0.6 percent in 1998, the same year Joseph Estrada, a popular politician with links to the movie industry, became president. The economy actually grew although at a slower pace at 3.4 percent in 1999 and at 4 percent in 2000 even as the inflation and interest rates began to decline. In comparison, growth reached 5.2 percent under the Ramos presidency in 1997. While Estrada got the backing of Filipino-Chinese businessmen by reducing the problem of kidnapping, he did not get the same support from other "elite" businessmen. Despite appointing top economists, Estrada, a former college dropout, could not convince the "high society" that he could resolve the country's economic woes. Ironically, what brought down the Estrada administration was not his economic policies, seen by many as not substantially different from those of Ramos, but the perception of wide corruption in his administration. In October 2000, a former ally implicated Estrada in illegal gambling payoffs and kickbacks. Reports that he has many wives housed in different mansions also got Estrada indifferent treatment from the Church, which was a force behind the 1986 People's Power Revolution. EDSA 2 In December 2000, the House of Representatives impeached Estrada. The subsequent impeachment trial at the Senate was aborted when senators from the opposition party walked out of the courtroom, triggering street demonstrations reminiscent of the 1986 revolt. Within hours after the walkout, the crowd at EDSA grew into millions of anti-Estrada protesters. When political and military leaders withdrew their support from Estrada, Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide swore Vice President Gloria Mapacagal Arroyo as the next president on January 20, 2001. Arroyo, a daughter of former President Diosdado Macapagal, came to Malacanang with a promise to clean the government of corrupt officials and bring down the number of poor Filipinos, which represents a third of the total population. In her first year in office, she faced numerous challenges starting with the May 1 rebellion, instigated by the Estrada camp to regain the presidency. The rebellion proved futile, as the highly politicised military and the police remained loyal to Arroyo. She also had to contend with Muslim extremists, who began to target cities in their attacks. Following the terrorist attacks in the US on September 11, 2001, the Philippines was one of the first countries to express support for a US-led international campaign against terrorism. On the economic front, Congress passed the liberalisation of the retail trade sector and the Electric Power Industry Reform Act of 2001, which aims to privatise the state-owned National Power Corporation. The Arroyo administration also promoted business process outsourcing (BPO), information technology, tourism, and mining as key investment areas for foreign companies. Trade with other Asian countries was also given importance in view of the declining trade volume with the United States. Telecommunications One particular industry, which has led economic growth since 2000 is telecommunications, although this proved to be a bane for other industries as Filipinos cut their expenditures on other items to buy mobile phones and pay for monthly network services. By 2005, it is estimated that half of the 85 million Filipinos would have mobile phones, a high penetration rate for a developing market. Because of the global economic slump following the September 11 attacks, the GDP grew by merely 1.8 percent in 2001. Growth reached 4.3 percent in 2002 and 4.7 percent in 2003 even as the Arroyo administration confronted communist and Islamic insurgency problems and a shocking military coup in July 2003. After surviving the coup, Arroyo won the May 2004 presidential election over Estrada's close friend and popular actor Fernando Poe Jr. Economic growth reached 6.1 percent in 2004, the highest in 15 years, although this was negated by high inflation and uncontrolled unemployment rates which were more felt by the poor. Fiscal Deficit Pressed by economists to narrow the burgeoning fiscal deficit, President Arroyo urged Congress to pass a package of tax reform measures aimed at achieving a balanced budget by the end of her term in 2010. Because of a long history of budget deficits, the public debt hit more than 130 percent of the GDP in 2003 and has been rising since then. Different sectors, however, criticised the administration for passing a heavier burden of taxation on the people at a time crude oil prices were hovering at historic high levels and pushing prices of goods and services beyond the capacity of ordinary consumers. By the second half of 2005, there were signs that the fiscal deficit was narrowing, even with the delay in the implementation of the Expanded Value Added Tax (EVAT) law, which raised by 2 percentage points the tax rate on consumer products and services to 12 percent and by 3 percentage points the corporate income tax to 35 percent. The new EVAT law, which was expanded to cover fuel and electricity, took effect on November 1, 2005. New Constitution As the popularity of President Arroyo dipped to the lowest level amid allegations that she bought her way to the presidency in the 2004 presidential elections, she was given an option to correct the loopholes in the political system by amending the 1987 Constitution. She formed a Consultative Commission to recommend charter amendments focusing on lifting all restrictions to foreign investments and paving the way for a shift in the form of government from a presidential, central system into a parliamentary, federal system. Posted by Text Mates at 4:16 PM 0 comments Labels: Economy, History, National, Social Filipino Inventions Solar powered Balut maker The College of Engineering and Agro-Industrial Technology at the University of the Philippines-Los Banos has invented a solar "balut" maker. Engineer Fernando Paras Jr. said the machine, which covers an area of five square meters, is actually an incubator that can process duck eggs into embryonated eggs or balut for 15 to 17 days. Traditionally, balut makers in Pateros have been using electricity for incubation. The new invention is a two-way solar-powered system, with the solar water heater serving as the primary heat source while the photovoltaic cells serve as the auxiliary heat source regulating the temperature inside the incubator. The machine can process up to 4,000 eggs at the same time. This can double the income of farmers. SMS reader for the Blind A group of four engineering students from the De La Salle University invented the SMS reader, a device that allows the blind to read and send text messages. The prototype is composed of a black box with a Braille display that mimics the interface of a mobile phone. A data cable is connected to a slot in the black box. Superkalan Narciso Mosuela of La Union province invented the "superkalan", a novelty stove that can be fired with anything that burns—wood, paper, dried dung and leaves, corn cobs, and coco shells. The body of this stove is made of aluminum alloy, with a cast iron heat intensifier. For his invention, the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) bestowed on Mosuela the "best design award" for Third World country category in 1987. Aside from the superkalan, Mr. Mosuela invented a functional rice thresher and other kitchen gadgets. Anti-cancer cream In November 2005, Filipino inventor Rolando dela Cruz won the gold medal for his "DeBCC" anti-cancer cream at the prestigious International Inventor's Forum in Nuremberg, Germany. The "DeBCC" cream, developed from cashew nuts and other local herbs, was chosen over 1,500 entries as the "most significant invention" of the year. According to Mr. dela Cruz, the cream was a simple answer to basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common type of skin cancer worldwide. BCC affects around 800,000 Americans every year, according to the Skin Care Foundation. BCC also affects 500,000 Europeans and 190,000 Australians every year. Mole Remover In 2000, Rolando dela Cruz developed an ingenuous formula that could easily remove deeply grown moles or warts from the skin without leaving marks or hurting the patient. His formula was extracted from cashew nut (Annacardium occidentale), which is common in the Philippines. The formula won for dela Cruz a gold medal in International Invention, Innovation, Industrial Design and Technology Exhibition in Kuala Lumpur in September 2000. In March 1997, dela Cruz established RCC Amazing Touch International Inc., which runs clinics engaged "in a non-surgical removal of warts, moles and other skin growths, giving the skin renewed energy and vitality without painful and costly surgery." Modular Housing System Edgardo Vazquez won a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal in 1995 for developing a modular housing system. Such a system called Vazbuilt is reportedly capable of building within weeks a house with prefabricated materials that can withstand typhoons and earthquakes. Ironically, Vasquez is not getting enough support from the Philippine government to propagate his technology, which could help provide shelter to some five million Filipino families without their own homes. Vazquez is the national president of the Filipino Inventors Society. Super Bunker Formula-L In 1996, Rudy Lantano Sr., a scientist from the Philippine Department of Science and Technology (DOST), won the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) gold medal for developing Super Bunker Formula-L, a revolutionary fuel half-composed of water. The mix burns faster and emits pollutants, 95 percent less than those released to the air by traditional fuel products. The inventor said his invention is a result of blending new ingredients and additives with ordinary oil products through agitation and mixing, which is a very safe process. The initial plan was to commercially produce two million liters of Alco-Diesel, two million liters of Lan-Gas and an unlimited quantity of Super Bunker Formula-L each day for customers in Luzon. Natural Gas Vehicle The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a vehicle that runs on natural gas, whose rich deposits remain untapped under the Philippine seabed. The project's main objective is to look into the potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel to conventional petrol and diesel for the transport sector. The natural gas vehicle (NVG) has been road-tested in Isabela where an existing natural gas supply from the PNOC Gas Plant is located. Test runs have also been made in Cagayan, Ifugao and Mountain Province. The test vehicle used was the Isuzu Hi-Lander 4JA-1, direct injected diesel engine. The use of natural gas as a fuel is cheaper. On a gallon-equivalent basis, natural gas costs an average of 15 to 40 percent less than gasoline and diesel. There are over one million NVGs in the world today, according to the International Association for Natural Gas Vehicles. Lamp Fixing Invention A Filipino inventor has developed a technology, which could revive a busted lamp (pundido) and give it more years of functional life than those of new ones. Acclaimed by the Filipino Inventors Society as timely and revolutionary, the Nutec system can prolong the life of fluorescent lamps up to seven years. Nutec was developed by New World Technology, headed by president Eric Ngo and chosen as the "Product of the Year" at the Worldbex 2000 Building and Construction Exposition held at the Manila Hotel. Engineer Benjamin S. Santos, national president of the Inventors Society, called Nutec a timely invention. "Tubig Talino" The Department of Science and Technology claimed that it has developed "Tubig Talino", an iodine-rich drinking water that treats micronutrient deficiencies responsible for goiter, mental and physical retardation, and birth defects. "Tubig Talino" is actually a mixture of 20 liters of water and 15 ml of "Water Plus + I2". Consumption of five glasses a day of this iodine fortification in drinking water is expected to provide 120 micrograms of iodine, which meets 100 percent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of a male adult. Feminine Hygiene Product Inventor Dr. Virgilio Malang won a gold medal for his invention "Psidium Guajava Effervescing Gynecological Insert", a silver medal for his "Patient Side-Turning Hospital Bed", and three bonze medals for his inventions "external vaginal cleanser", "light refracting earpick", and "broom's way of hanging" at the Seoul International Fair in held South Korea in December 2002. There were 385 inventions from 30 countries that joined the competitions. Patis Contrary to popular belief, there was no fish sauce or Patis yet during the Spanish occupation. Patis began to become a part of most Filipinos' diet only after the Japanese occupation. Here is an account of how an enterprising lady discovered the fermentation of Patis. Immediately after the war, the family of Ruperta David or Aling Tentay started a dried fish business. One day, Aling Tentay stored in jars some salted fish that turned into fragments even before they dried. While in jars, the fish fragments turned into a liquid substance that tasted like our Patis today. Thus the beginning of the thriving Patis business of Aling Tentay, which was officially registered in 1949 and is known today as Tentay Food and Sauces Inc. (Source: Philippine Daily Inquirer) A Showcase of Ingenuity Nothing perhaps has been associated with Filipino technology as much as the country's pride - jeepney. The word "jeep" evolved from the military designation, general-purpose or G.P., of a light vehicle first used by the Americans in World War II. Developed by the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, this vehicle was powered by a four-cylinder engine and was classified as a quarter-ton truck in carrying capacity. It had served as a command vehicle, reconnaissance car, and ammunition carrier. The American soldiers brought these vehicles to the Philippines in the 1940s. After the war, these vehicles were left by the Americans and converted by the Filipinos into public utility vehicles. Employing artistic and indigenous designs, the Filipinos came up with a longer, well-decorated, techni-colored and sleeker vehicle, which they later called jeepney. From the standard military jeep, the body was extended to accommodate between 20 to 30 passengers. Modern jeepneys now sport very colorful and intricate paintings, fancy adornments, and metallic decors reflective of Filipino sentiments, values, and culture. The town of Las Pinas has been recognized as the jeepney-producing center in the country. Today, public utility jeepneys or PUJs serve as the primary means of transportation in most provinces. For this, the Philippines came to be known as the "land of the jeepneys".
American Hosta Society (AHS) American Hosta Society is a not-for-profit organization. The American Hosta Society is organized exclusively for educational and scientific purposes, and especially to promote, encourage, and foster the development of the genus Hosta and public interest therein.
Belmont County Agricultural Society The Belmont County Agricultural Society's object and purpose shall be to promote and encourage agriculture, industry, schools, science, art, and other interests of Belmont County which the board deems proper and in the best interest of the community.
Central Reformed Church | Classic Worship. Liberating Theology. If God chooses to use what you read in these pages to stir up your interest in Central, we encourage you to come and visit!
Gettysburg Community Concert Association The Gettysburg Community Concert Association’s mission is to build and maintain a permanent concert audience by offering quality programming at an affordable price; to cultivate interest in classical music by providing live performances by qualified regional, national, and international artists; and to foster and encourage music in our local schools by providing outreach programs.
Jewish Community Center, Sonoma County The JCC. Something for Everyone! The JCC connects people and creates community - Jewish community. Helping you discover the inviting array of opportunities to connect Jewishly in a comfortable way - no matter what level of commitment you may have – and providing those options to you is what your Jewish Community Center is all about. The Jewish Community Center, Sonoma County offers a multitude of ways to engage in some aspect of Jewish life—for you, for your children, for your whole family! No prior experience is necessary to enjoy what we’ve got to offer. Summer day camp, a county-wide teen program, lively activities for seniors, arts and culture, clubs and classes …there’s something for everyone! You are invited to get involved and lend your time, energy and talent in helping us create a vibrant and inclusive Jewish community. Call 707-528-4222 to learn more about ways you can participate. We welcome your interest and encourage your involvement!
The Ohio Lepidopterists Promoting interest in butterflies, skippers and moths, the Ohio Lepidopterists of Ohio encourage conservation of wildlife, as well as cooperation and understanding among all lepidopterists in appreciation of Lepidoptera.
Andy''s Northern Ontario Wildflower home page Andy''s northern Ontario wildflower page has photographs of northern Ontario wildflowers, including a description of the wildflower habitat and elementary identification criteria.
The Applique Society | Sequim, Washington Our goal is to promote, teach, and encourage the love of all types of applique in Quilting. We work to educate and promote public interest in the world of applique.
Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists The Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists is a nonprofit organization whose purposes are to promote interest in geology and allied sciences and their practical application, to foster scientific research and to encourage fellowship and cooperation among its members.
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research | Home page A clinical and basic musculoskeletal research publication in a vastly growing field of interest, Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research (JOSR) delves into content ranging from the molecular, cellular, structural and functional perspectives to tissue engineering, gait analysis, automation and robotic surgery. The journal provides essential reading for orthopaedic researchers and surgeons alike, as well as related healthcare professionals.The JOSR Editors actively encourage authors to submit full data sets to complement their findings. With no limits on figures or additional files, authors and readers benefit from research that has been published with veracity and integrity.
AcornPress - Acorn Press Canada Works published by the Acorn Press continue the PEI tradition of literature with local interest and global appeal. The Acorn Press takes as its particular goal and mandate to help encourage the flourishing literary culture of Prince Edward Island by publishing “Books about Prince Edward Island by Prince Edward Islanders.” Acorn Press Canada
China Special Needs Adoption | No Hands But Ours No Hands But Ours helps to encourage, equip, and support families adopting special needs children from China with relevant resources and connections.
STEM-Works Blog | Supporting advocates working in their communities to encourage an interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in our nation's youth. Supporting advocates working in their communities to encourage an interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in our nation's youth.
Hancock County Historical Society, Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi Welcome to the website of the Hancock County Historical Society in Bay Saint Louis, Mississippi. The Society was founded to preserve the general and architectural history of Hancock County and to preserve the Kate Lobrano House and collections therein;to research and interpret life in Hancock County;and to encourage an appreciation of and interest in historical preservation.
Jesus IS My Red Pill Site dedicated to encouraging people to get into a personal relationship with and to honor our Lord Jesus Christ by pointing out how cool he was and still is in our present day culture with respect to television, movies, radio, and literature...any kind of media. A chronicle of my personal spiritual experiences, views on today’s Christianity, and personal insights into various passages of books of the Bible, along with long-held-but-possibly-erroneous beliefs held by various denominations of the Christian Church. I also wish to encourage people to get to know how cool the Holy Bible is, how to debate with Christians without losing or feigning interest (to hear them out even and encourage dialogue) and without feeling embarrassed, and to get baptized and accept the Lord Jesus Christ as your personal savior (if you do, he’ll really surprise you and change your life in many great ways). I also wish to encourage people to read the entire Holy Bible from cover to cover as it was meant to be any other book in the world. I guarantee it has something that will pique your interest, including sex, drugs, encounters with angels or aliens, encounters with the living God, killing, resurrection, polygamy, incest, thievery, wars, battles, cruel tricks used in revenge, rape, whores and prostitution, royalty, drunks, healers, rebels, cults, sorcery, divine curses and divine help, bio-warfare, audio warfare, spirit world, astral world, prophets and prophecies, magicians, soldiers, flogging, abusive spouses, eternal bliss, harmony, and God becoming man, dying at our hands, rising from the dead and offering us eternal salvation, bliss, and life for accepting Jesus as that man, even though we deserve death for not living a holy life like God.
Career and Technology Foundations | What is Career and Technology Foundations (CTF)? Career and Technology Foundations (CTF) is a new and unique curriculum based on Career and Technology Studies (CTS). Career exploration is incorporated in both the CTF curriculum and the CTS courses to encourage students to make connections between areas of interest and skill development in various occupational areas. CTF is designed to allow students in grades 5 to 9 to explore their interests, passions and skills while making personal connections to career possibilities through meaningful learning experiences made possible through engaging challenges based on the occupational areas. CTS is designed to develop skills that students in grades 10 to 12 can apply in their daily lives when preparing for entry into the workplace or for further learning opportunities. Although CTF is not a prerequisite to enrollment in CTS courses, it may assist students in making informed course selections as they enter high school. CTF occupational areas are the same occupational areas that are the basis for the high school CTS program (e.g., computing science, information processing, fashion studies, construction and environmental stewardship). The occupational areas are grouped into occupational clusters, which are groupings of courses that focus on attitudes, skills and knowledge related to specific work areas. CTF uses the same occupational clusters as CTS but the names of the clusters have been simplified to: Business, Communication, Human Service, Resources and Technology. Consistent with the Action on Inclusion, CTF teachers will be able to support differentiation for students and personalize assessments according to their learning needs. The Alberta Regional Professional Development Consortia (ARPDC) are dedicated to promoting student learning and achievement, school improvement and parental engagement in the educational process through the provision of professional learning opportunities and professional learning resources. Please let us know how we can continue to improve this website by emailing [email protected]
The Solar System WebQuest/Newcastle, NSW. The Solar System WebQuest is an educational resource to use in Stage 3 classrooms for students to explore the science topic of The Earth & its Surroundings in a fun way. A great way to inspire students interest, and encourage self regulation of learning. Includes teacher page, with resources.Use the Solar System WebQuest in your classroom today!
Homepage | AppArt AppArt was founded in 2012 by Evelyn & Gwyn Phillips to encourage interest in the visual arts in the Surrey area. They hold an annual exhibitions.
American Saddlebred Horse Association of Michigan Promote and encourage the interest of young people in the breed; to cooperate with other organizations and individuals to promote and improve general equestrian
Buy a Business in Australia - Small Businesses and Resellers | Saver6 Saver6 offers excellent Marketing Support Services & small businesses for sale that are affordable, effective and will surely match your interest.
Pretoria Gem and Mineral Club (PGMC) - Welcome The aim of the Pretoria Gem and Mineral Club is to encourage and promote a general interest and knowledge of semi precious stones, rocks, minerals, lapidary and associated subjects.
OQHRA - Home Our goal is to encourage the breeding and ownership of Oklahoma-Bred racehorses, to promote and protect racing opportunity in the state, and represent our members’ interest at the state capitol. The humane and dignified treatment of the racehorses is encouraged at all times. While here you will find information on the Oklahoma-Bred Program, OQHRA stakes races, Membership, OQHRA services and the latest racing news.
Inlet Outlet – Inlet Outlet A newsletter by and for Jupiter Inlet Colony residents. The editors encourage submission of ideas, photos, articles and comments. Email to [email protected] . We reserve the right to edit in the interest of space and clarity. INLET OUTLET CONTRIBUTORS Linda Fisher-Faiola, Leanna Landsmann, Sandra Nemes, Leslie Swensen, Lauren Thomas PHOTOGRAPHY        Linda Fisher-Faiola, Leanna Landsmann,…
Leamington & Warwick Magic Society « est. 1948 The Society is open to all professional and non-professional magicians as well as those with a serious interest in the art of magic. Membership is by audition or interview, but in the first instance please contact our Secretary The society prides itself on it's friendly and relaxed atmosphere and does all it can to encourage…
The Intrepid News Fund | Latin America Independent Journalism | Freelance Journalists The Intrepid News Fund promotes under-reported news and human interest stories from Latin America. We accomplish this by funding travel, ground and research costs for independent journalists. Our funding is non-biased and seeks to challenge and encourage broader U.S. mainstream media coverage of the Americas.
POOL - UCLA Architecture & Urban Design Student Magazine POOL is the student journal of the Department of Architecture & Urban Design AUD at the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA. POOL is driven by an interest in an expanding definition of architectural work that, in a culture of high volume content exchange, considers curation as a primary form of cultural production. Following this, we contend that the syllabus, the archive, and the aggregator are all valid forms of architectural work that we welcome and encourage in our publication.POOL is a site of this type of work, experimenting with interface between its three primary platforms: event, digital, and print. Events and ongoing digital publication act not only as productive indicators of relevant themes, but also feed into an annual print edition. POOL aspires to reach new audiences, seeing the separation of fields into hermeneutic discourses as unproductive, and strives instead for the inclusion of new and unexpected audiences through the incorporation of media unconventional to architectural discourse
Polish Language Course - The Sopot School of Polish for Foreigners - Learn Polish Polish Language Course. We offer small classes, from beginner to advanced levels, in a friendly and relaxed atmosphere. Our aim is to provide high quality courses in Polish as a foreign language and to encourage interest in Polish language and culture.
About The Institute of Biological Engineering (IBE) was established to encourage inquiry and interest in biological engineering in the broadest and most liberal manner and promote the professional development of its members.
Dublin University Physics Society Physoc aims to provide all things Physicsy to all physicsy people. While it’s true most of our members come from those studying maths or physics, we encourage absolutely anyone with even the slightest interest in physics to join. To achieve our noble aims we generally organise talks every two weeks which involve guest speakers followed…
Simple Marquee Example The African Diaspora Forum (ADF) learnt with shock and utter dismay that people are being sold as slaves in Libya. “I salute the people of Zimbabwe for achieving such a great goal without spilling blood or burning buildings. South Africans can learn a lot from this,” Letlhake said.
Canadian Corporate Cricket League CCCL Vision CCCL intends to promote the game of cricket in Canadian Corporate Sector by providing a competitive, yet friendly environment for busy corporate individuals develop their game and have fun. The objectives of CCCL include: Promote, encourage and develop interest for the game of cricket within Corporate sector of Canada Organize games and tournaments and participate in competitions Educate & Promote the game within the Corporate sector and help build teams Ensure that all games are conducted within the laws of cricket following the traditions and spirit of the game Foster the development of youth cricket by supporting and contributing to youth development initiatives Work with qualified individual on matters pertaining to development of cricket at the corporate level Support development programs by contracting and working with reputable professionals.    CCCL Executives CCCL is led by a team that is extremely passionate about the game and team members have been actively serving the game within both the Corporate and recreational sector in various capacities within GTA. The CCCL Team comprises of the following individuals Farhan Khan - DirectorFarhan is an enthusiastic cricketer who has been serving the game of Cricket in GTA for more than a decade now. Farhan's ambition is to promote Cricket within youth AND corporate sector of Canada and achieve diversity and inclusiveness through cricket which remains one of the most played games around the world. Farhan sits on Executive & Leadership committees of various Cricket organizations and clubs; currently Farhan is serving as Board member and General Secretary of Toronto & District Cricket Association which is the largest Cricket league in North America. Farhan is also on the board of Maple Leaf Cricket Club that looks after the International Cricket Grounds in King City, Ontario. As an avid cricketer, Farhan is part of various competitve teams participating in premier cricket leagues of Ontario (TDCA, CCAT, EDCL). Farhan is a middle order batsman and medium pace swing bowler. On the professional front, Farhan Khan is a seasoned management consultant with an international career in reputed Fortune 500 organization. Currently Farhan is a Manager with EY's Tax Consulting group and he is responsible for advising clients in the area of technological and engineering tax credits. Farhan's mandate also includes practice development, engagement planning, service delivery and sales. Farhan's consulting experience spans more than 10 years industry experience complemented by a Mechanical Engineering Degree, a Masters Degree in Computer Sciences and a PMP certification. Farhan has significant volunteer and community service experience and he has also been featured on various Canadian publications and media channels for his professional and community work. Farhan can be reached at [email protected]  Sajid Khan - Director Sajid Khan is an avid cricketer and an enthusiastic supporter of Cricket in Canada since 1995. Sajid is known for his passion to promote Cricket at the grass-root level with in GTA. Sajid has participated as a player at various league levels within GTA and has helped organize many key cricket events/tournaments. Sajid was the lead organizer for the 2010 Mississauga Mayor festival. He was also the lead organizer an "All Star" T20 Corporate Cricket game to raise funds for Red Cross-2010 Earth Quake in Pakistan. As an employee of one of the largest financial Institute in Canada, Sajid co-manages and captains the cricket team/club for the last 7 years. Sajid continues to volunteer at many cricket events involving youth and promotion of cricket within GTA. On the professional front, Sajid khan is a seasoned manager with one of the largest financial Institute. His experience in the financial services arena spans over 12 years & he retains extensive retail and commercial banking experience. Sajid has a BBA degree majoring in Finance and have acquired certifications from CSI required for the Financial Industry. Sajid can be reached at [email protected]
Cirencester Dance Club Cirencester Dance Club was established in 1946, with the aim to offer local and affordable classes in Cirencester and the local area. We encourage an interest in and enjoyment of dance and performance, for anyone within the local community, regardless of age or ability, all whilst having fun
HOME - Nomad Africa Magazine | Celebrating the world's richest continent Nomad Africa celebrates life on the African continent and promotes its vibrant pulse through our Pan-Africanist ideology, to encourage the solidarity of Africans worldwide. It aims to foster a strong interest in the continent's cultural heritage and unique tourist attractions.
Home - ResponSEAble - Protecting the ocean How can we encourage Europeans to take a closer interest in their oceans and to treat them with greater respect and understanding?
Pacific Media | Zealand | Pacific Media Network Niu FM | Radio 531pi | Pacific Radio News. Public Interest Broadcaster targeting Pacific peoples to empower, encourage and nurture Pacific Cultural identity an
Home - Colt Foundation The Foundation was established under a Trust Deed of 28 August 1978 by the O''Hea family with gifts of shares in Colt International and Associated Companies Limited. This gift is now represented by 22% of Ordinary £1 shares in Colt Investments Limited, which is the holding company for the Colt Group of Companies. The primary interest of the Colt Foundation is to promote and encourage research into social, medical and environmental problems created by commerce and industry.
Oklahoma State Flying Aggies The Flying Aggies are a student flying club at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma. The purpose of the club is to encourage interest in aviation.
73 | Tracing the family history No sooner had the "ink dried" on work correcting the title of Cindy Walcott's compilation on the Descendants of Reuben Robblee and Phebe Austin (shared with Roblee researchers via this site), but Cindy decided to update the report again to correct formatting errors and a few others discovered after a few of us had a chance to review it. It is in keeping with the general philosophy that all family histories are works in progress and need frequent, and constant revision. As an example, Cindy and I exchanged updated information on one of Reuben Robblee's descendants--my 2nd great-grandfather Norman Roblee (1815-1900), who married Henrietta Adelia Soule. A publication on the Soule family describes the birth of "Harriet" Adelia Soule (1816-1908) and an unnamed twin daughter. For many years I belived this simply to be a naming error by the Rev. G. T. Ridlon, author of the 1926 two-volume history of the Soule family (including descendants of Mayflower passenger George Soule). Because I had so many other mysteries in my family (still unsolved example: who were the parents of my 4th great grandfather Nathaniel Winslow, and how are we related--if at all--to the Mayflower passenger Edward Winslow?) I didn't bother attempting to identify the twin daughter until recently. And then, when I did discover that Henrietta's twin was actually named Harriet Adelia (yes, they appear to have been given identical middle names), and identified her family using online cemetery records. But I neglected to share this with Cindy (with whom I've shared cross-continental electronic correspondence for many years) until motivated to do so after reading her updated Descendants of Reuben Robblee (and wife Phebe Austin). Cindy has done a masterful job compiling (and sourcing) the Robblee/Roblee story in the five reports available on our website. But, as she points out: I would ask that anyone using this report not turn "speculation" into "fact" when using the data for his or her own purposes. I welcome any questions, criticisms, confirmations, rebuttals, etc. My interest is in placing all individuals in their own families, locations and historical context. I welcome documentation that would help me to turn those into fact, or establish that my guesses or estimates were wrong! There are other additions and revisions to be made in these compilations, and I'm gratefiul for the revisions Cindy has continued to make. I encourage readers to share comments with Cindy (her e-mail address is shown in the reports). And, we've decided to replace the document listed in a recent post with an updated version, available here: The Descendants of Reuben Robblee and his wife Phebe Austin of Dutchess Co., NY, Lanesborough, MA and Granville, NY (Decenber 2018 revision, Adobe PDF - 3.27 MB) Originally we thought we weren't going to have this ready until early next week (the reason it's dated December) but we had good luck finishing up...enjoy the reading.
MLMF.ORG – Official Home Page of the Michael LoVerme Memorial Foundation The Michael LoVerme Memorial Foundation is a non-profit charitable foundation whose mission is to continue Michael’s legacy through education and community service. Membership in the organization is open to anyone with an interest in furthering our mission of remembering Mike and continuing his legacy of service. We also encourage friends and family to volunteer at one…
AQUARIUS, THE MYTHICAL WATER BEARER The word “Aquarian” refers to ideas and minds mixing freely rather as raindrops mix freely after they have made a rain puddle. This fluidity is an aid to creativity, and in the coming age of lasting peace, children will be cultured to be more creative and constructive.
Blackfen Past and Present – Looking at Blackfen in the past, present and future Blackfen is a residential area surrounding several shopping parades within the London Borough of Bexley, Kent, UK. This website has been established to encourage anyone with an interest in Blackfen to share their memories and thoughts. For an overview, please go to About Blackfen. The images give an impression of the place in history and today, and…
CASO Cricket League CASO Cricket League is providing premier level cricket and are determined to build diversified communities, promote, encourage, foster and cultivate interest in the sport of cricket at all levels and including Youth and Adults; To initiate, sponsor, promote and carry out plans, policies and activities that would further the development and advancement of cricket in Chicago, Suburbs, Midwest surrounding areas; To work with State and National level entities such as Park Boards, Schools, and approved National Cricket Organizations to create infrastructure and promote the sport of Cricket; To develop, foster and train amateur athletes for representation in state, national and international cricket competitions.We organize Hardball, TapeBall Indoor/Outdoor and Heavy Tennis Tournaments.Only Cricket League to provide 52 weeks of cricket in Chicago Land Area.#BreakingBarriers #TeamCASOContact:League Operations Hussain Maddy @ 630-405-8815Tariq Khan @ 630-667-3762Imran Siddiqui @ 312-285-3367Faisal Nafasat @ 773-319-1667Qasim Mehdi - General SecretaryKhurram Hussain - V.P TapeBallSyed Abdullah - Media ManagerSarti Krishnan - Busniess  Officer Email : [email protected]
Family Histories of Jamaica | "Exploring your Jamaican family heritage" Welcome to Family History Jamaica This site aims to encourage sharing and exchanging information ranging from tips on how to research family names to ideas on how to identify place names such as located in parishes and district. Information has been gathered from different sources to encourage interest to research into your ancestral line. Information…
RCCR Radio Control Club of Rochester HOME PAGE Everything you wanted to know about Remote Control Airplanes, Boats and Cars. The Purpose of the Radio Control Club of Rochester is to encourage interest in the design, construction and safe operation of radio controlled aircraft, boats and cars. Hangar Talk, schedule of western New York events, club description and information, directions and maps to model flying fields and related links.
Soils in Schools, Soil Science Australia Eductional resources to communicate and educate school children on the relevance of soils in everyday life and to encourage a wider interest in soil resources
Cultivating curiosity, imagination and passion for STEM STEMmates STEMmates seeks to encourage and nurture interest in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) through hands-on learning experiences.
Trailnet Essex | Community Activity Projects | Cycling Centres Trailnet are a community interest company that strives to encourage and support all ages and abilities to become more active.
Home Advance the study of music and to foster interest in, promote and advance the artistic, educational, recreational and commercial position of music of all kinds.
Monroe County Cruisers Car Club To encourage the ownership and care of antique, classic, and special interest cars. To organize car shows, cruises, and membership in car clubs.
First Baptist Church of Whiteville NC First Baptist Church of Whiteville is an atmosphere where people of all ages can bring their gifts in service to the Lord. Share the joy and love of Christ.
Our Ground - Save Public Open Space News on the disappearance of public greenspace through privatisation schemes: Liverpool is an example of the changes now taking place throughout Britain.
Wardrobe Systems NZ | 30 Years Experience | Boston Wardrobes Boston Wardrobes stocks a wide range of wardrobe interiors, door & accessories, perfect for your wardrobe system. Visit our showroom today!
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Physicians for a National Health Program - Western Washington Physicans for a National Health Program - Western Washington Chapter
92 - Family of Bruce International, Inc. - Home Page Family of Bruce International, Inc. is a non-profit organization established to create and promote kinship amongst its family members and to encourage interest in the Family of Bruce and its history. Membership is open to persons who qualify by surname, by descent, or by recognized septs: Carlysle, Carruthers, Crosbie, Randolph, and Stenhouse. It is the only such organization recognized by the hereditary chief of the Name of Bruce, The Right Honorable the Earl of Elgin and Kincardine.
Welcome to MTASA! MTASA-US is a pioneer in the development of alternative teaching and instructional system through the use of proprietary ISEP (Interactive Science Endevor Program) methodology, designed to encourage children interest in studying and engage them in creative learning process, utilizing unique blend of Science, Art and other academic disciplines.
B2B Promotional Group | Promotional Products Best Promotional Products Promotional products are, in a word, everywhere. We see them as free giveaways at events and festivals; we see them in online shops and pop-up boutiques; and, most importantly, we see them being used and enjoyed by millions of people throughout the world. Which is why, before we begin, we have a challenge for you. The next time you're in public surrounded by a good amount of people – take a look around. We're willing to be that not only will you spot plenty of promotional items and products being used, but you'll be surprised at just how high that number climbs as time goes on. Whether it's a custom-monogrammed beach towel with the name and logo of the user's favorite sunglasses brand, or a shot glass bearing the name and insignia of someone's favorite brand of spirits or resort destination, brands that choose the best promotional products to entertain and energize their customers find success with repeated use. But obviously, finding the right promotional products for the right brand is easier said than done. Our catalogue alone has hundreds of thousands of promotional item options, with millions of color, customization, and sizing options. Picking the best promotional product at random would be an exercise in luck with poorer odds than the Powerball. And, it can be totally overwhelming for the business owner trying to juggle a hundred different things. But luckily, you don't have to start from scratch when trying to find the best promotional products for you and your company. This helpful guide is designed to help you consider all angles during the decision-making process and select the right customizable product for you and your business. It's time to give your customers what they really need and want, and what, most importantly, they'll use over and over again. Here we go: 3 Things to Consider When Selecting the Best Promotional Products for Your Brand 1. Think of Customers as Brand Ambassadors Some estimates peg the amount of advertisements we see on any given day at more than 5,000. Shockingly, this means we see almost 3.5 advertisements every minute – talk about clutter. We see ads all over social media, on billboards, in magazines, and on television, and as a marketer or business owner, it seems virtually impossible to make yourself and your business stand out from this over-saturated crowd and gather attention. Billions of dollars are poured into advertisements and marketing campaigns every year by multinational corporations, compounding the issue and making the task of getting your name recognized in a crowded marketplace even that much less attainable. But small and medium-sized businesses that depend on a local markets for their revenue have a secret hidden weapon that those who manage million-dollar marketing budgets don't: feet on the street. If you're a small business owner, chances are that you've got a loyal group of customers who not only love what you do, but also want you to succeed. In fact, 94% of consumers believe that doing business with and supporting small businesses in their community is important. If that awesome statistic tells us anything, it's the customers are ready to dig in and help spread the word of your brand – as long as you make it easy. That's why, when you're considering how to choose the best promotional product, you should think first about your customers and what kind of product they would want and use. Consider factors like where they live, what kind of lifestyle they lead, and what they like to do for fun. This will help you align your product choice with your target marketing – increasing your chance of turning your customers into brand ambassadors, and saving you big bucks on traditional marketing. 2. Don't Be Afraid of Having a Small Budget Perhaps the best thing about using promotional products for marketing is just how vast the selection of potential products is for your business. This wide variety means you can truly select something that not only fits your consumer, but also fits your business and your budget. Unlike many other advertising and marketing avenues that have minimum spends in the hundreds of thousands of dollars, a small budget can go a long way with promotional products. Small items like key chains, pens, USB drives, and other items can still pack a pretty poinigent promotional punch without the huge hit to your bank account – giving you a large return without a large investment. Selecting the best promotional products means not only selecting what's best for your customers, but also for your business and its goals. When considering what kind of products to invest in, be sure to consider your own budget and how you can get the most bang for your buck. 3. Have Fun With It One of the greatest aspects of advertising and marketing is that it can truly be creative and fun. And the use of promotional products is no exception. That's why we encourage our customers to think with their head when selecting the best promotional product for their business – but not totally forgo their heart in the final decision making. Sometimes, it's those wacky off-the-wall kind of ideas that will catch the interest of a consumer or potential customer in a way that no traditional or common-place promotional product would or could – which is why we always suggest keeping your mind and heart open to any and all ideas. You never know what might just be your diamond in the rough. Now That You Know – Time to Start Shopping! As you now know, there is, unfortunately, no one-size-fits-all best promotional products out there that will suit every business in every marketplace. However, we're confident that if you follow the three rules above, and think customer-first, then you'll be able to select the best promotional product for you and your brand, and enjoy the benefits of a well-targeted and thought-out marketing initiative. Happy Marketing!
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Home » WestfordCAT Westford Community Access Television, Inc. (WestfordCAT) is a Massachusetts non-profit corporation, appointed as the Public, Education, and Government (PEG) access provider by the Board of Selectmen of the Town of Westford. Our mission is to promote and encourage the use of public access resources to enhance a free and diverse exchange of ideas and interests that foster community participation and education. To fulfill this mission, our primary goal is to be the first place Westford residents turn to when they are interested in making or watching programs of local interest that are not covered by mainstream media and to assist them in sharing this content with their local and extended communities.
Quiet Corner Garden Club (QCGC) - HOME Quiet Corner Garden Club (QCGC) Mission: To encourage interest in all phases of home gardening, to stimulate creativity, to promote better horticultural practices and conservation of natural resources and to contribute to community projects.
Charlotte's Rabbit Rescue Charlotte's Rabbit Resue is a not-for-profit animal rescue located in Sydney, We aim to rescue, rehabilitate and rehome, abandoned, injured & surrendered r