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Oznoz Video - Stuff for bilingual kids Watch Elmo, Thomas, Angelina and more in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Korean, Japanese, Hindi, Persian, Farsi, Hebrew, Spanish, Urdu and more. Oznoz, Stuff for Bilingual Kids.
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John Neal, Bookseller: Calligraphy Supplies, Pens, Ink, Calligraphy Books, Bookbinding Supplies, Bookbinding Books John Neal, Bookseller: Books, tools & supplies for calligraphy, illumination, bookbinding & papercrafts. Also books on rubber stamps, pop-ups, type, marbling. Free catalog. Ships worldwide.
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ספרים וספרי יד שנייה | בוקספר, booksefer בוקספר ספרים יד שניה עברית/אנגלית כ-52,000 כותרים בכל הקטגוריות. Second hand books in Hebrew and English all categories
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The 6 Constant Mitzvos - A Project of Shivisi Gila Manolson is the author of the bestselling The Magic Touch, Outside/Inside, Head to Heart, and Choosing to Love. A fifth book, a rewrite of The Magic Touch for a general, non-Jewish audience, is awaiting publication. Gila is a popular international speaker on relationships and self-image. She has spoken in 32 major North American cities, as well as outlying communities, and in Israel, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, South Africa, Russia, Argentina, Chile, and the Netherlands. Her books have been translated into Hebrew, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, and Italian. Gila lives in Jerusalem with her husband and children.
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Hebrew Books Online Shop Bookstore Jerusalem Scholarly Publications Hebrew Books Online Shop: Large stock of scholarly publications on Archaeology, History, Jewish Studies, Linguistics, Gender Studies, Physics, Philosophy and English and German translations of Hebrew authors.
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Nanny''s Web, Secondhand Out-of-Print Collectible online internet Children Books for Sale! Melbourne, Australia (also in Hebrew)
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Learn Hebrew - Hebrew For All Online Hebrew for Everyone. Learn Hebrew, the language of the Jewish people that has endured for millennia. Connect more directly with people and the religious text, for deeper,accurate meaning and understanding.
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2012-2015: The Season of Return Home Rare blood moon tetrads coming in 2014-2015; the end of a jubilee and sabbatical cycle; the Mayan calendar end date of 2012; the rise of Islam and the call for a revived caliphate; increasing natural disasters and further prospects of war in the Middle East: Are the end times really upon us? In two separate books, The Season of Return, and From Abraham to Armageddon, T.W. Tramm takes a close look at the amazing revelations currently sweeping the prophecy world and connects the dots, arriving at a stunning conclusion.
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EKS Publishing, Classical Hebrew for Everyone EKS Publishing : - Alphabet Biblical Hebrew Prayerbook Hebrew Children''s Books Classroom Materials Acts of Kindness Gift Certificates Modern Hebrew Posters Charts Magnets Flashcards Bible Series Children''s Prayer Series Music Biblical Commentary biblical, hebrew, jewish, prayer book
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Witchcraft of Qabalah – with Lucifera https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=glKAqruDSIo   Welcome to my pages!   My mundane name is Bonnie, but my Craft name is Lucifera. I am a practitioner of the Occult Arts since long ago and practice the rites of Ceremonial Witchcraft. I work with Demons, planetary spirits and Archangels. I own many dogs and two birds, because I love animals. Demon Sabnock…
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Bible Rick''s Online Downloads Bible Downloads, Free OnLine Bible Concordance! Easy Search. Strong''s Hebrew and Greek Dictionary, Easton''s, Bible Names, Studying Gods Word, Just Got Easier, Great for Students! Copy and Paste into Documents!
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SACRED SCIENCE INSTITUTE: Where Ancient Wisdom & Future Science Meet... The Sacred Science Institute is a Research Institute & Cosmological Resource Portal engaged in Mapping & Preserving Universal Knowledge from the Great Sacred & Scientific Traditions, to inspire a New Wisdom Renaissance for the 21st Century!
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Roger Harris'' web-site
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Codes in the Bible Multi-web portal to Codes in the Bible supersite, Prophecy Truths website, Unique Shopping website, CodeFinder software, Bible Code software, Keys to the Bible, Bible code books
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MySword - Free Android Bible MySword is a free offline Bible study tool for Android, Bible study has never been this fun and easy; study the Bible, compare different translations, lookup Strong''s Hebrew and Greek Lexicon, read commentaries, dictionaries, books, maps
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Hebrew for Christians - Learn Hebrew for FREE! Learn Hebrew for FREE. Study the Hebrew Alphabet and Names of God. Understand Hebrew Grammar and the Hebraic mindset of the Bible. Gain powerful insights into your Christian faith! Do Hebrew Bible Study. An online course with exercises, Hebrew audio, vocabulary, charts, downloads, and much more.
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ספרים וספרי יד שנייה | בוקספר, booksefer בוקספר ספרים יד שניה עברית/אנגלית כ-52,000 כותרים בכל הקטגוריות. Second hand books in Hebrew and English all categories
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eth-CEPHER | Hebrew to English | Sacred text This restoration of sacred scripture includes the 66 books of the modern bible, the deuterocanonical apocrypha, Enoch, Jubiliees, Jasher, and 2 Baruch.
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Feldheim.com Jewish Torah Books by Feldheim Publishers - Jewish Books - Feldheim Publishers Get Feldheim books for the Jewish family. Torah literature, Judaism, Jewish law books, Jewish holiday books and kosher cookbooks. Free shipping* on all Jewish books.
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Foner Books - Computer Troubleshooting, Writing And Amazon Foner Books publishes book and eBooks about business, troubleshooting computer hardware and Hebrew studies
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Bible Concordance KJV Reference Study Library Bible, Free OnLine Bible Concordance! Easy Search. Strong''s Hebrew and Greek Dictionary, Easton''s, Bible Names, Studying Gods Word, Just Got Easier, Great for Students! Copy and Paste into Documents!
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Beth Goyim Messianic Congregation. Messianic NJ NY, Messianic Radio, Messianic TV, Free Messianic Internet, Messianic Video, Service Jew and Gentile as one in Messiah Yeshua Beth Goyim Messianic Congregation A Messianic Jewish Congregation where Jew and Gentile meet as one people. Messianic Shabbat Services. Messianic Bible study. Located in New Jersey near New York. Messianic Jewish audio and videos available, If you are looking for a solid teaching ministry, then you have found a home. If you just looking for fluff and stuff this is not your place. Messianic Torah Time Bible Study Tuesday 7-9:30PM. Prayer Night Thursday 7-9PM,Shabbat “Saturday” Service 11AM EDT. Messianic thought, Messianic life, following the Messiah Yeshua and the Messianic Jewish Disciples. Christian Jews. Christian+Jew, Messianic radio wtrcradio.com
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The Artists Corner Stained Glass Baltimore Maryland Stained Glass Classes, Lessons, Repairs, Supplies, Transom Restorations MD The Artists Corner Stained Glass Studio, Supplies, Gifts, Lamps, Art, Instruction and Classes convenient to all parts of Baltimore Maryland.
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BibleLessons.com Lessons on Bible translations, canon of Scripture, the divine nature of Jesus, the Holy Spirit, grace, predestination, baptism, eternal security, worship, speaking in tongues, marriage and divorce, etc.
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Biblical Hebrew self-study/tutored courses, audio, books, tapes, MP3, software, lexicons, grammars, resources Learn Biblical Hebrew - its language, text & bible world view. Free online material and self-study or tutored correspondence courses available by email, internet, MP3, audio, post & face-to-face tutorials. Study Hebrew from the original biblical texts and in-depth word studies. Teach yourself Hebrew & biblical software and books also available; Hebraic & Judaic background theological Journal.
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DOOMSDAY DOUG and FAITH HAPPENS BOOKS — Website Home of S. Douglas Woodward | Bible Prophecy, Geopolitical Analysis, Theological History Best-selling author of 16 books on Bible Prophecy, Geopolitics, Historical Theology, and investigation into the Occult. An analyst seen on TV and radio.
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Holyland Marketplace, Messianic gifts and Christian products made in Israel, helping Jewish Believers Holyland Marketplace, products made in Israel, Judaica, Christian Judaica, Messianic Judaica, Messianic gifts, Messianic products, Christian Gifts, Christian products, Dead Sea cosmetics, Dead Sea products, Bibles, Hebrew Bible, ancient antiquities, Messianic jewelry, Olive wood products, anointing oil, mezuzahs, shofars, menorahs, Messianic menorahs, Messianic music, Christian music, worship music, Messianic DVD, Messianic CD, prayer shawls, tallit, Biblical Feast, Jewish Holiday items, Christian books, Messianic books, Messianic commentaries
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Israel Book Shop At our Jewish gift shop in Brookline, MA we carry a wide range of unique Jewish items. For example, one of bestsellers is a baseball themed yarmulke handmade in Israel with Hebrew lettering. We also have educational games, greeting cards, and more.
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John Neal, Bookseller: Calligraphy Supplies, Pens, Ink, Calligraphy Books, Bookbinding Supplies, Bookbinding Books John Neal, Bookseller: Books, tools & supplies for calligraphy, illumination, bookbinding & papercrafts. Also books on rubber stamps, pop-ups, type, marbling. Free catalog. Ships worldwide.
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The Temple Institute Store, Jerusalem Temple SHALOM AND WELCOME to the official website of the TEMPLE INSTITUTE STORE in Jerusalem, Israel. The Temple Institute is dedicated to every aspect of the Holy Temple of Jerusalem, and the central role it fulfilled, in the spiritual wellbeing of both Israel and all the nations of the world. The Institute''s work touches upon the history of the Holy Temple''s past, an understanding of the present day, and the Divine promise of Israel''s future. The Institute''s activities include education, research, and development. The TEMPLE INSTITUTE STORE is located in an old stone building in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. In addition to our retails outlets we are manufacturers of the majority of our products, and can offer competetive prices for products manufactured in our production facility. Our products include books in English, hebrew and other languages, educational materials and resources, games and puzzles, models, pictures and posters, jewelry, judaica, gifts, incense, techelet and a lot more. We work with printing, leather binding, wood, metal, fabrics and more. Please contact us with any question by email. THANK YOU for visiting our on line store.
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Jewish Fiction .net :: Current Issue Jewish Fiction .net came into being with the recognition of the exciting potential of online technology, and the decision to harness this potential to create a virtual home for Jewish fiction from around the world. We publish Jewish stories, Jewish novels, Jewish novellas, Jewish fiction, Jewish literature, from many different countries around the world, globally and internationally. We publish Israeli fiction, Hebrew fiction, Yiddish fiction, Ladino fiction, and fiction that is Spanish Jewish, Latin American Jewish, Argentinian Jewish, Russian Jewish, French Jewish, Serbian Jewish, Croatian Jewish, English Jewish, Romanian Jewish, Turkish Jewish, Canadian Jewish, British Jewish, Australian Jewish, and American Jewish. Every story and every novel or novella has its special place in our journal. Readers love our journal and we help contribute to increasing reading and readership internationally. We have published Jewish stories, novels, and novellas originally written in Spanish, Russian, French, Serbian, Croatian, Romanian, Turkish, Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, and English. We are honoured to have published such wonderful writers as A.B. Yehoshua, Yehoshua, Elie Wiesel, Wiesel, Aharon Appelfeld, Appelfeld, S.Y. Agnon, Agnon, Orly Castel-Bloom, Castel-Bloom, Nava Semel, Semel, Steve Stern, Nessa Rapoport, Abraham Karpinovich, Lara Vapnyar, Amir Gutfreund, Ruth Almog, Thane Rosenbaum, Alicia Steimberg, Norman Manea, Ann Birstein, Gabriel Josipovici, Avirama Golan, Mario Levi, Marcelo Birmajer, Judith Rotem, Shahar Bram, Gordana Kuic, Natan Zach, Clive Sinclair, Savyon Liebrecht, Grigory Kanovich, Yoram Kaniuk, Kaniuk, Chava Rosenfarb, Rosenfarb, Nora Gold, Avshalom Kaveh, Varda Fiszbein, Eleanor Stanford, Assaf Gavron, Gerald Shapiro, Yehudit Hendel, Karin Heskia, Esther Orner, Eleanor Stanford. As the editor of Jewish Fiction .net, I see this journal as a means to bring together in one place first-rate Jewish fiction from many different countries, thus allowing us all to experience simultaneously the rich diversity that exists within Jewish culture and the core elements that unite us. As a Zionist, I am also committed to trying to build a bridge, and a dialogue, between Jewish writers in Israel and the Diaspora. Finally, I hope that Jewish Fiction .net will serve as a vehicle for fostering new writing and new writers of talent. We at Jewish Fiction .net are very excited about the potential of this journal to accomplish these goals, as well as to help link Jewish writers with each other and with their readers. As a web-based literary journal, we look forward to many years of publishing excellent fiction (either written in, or translated into, English) by both established and emerging writers dealing with Jewish themes, concerns, and aspirations. And we are delighted to be able to connect so directly and immediately with our readers.
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Hebrew for Christians - Learn Hebrew for FREE! Learn Hebrew for FREE. Study the Hebrew Alphabet and Names of God. Understand Hebrew Grammar and the Hebraic mindset of the Bible. Gain powerful insights into your Christian faith! Do Hebrew Bible Study. An online course with exercises, Hebrew audio, vocabulary, charts, downloads, and much more.
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Olive Branch Ministries - Messianic Teachings Books, Music, Spring Hill, FL Providing resources for the Messianic community, such as Messianic books, Messianic Music, jewelry, bibles, judaica, Jewish gifts and more
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Out of Spain - School Curriculum, Books, Videos Out of Spain - School Curriculum, Books, Videos provide educational materials for teaching Sephardic Jewish history to students in Hebrew and Day Schools
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We sell Hebrew Books Music Movies Games and Gifts from Israel. Israeli Book and Music Store: We sell a large veriaty of Israeli books, Israeli music, games from Israel, hebrew games gifts from israel hebrew books israeli movies hebrew music
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Resources for Learning NT Greek by Corey Keating Learn the grammar and syntax of New Testament Greek. Easy to understand Biblical Greek Grammar and Syntax for readers of English. Grammatical explanations and other resources for learning Greek.
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Bible Concordance KJV Study Version Bible, Free OnLine Bible Concordance! Easy Search. Strong''s Hebrew and Greek Dictionary, Easton''s, Bible Names, Studying Gods Word, Just Got Easier, Great for Students! Copy and Paste into Documents!
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Jewish Seforim and Hebrew Books by Z. Berman Books Z. Berman Books is currently the largest retailer of Jewish books in the world. We''ve 7 retail stores throughout the Tri-State area. Z Berman Books also exclusively publishes many best selling Seforim through 2 publishing companies it has acquired in Israel.
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Monergism Books :: Reformed Books - Discount Prices Carefully chosen reformed books and Christian resources at deep discount prices, free shipping in U.S. for orders over $35 when you select Economy Shipping and excellent customer service. Christian Books from an evangelical, Reformed perspective.
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Beth Goyim-House of the Nation WTRC RADIO is a Messianic Jewish Internet Radio Station broadcasting Messianic Jewish Music twenty four hours a day every day. Also broadcasts audio teachings and contains information about Messianic Artists and the Messianic Jewish Movement
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Law.blog – Get your subdomain of law.blog law from The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 4th Edition n. A rule of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority. n. The body of rules and principles governing the affairs of a community and enforced by a political authority; a legal system: international law. n. The condition of social order and…
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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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WELCOME TO GAN-EDEN.INFO | ברוכים הבאים לאתר העולמי | אוצר הספרים | Torah Books | דברי תוכחה אלו מיועד לכל ארגוני וועד הכשרות, רבנים, ואדמורי"ם, וצדיקים  ושליחי חב"ד בכל העולם כולו, כל הרבנים משגיחים, ועוד.UNITED STATES and CANADA California  Igud Hakashrus of Los Angeles (Kehillah Kosher) Rabbi Avraham Teichman (323) 935-8383 186  North Citrus Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90036 Vaad Hakashrus of Northern California 510-843-8223  2520 Warring St. Berkeley, CA 94704 Rabbinical Council of California (RCC) Rabbi Nissim Davidi  (213) 489-8080 617 South Olive St. #515, Los Angeles, CA 90014 Colorado Scroll K Vaad Hakashrus  of Denver Rabbi Moshe Heisler (303) 595-9349 1350 Vrain St. Denver, CO 80204 District of Columbia  Vaad HaRabanim of Greater Washington Rabbi Binyamin Sanders 518-489-1530 7826 Eastern Ave.  NW, Suite LL8 Washington DC 20012 Florida Kosher Miami Vaad HaKashrus of Miami-Dade  Rabbi Mordechai Fried Rabbi Manish Spitz (786) 390-6620 PO Box 403225 Miami, FL 33140 Florida  K and Florida Kashrus Services Rabbi Sholom B. 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Frankfurter (3314) 246-3647 10  Rue Cadet, 9e (Metro Cadet), Paris 75009 Kehal Yeraim of Paris Rabbi I Katz 33-153-012644 13 Rue  Pave Paris, France 75004 ISRAEL Badatz Mehadrin Rabbi Avraham Rubin (9728) 939-0816 10  Rechov Miriam Mizrachi 6th floor, Room 18 Rechovot, Israel 76106 Rabanut Hareishit Rechovot 2  Goldberg St. Rechovot, 76106 Beis Din Tzedek of Agudas Israel Moetzes Hakashrus Rabbi Zvi  Geffner (9722) 538-4999 2 Press St. Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of the Eidah Hachareidis of  Jerusalem Rabbi Naftali Halberstam (9722) 624-6935 Binyanei Zupnick 26A Rechov Strauss  Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of K’hal Machzikei Hadas - Maareches Hakashrus (9722) 538-5832 P.O.  Box 41109 Jerusalem 91410 Chug Chasam Sofer Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer Stern (9723) 618-8596 18  Maimon St. Bnei Brak 51273 Rabbi Moshe Landau (9723) 618-2647 Bnei Brak Rabbi Mordechai  Seckbach (9728) 974-4410 Noda Biyauda St. 5/2 Modiin Illit PHILIPPINES Far East Kashrut Rabbi  Haim Talmid 312-528-7078 Makati Philippines SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town Bais Din Rabbi D  Maizels (2721) 461-6310 191 Buitenkant St. Cape Town 8001 SWITZERLAND Beth Din Adas  Jeshurun Rabbi Pinchus Padwa (411) 201-6746 Freigulstrasse 37 8002 Zurich Jewish Community  and Central Synagogue Kiev Rabbi B. 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Kiev  VENEZUELA Union Israelita de Caracus Rabbi Chaim Raitport (528212) 552-8222 Avenida  Marques del Toro #9 San Bernadina Caracas 1011 האלמין אהרן טייטלבוים aaronteitelbaum aaron  teitelbaum aronteitelbaum aron teitelbaum satmar סאטמאר סטמר holmin rabbi shalom y. gross  shalom j. gross shalom gross shalom juda gross shalom yehudah gross שלום יהודה גרוס שלום יהודה  גראסס שלום יודא גראסס האדמו"ר מהאלמין הרב מהאלמין מגן שאול אבדק"ק האלמין אב"ד האלמין ראב"ד  האלמין גאב"ד האלמין ביד"צ האלמין ביד"ץ האלמין בית דין האלמין באר אברהם האלמין האלמין ביתר האלמין  בית שמש האלמין ברוקלין האלמין קרית ספר איחוד האברכים קרית ספר האלמין האלמין צפת האלמין ירושלים  האלמין לעקוואוד האלמין בני ברק פראדזשעקט שוהל האלמין מקדש מעט ניקור שחיטה ועד הכשרות ספרי לימוד קידום אנציקלופדיה ספרי קודש ספרות ספרים לייבערי לייבערי KIBERY LIBRARY אוצר הספרים אוצר  החכמה מאגר MAGAR MAGEA MEGAR קונטרס קונטרסים מאגר התורה מאגר תורנית מאגר התורנית אוצר  הספרים אוצר התורנית אוצר התורני אוצר החרדי אוצר החיילי השם אוצר חיילי צבאות השם בנק הספרים Bank of  booksמחסני ספרים מחסני הספרי מחסן הספר מחסן לספרים מחסני הספר  Hebrew books Yiddish  books English books ספריה וירטואלית אדירת מימדים בית הספרים הלאומי Hebrew Catalogבלוג היהדות יהדות  בלוג פורטל היהדות פורטל הספרים עולם הספרים ספרים בינלאומי ספרים לאומי ספרים חדשים ספרים ישנים ספרים יקרי המציאות ספרים עתיקים ספרי עתיק אנטיק ספרים ספרים אנטיק ספרים פורומים פורומים הספרים פורומי  הספריםHolmin booksספרי הולמין ספרי האלמין ספרים האלמין ספרים הולמין ספרים האלמין דפי אוצר הספרים העולמי - Torah Books International Pages תלחץ בכל מספר ותגיע לשער השמים 502 דפים - 502 בגימטריא  בשר 502 PAGES - 502 gimatria BASA"R vaad hakashrus vaadhakashrus vaad hakashrut  vaadhakashrut nikkur nikur SHCHITA amalek עמלק אדום ישמעאל arab areb עשו גאולה משיח ועד הרבנים ועד הכשרות vaad harabanim mashiach moshiach geulah gen eden גן עדן עולם הבא olem haba safar torah books kotel 613 kotel613 JERUSALEM613 JERUSALEM 613 ירושלים ארץ ישראל הצלה חברה הצלה hatzolah chevra hatzolah holminer rebbe אלעד • אנטווערפן • אפער וועסט סייד • אשדוד • באלטימאר • באוקא ראטאון • באסטאן • בארא פארק • בודאפעסט • בית שמש • ביתר עילית • בני ברק • בעיסוואטער • גאלדערס גרין • געיטסעד • גרעיט נעק • דיעל • דיטרויט • וואדמיר • ווארשע • וויליאמסבורג • וויען • זשיטאמיר • חברון • טאהש • טאראנטא • טינעק • טשיקאגא • יאהאניסבורג • ירושלים • לאוער איסט סייד • לעיקוואד •לאס אנזשעלעס • מאדריד • מאנטרעאל • מאנטשעסטער • מאנסי • מאסקווע • מאונט קיסקא •מארסעי • מיאמי • מילאן • מעלבארן • ניו סקווירא • נווה יעקב • סארסעל • סטעמפארד היל • סידני • סידערהערסט • סיאטל • סי געיט • סקאוקי • עדזשווער • פאסעיק • פאר ראקעוועי • פארעסט הילס • פאריז • פלעטבוש • פייוו טאונס • פראג • פוירט • ציריך • קאשוי • קווינס • קיעוו • קליוולאנד • קרוין הייטס • קרית יואל • רוים • ריווערדעיל • שטראסבורג חסידישע הויפן אוקראינע: אליק | ברסלב | הארנסטייפל | טאלנא | טשערנאבל | מאקאראוו | מעזשביזש | ראכמסטריווקא | רוזשין | סאווראן | סקווירא | סלאוויטע | סודילקאוו | שעפעטיווקע פוילן: אזשאראוו | איזביצע | אלעקסאנדער | אמשינאוו | אפט | אשלג | ביאלא | גור | גראדזשיסק | ווארקע | זיכלין | טשענסטכאוו |כענטשין |לעלוב | לובלין | מאדזשיץ | נעשכיז | נאוואמינסק | סאכאטשאוו | סטריקעוו | פאריסוב | פרשיסחא | קאצק | קאזשניץ | קוזמיר | ראדאמסק | ראדאשיץ | ראדזין | שעדליץ | שעניצע | שידלאווצע מזרח-גאליציע: אלעסק | אניפאלי | בעלזא | בארדיטשוב | באיאן | בורושטין | וויזשניץ | יארעסלאוו | זידיטשוב | זינקאוו | זלאטשאוו | זוטשקע| טשערנאוויץ | טשארטקאוו | דאראג | דראביטש | הוסיאטין | קאמינקא | קאמארנע | קאפישעניץ | קאריץ | קאסאב | קאזלאוו | מאכניווקא | מאנעסטריטשע | פרעמישלאן | סאדיגורא | סאסוב | שפיקאוו | סקאליע | סקולע | סטאניסלאב | סטרעטין | סטראזשניץ מערב-גאליציע: בלאזשעוו | באבוב | דינוב | דאמבראוו | זשמיגראד | טשעטשניעב | ראפשיץ | דזישקוב | גלוגעוו | גארליץ | גריבוב | קשאנאוו | ליזשענסק | מעליץ | נאראל | פשעווארסק | ראפשיץ | צאנז | שינעווע | סטיטשין | סטריזוב | טשאקעווע וואלין: קארלין | לוצק | טריסק | זוויל ליטע: אווריטש | חב"ד | ליובאוויטש |לעכאוויטש | נעשכיז | פינסק-קארלין | סטראשעליע | סלאנים | קאפוסט | קארלין-סטאלין | קאברין | קוידאנאוו רומעניע: באהוש | דעעש | וואסלוי | טעמישוואר | סאטמאר | סאסערגען | סוליץ |סיגוט | סערעט | סערעט-וויזשניץ | סקולען | ספינקא | פאלטיטשאן | קערעסטיר | קלויזענבורג | ריבניץ | שאץ | שטעפענעשט אונגארן: בערעגסאז | חוסט | קאלעוו | קאשוי | קאסאן | קרעטשעניף |ליסקע | מאטעסדארף | מאקעווע | מאשלוי | מונקאטש | מוזשיי | נאדווארנע | נאסויד | נייטרא | פאפא | ראחוב | ראצפערט |סטראפקעוו | טאהש אמעריקע: באסטאן | מילוואקי | פיטסבורג | קליוולאנד ירושלים: דושינסקיא | שומרי אמונים | תולדות אהרן | תולדות אברהם יצחק | משכנות הרועים אנדערע: ניקלסבורג | אסטראוו | טולטשעוו | וויען פרומע אידישע געגנטן | ניו יארק | חסידים | חסידישע הויפן WELCOME TO GAN-EDEN.INFO | ברוכים הבאים לאתר העולמי | אוצר הספרים | Torah Books | דברי תוכחה אלו מיועד לכל ארגוני וועד הכשרות, רבנים, ואדמורי"ם, וצדיקים  ושליחי חב"ד בכל העולם כולו, כל הרבנים משגיחים, ועוד.UNITED STATES and CANADA California  Igud Hakashrus of Los Angeles (Kehillah Kosher) Rabbi Avraham Teichman (323) 935-8383 186  North Citrus Ave., Los Angeles, CA 90036 Vaad Hakashrus of Northern California 510-843-8223  2520 Warring St. Berkeley, CA 94704 Rabbinical Council of California (RCC) Rabbi Nissim Davidi  (213) 489-8080 617 South Olive St. #515, Los Angeles, CA 90014 Colorado Scroll K Vaad Hakashrus  of Denver Rabbi Moshe Heisler (303) 595-9349 1350 Vrain St. Denver, CO 80204 District of Columbia  Vaad HaRabanim of Greater Washington Rabbi Binyamin Sanders 518-489-1530 7826 Eastern Ave.  NW, Suite LL8 Washington DC 20012 Florida Kosher Miami Vaad HaKashrus of Miami-Dade  Rabbi Mordechai Fried Rabbi Manish Spitz (786) 390-6620 PO Box 403225 Miami, FL 33140 Florida  K and Florida Kashrus Services Rabbi Sholom B. Dubov (407) 644-2500 642 Green Meadow Ave.  Maitland, FL 32751 South Palm Beach Vaad (ORB) Rabbi Pesach Weitz (305) 206-1524 5840 Sterling  Rd. #256 Hollywood, FL 33021 Georgia Atlanta Kashrus Commission Rabbi Reuven Stein (404) 634 -4063 1855 La Vista Rd. Atlanta, GA 30329 Illinois Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem  Fishbane www.crcweb.org (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard, Chicago, IL 60645 Midwest Kosher  Rabbi Yehoshua H. Eichenstein Rabbi Chaim Tzvi Goldzweig 773-761-4878 Indiana Indianapolis  Beth Din Rabbi Avraham Grossbaum Rabbi Shlomo Crandall (317) 251-5573 1037 Golf Lane  Indianapolis, IN 46260 Iowa Iowa “Chai-K” Kosher Supervision Rabbi Yossi Jacobson (515) 277- 1718 943 Cummins Pkwy Des Moines, IA 50312 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago  Rabbinical Council - Serving the World Back to Top Kentucky Louisville Vaad Hakashrut 502- 459-1770 PO Box 5362 Louisville, KY 40205 Louisiana Louisiana Kashrut Committee Rabbi Nemes  504-957-4986 PO Box 55606 Metairie, LA 70055 Maryland Star-K Kosher Certification (chalav  Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore, MD 21208 Star-D  Certification (non-chalav Yisrael) Dr. Avram Pollack (410) 484-4110 122 Slade Ave. #300 Baltimore,  MD 21208 Massachusetts New England Kashrus LeMehadrin 617-789-4343 75 Wallingford, MA  02135 Vaad Hakashrus of Worcester 508-799-2659 822 Pleasant St. Worcester, MA 01602 Rabbi  Dovid Moskovitz (617) 734-5359 46 Embassy Road Brighton, MA 02135 Michigan Council of  Orthodox Rabbis of Greater Detroit (Merkaz) Rabbi Yosef Dov Krupnik (248) 559-5005 16947 West  Ten Mile Rd. Southfield, MI 48075 Minnesota United Mehadrin Kosher (UMK) Note: unless the  meat states that it is glatt, it is certified not-glatt by the UMK. The cRc only accepts Glatt Kosher  meats. Rabbi Asher Zeilingold (651) 690-2137 1001 Prior Ave. South St. Paul, MN 55116 Missouri  Vaad Hoeir of Saint Louis (314) 569-2770 4 Millstone Campus St. Louis, MO 63146 New Jersey  Badatz Mehadrin -USA 732-363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Double U Kashrus  Badatz Mehadrin USA Rabbi Y. Shain (732) 363-7979 1140 Forest Ave. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Rabbi  Shlomo Gissinger (732) 364-8723 170 Sunset Rd. Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kashrus Council of Lakewood  N.J. Rabbi Avrohom Weisner (732) 901-1888 750 Forest Ave. #66 Lakewood, NJ 08701 Kof-K Kosher  Supervision Rabbi Zecharia Senter (201) 837-0500 201 The Plaza Teaneck, NJ 07666 Rabbinical  Council of Bergen County 201-287-9292 PO Box 1233 Teaneck, NJ 07666 New York-Bronx Rabbi  Zevulun Charlop (718) 365-6810 100 E. Mosholu Parkway South Bronx, NY 10458 New York- Brooklyn Rabbi Yechiel Babad (Tartikover Rav) (718) 951-0952/3 5207-19th Ave. Brooklyn, NY  11204 Central Rabbinical Congress (Hisachdus HaRabanim) Rabbi Yitzchak Glick (718) 384-6765 85  Division Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11211 Rabbi Yisroel Gornish 718-376-3755 1421 Avenue O Brooklyn,  NY 11230 Rabbi Nussen Naftoli Horowitz Rabbi Benzion Halberstam (718) 234-9514 1712-57th St.  Brooklyn, NY 11204 Kehilah Kashrus (Flatbush Community Kashrus Organization) Rabbi  Zechariah Adler (718) 951-0481 1294 E. 8th St. Brooklyn, NY 11230 The Organized Kashrus  Laboratories (OK) Rabbi Don Yoel Levy (718) 756-7500 391 Troy Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11213 Rabbi  Avraham Kleinman Margaretten Rav 718-851-0848 1324 54th St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Debraciner  Rav Rabbi Shlomo Stern (718) 853–9623 1641 56th St. Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Aaron Teitelbaum  (Nirbater Rav) (718) 851-1221 1617 46th St., Brooklyn, NY 11204 Rabbi Nuchem Efraim Teitelbaum  (Volver Rav) (718) 436-4685 58085-11th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11225 Bais Din of Crown Heights Vaad  HaKashrus Rabbi Yossi Brook (718) 604-2500 512 Montgomery Street Brooklyn, NY 11225 Vaad  Hakashrus Mishmeres L''Mishmeres 718-680-0642 1157 42nd. St. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Kehal  Machzikei Hadas of Belz 718-854-3711 4303 15th Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11219 Vaad Harabanim of  Flatbush Rabbi Meir Goldberg (718) 951-8585 1575 Coney Island Ave. Brooklyn, NY 11230 New  York-Manhattan K’hal Adas Jeshurun (Breuer’s) Rabbi Moshe Zvi Edelstein (212) 923-3582 85-93  Bennett Ave, New York, NY 10033 Orthodox Jewish Congregations (OU) Rabbi Menachem  Genack (212) 613-8241 11 Broadway New York, NY 10004 New York-Queens Vaad HaRabonim of  Queens (718) 454-3529 185-08 Union Turnpike, Suite 109 Fresh Meadows, NY 11366 New York-Long  Island Vaad Harabanim of the Five Towns and Far Rockaway Rabbi Yosef Eisen (516) 569-4536  597A Willow Ave. Cedarhurst, NY 11516 New York-Upstate Vaad HaKashrus of Buffalo Rabbi  Moshe Taub (716) 634-3990 3940 Harlem Rd. Amherst, NY 14226 The Association for Reliable  Kashrus Rabbi Shlomo Ullman (516) 239-5306 104 Cumberland Place Lawrence, NY 11559 Rabbi  Mordechai Ungar 845-354-6632 18 N. Roosevelt Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Bais Ben Zion Kosher  Certification Rabbi Zushe Blech (845) 364-5376 30 Mariner Way Monsey, NY 10952 Vaad  Hakashrus of Mechon L’Hoyroa Rabbi Y. Tauber (845) 425-9565 ext. 101 168 Maple Ave. Monsey,  NY 10952 Rabbi Avraham Zvi Glick (845) 425-3178 34 Brewer Road Monsey, NY 10952 Rabbi  Yitzchok Lebovitz (845) 434-3060 P.O. Box 939 Woodridge, NY 12789 New Square Kashrus Council  Rabbi C.M. Wagshall (845) 354-5120 21 Truman Ave. New Square, NY 10977 Vaad Hakashruth of  the Capital District 518-789-1530 877 Madison Ave. Albany, NY 12208 Rabbi Menachem Meir  Weissmandel (845) 352-1807 1 Park Lane Monsey, NY 10952 Ohio Cleveland Kosher Rabbi Shimon  Gutman (440) 347-0264 3695 Severn Road Cleveland Heights, OH 44118 Pennsylvania Community  Kashrus of Greater Philadelphia 215-871-5000 7505 Brookhaven Philadelphia, PA 19151 Texas  Texas-K Chicago Rabbinical Council (cRc) Rabbi Sholem Fishbane (773) 465-3900 2701 W. Howard  Chicago, IL 60645 Dallas Kosher Rabbi Sholey Klein (214) 739-6535 7800 Northaven Rd. Dallas, TX  75230 Washington Vaad Harabanim of Greater Seattle (206) 760-0805 5100 South Dawson St. #102,  Seattle, WA 98118 Wisconsin Kosher Supervisors of Wisconsin Rabbi Benzion Twerski (414) 442- 5730 3100 North 52nd St. Milwaukee, WI 53216 CANADA Kashrus Council of Canada (COR)  Rabbi Mordechai Levin (416) 635-9550 4600 Bathurst St. #240, Toronto, Ontario M2R 3V2 Montreal  Vaad Hair (MK) Rabbi Peretz Jaffe (514) 739-6363 6825 Decarie Blvd. Montreal, Quebec H3W3E4  Rabbinical Council of British Columbia Rabbi Avraham Feigelstak (604) 267-7002 1100-1200 West  73rd Ave. Vancouver, B.C. V6P 6G5 A Service of the Kashrus Division of the Chicago Rabbinical  Council - Serving the World Back to Top INTERNATIONAL ARGENTINA Achdus Yisroel  Rabbi Daniel Oppenheimer (5411) 4-961-9613 Moldes 2449 (1428) Buenos Aires Rabbi Yosef  Feiglestock (5411) 4-961-9613 Ecuador 821 Buenos Aires Capital 1214 Argentina AUSTRALIA  Melbourne Kashrut Rabbi Mordechai Gutnick (613) 9525-9895 81 Balaclava Road Caulfield  Junction, Vic. 3161, Australia BELGIUM Machsike Hadass Jacob Jacobstraat 22 Antwerp 2018  Rabbi Eliyahu Shternbuch (323) 233-5567 BRAZIL Communidade Ortodoxa Israelita Kehillas  Hachareidim Departmento de Kashrus Rabbi A.M. Iliovits (5511) 3082-1562 Rua Haddock Lobo  1091, S. Paulo SP CHINA HKK Kosher Certification Service Rabbi D. Zadok (852) 2540-8661 8-B  Albron Court 99 Caine Road, Hong Kong ENGLAND Kedassia The Joint Kashrus Committee of  England Mr. Yitzchok Feldman (44208) 802-6226 140 Stamford Hill London N16 6QT Machzikei  Hadas Manchester Rabbi M.M. Schneebalg (44161) 792-1313 17 Northumberland St. Salford M7FH  Gateshead Kashrus Authority Rabbi Elazer Lieberman (44191) 477-1598 180 Bewick Road  Gateshead NE8 1UF FRANCE Rabbi Mordechai Rottenberg (Chief Orthodox Rav of Paris) (3314)  887-4903 10 Rue Pavee, Paris 75004 Adas Yereim of Paris Rabbi Y.D. Frankfurter (3314) 246-3647 10  Rue Cadet, 9e (Metro Cadet), Paris 75009 Kehal Yeraim of Paris Rabbi I Katz 33-153-012644 13 Rue  Pave Paris, France 75004 ISRAEL Badatz Mehadrin Rabbi Avraham Rubin (9728) 939-0816 10  Rechov Miriam Mizrachi 6th floor, Room 18 Rechovot, Israel 76106 Rabanut Hareishit Rechovot 2  Goldberg St. Rechovot, 76106 Beis Din Tzedek of Agudas Israel Moetzes Hakashrus Rabbi Zvi  Geffner (9722) 538-4999 2 Press St. Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of the Eidah Hachareidis of  Jerusalem Rabbi Naftali Halberstam (9722) 624-6935 Binyanei Zupnick 26A Rechov Strauss  Jerusalem Beis Din Tzedek of K’hal Machzikei Hadas - Maareches Hakashrus (9722) 538-5832 P.O.  Box 41109 Jerusalem 91410 Chug Chasam Sofer Rabbi Shmuel Eliezer Stern (9723) 618-8596 18  Maimon St. Bnei Brak 51273 Rabbi Moshe Landau (9723) 618-2647 Bnei Brak Rabbi Mordechai  Seckbach (9728) 974-4410 Noda Biyauda St. 5/2 Modiin Illit PHILIPPINES Far East Kashrut Rabbi  Haim Talmid 312-528-7078 Makati Philippines SOUTH AFRICA Cape Town Bais Din Rabbi D  Maizels (2721) 461-6310 191 Buitenkant St. Cape Town 8001 SWITZERLAND Beth Din Adas  Jeshurun Rabbi Pinchus Padwa (411) 201-6746 Freigulstrasse 37 8002 Zurich Jewish Community  and Central Synagogue Kiev Rabbi B. Bleich (38044) 463-7087 29 Shekavizkaya Str. Kiev  VENEZUELA Union Israelita de Caracus Rabbi Chaim Raitport (528212) 552-8222 Avenida  Marques del Toro #9 San Bernadina Caracas 1011 האלמין אהרן טייטלבוים aaronteitelbaum aaron  teitelbaum aronteitelbaum aron teitelbaum satmar סאטמאר סטמר holmin rabbi shalom y. gross  shalom j. gross shalom gross shalom juda gross shalom yehudah gross שלום יהודה גרוס שלום יהודה  גראסס שלום יודא גראסס האדמו"ר מהאלמין הרב מהאלמין מגן שאול אבדק"ק האלמין אב"ד האלמין ראב"ד  האלמין גאב"ד האלמין ביד"צ האלמין ביד"ץ האלמין בית דין האלמין באר אברהם האלמין האלמין ביתר האלמין  בית שמש האלמין ברוקלין האלמין קרית ספר איחוד האברכים קרית ספר האלמין האלמין צפת האלמין ירושלים  האלמין לעקוואוד האלמין בני ברק פראדזשעקט שוהל האלמין מקדש מעט ניקור שחיטה ועד הכשרות ספרי לימוד קידום אנציקלופדיה ספרי קודש ספרות ספרים לייבערי לייבערי KIBERY LIBRARY אוצר הספרים אוצר  החכמה מאגר MAGAR MAGEA MEGAR קונטרס קונטרסים מאגר התורה מאגר תורנית מאגר התורנית אוצר  הספרים אוצר התורנית אוצר התורני אוצר החרדי אוצר החיילי השם אוצר חיילי צבאות השם בנק הספרים Bank of  booksמחסני ספרים מחסני הספרי מחסן הספר מחסן לספרים מחסני הספר  Hebrew books Yiddish  books English books ספריה וירטואלית אדירת מימדים בית הספרים הלאומי Hebrew Catalogבלוג היהדות יהדות  בלוג פורטל היהדות פורטל הספרים עולם הספרים ספרים בינלאומי ספרים לאומי ספרים חדשים ספרים ישנים ספרים יקרי המציאות ספרים עתיקים ספרי עתיק אנטיק ספרים ספרים אנטיק ספרים פורומים פורומים הספרים פורומי  הספריםHolmin booksספרי הולמין ספרי האלמין ספרים האלמין ספרים הולמין ספרים האלמין דפי אוצר הספרים העולמי - Torah Books International Pages תלחץ בכל מספר ותגיע לשער השמים 502 דפים - 502 בגימטריא  בשר 502 PAGES - 502 gimatria BASA"R vaad hakashrus vaadhakashrus vaad hakashrut  vaadhakashrut nikkur nikur SHCHITA amalek עמלק אדום ישמעאל arab areb עשו גאולה משיח ועד הרבנים ועד הכשרות vaad harabanim mashiach moshiach geulah gen eden גן עדן עולם הבא olem haba safar torah books kotel 613 kotel613 JERUSALEM613 JERUSALEM 613 ירושלים ארץ ישראל הצלה חברה הצלה hatzolah chevra hatzolah holminer rebbe אלעד • אנטווערפן • אפער וועסט סייד • אשדוד • באלטימאר • באוקא ראטאון • באסטאן • בארא פארק • בודאפעסט • בית שמש • ביתר עילית • בני ברק • בעיסוואטער • גאלדערס גרין • געיטסעד • גרעיט נעק • דיעל • דיטרויט • וואדמיר • ווארשע • וויליאמסבורג • וויען • זשיטאמיר • חברון • טאהש • טאראנטא • טינעק • טשיקאגא • יאהאניסבורג • ירושלים • לאוער איסט סייד • לעיקוואד •לאס אנזשעלעס • מאדריד • מאנטרעאל • מאנטשעסטער • מאנסי • מאסקווע • מאונט קיסקא •מארסעי • מיאמי • מילאן • מעלבארן • ניו סקווירא • נווה יעקב • סארסעל • סטעמפארד היל • סידני • סידערהערסט • סיאטל • סי געיט • סקאוקי • עדזשווער • פאסעיק • פאר ראקעוועי • פארעסט הילס • פאריז • פלעטבוש • פייוו טאונס • פראג • פוירט • ציריך • קאשוי • קווינס • קיעוו • קליוולאנד • קרוין הייטס • קרית יואל • רוים • ריווערדעיל • שטראסבורג חסידישע הויפן אוקראינע: אליק | ברסלב | הארנסטייפל | טאלנא | טשערנאבל | מאקאראוו | מעזשביזש | ראכמסטריווקא | רוזשין | סאווראן | סקווירא | סלאוויטע | סודילקאוו | שעפעטיווקע פוילן: אזשאראוו | איזביצע | אלעקסאנדער | אמשינאוו | אפט | אשלג | ביאלא | גור | גראדזשיסק | ווארקע | זיכלין | טשענסטכאוו |כענטשין |לעלוב | לובלין | מאדזשיץ | נעשכיז | נאוואמינסק | סאכאטשאוו | סטריקעוו | פאריסוב | פרשיסחא | קאצק | קאזשניץ | קוזמיר | ראדאמסק | ראדאשיץ | ראדזין | שעדליץ | שעניצע | שידלאווצע מזרח-גאליציע: אלעסק | אניפאלי | בעלזא | בארדיטשוב | באיאן | בורושטין | וויזשניץ | יארעסלאוו | זידיטשוב | זינקאוו | זלאטשאוו | זוטשקע| טשערנאוויץ | טשארטקאוו | דאראג | דראביטש | הוסיאטין | קאמינקא | קאמארנע | קאפישעניץ | קאריץ | קאסאב | קאזלאוו | מאכניווקא | מאנעסטריטשע | פרעמישלאן | סאדיגורא | סאסוב | שפיקאוו | סקאליע | סקולע | סטאניסלאב | סטרעטין | סטראזשניץ מערב-גאליציע: בלאזשעוו | באבוב | דינוב | דאמבראוו | זשמיגראד | טשעטשניעב | ראפשיץ | דזישקוב | גלוגעוו | גארליץ | גריבוב | קשאנאוו | ליזשענסק | מעליץ | נאראל | פשעווארסק | ראפשיץ | צאנז | שינעווע | סטיטשין | סטריזוב | טשאקעווע וואלין: קארלין | לוצק | טריסק | זוויל ליטע: אווריטש | חב"ד | ליובאוויטש |לעכאוויטש | נעשכיז | פינסק-קארלין | סטראשעליע | סלאנים | קאפוסט | קארלין-סטאלין | קאברין | קוידאנאוו רומעניע: באהוש | דעעש | וואסלוי | טעמישוואר | סאטמאר | סאסערגען | סוליץ |סיגוט | סערעט | סערעט-וויזשניץ | סקולען | ספינקא | פאלטיטשאן | קערעסטיר | קלויזענבורג | ריבניץ | שאץ | שטעפענעשט אונגארן: בערעגסאז | חוסט | קאלעוו | קאשוי | קאסאן | קרעטשעניף |ליסקע | מאטעסדארף | מאקעווע | מאשלוי | מונקאטש | מוזשיי | נאדווארנע | נאסויד | נייטרא | פאפא | ראחוב | ראצפערט |סטראפקעוו | טאהש אמעריקע: באסטאן | מילוואקי | פיטסבורג | קליוולאנד ירושלים: דושינסקיא | שומרי אמונים | תולדות אהרן | תולדות אברהם יצחק | משכנות הרועים אנדערע: ניקלסבורג | אסטראוו | טולטשעוו | וויען פרומע אידישע געגנטן | ניו יארק | חסידים | חסידישע הויפן
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"Of the Making of Books there is no end..." (Ecc 12:12) | On Hebrew Book Codicology and Paleography On Hebrew Book Codicology and Paleography
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Eliner Library , World Zionist Organization (In cooperation with the Jewish Agency) הוצאת ספרים, ספרי הגות ומחקר, ספרי מחשבה, הוראת מקצועות היהדות והוראת העברית, עיונים בפרשת השבוע של פרופ’ נחמה לייבוביץ’ ז”ל, ספרי הרב סולובייצ’יק ז”ל, משניות קהתי בשפה האנגלית.The library was established thirty years ago by the Department of Diaspora Education and Culture in the World Zionist Organization , Philosophy and Research books , Jewish Thought books , Teaching Judaism and Hebrew books, Studies in the Weekly Torah Portion by Prof. Nechama Leibowitz OB”M, the books of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik OB”M, “Kehati” Mishnayot in English.
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