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Stephenie Meyer - The Official website This is the official website of author Stephenie Meyer. Best known for her Twilight series, the 4-book collection has sold over 100 million copies globally.
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Korea How | The English teacher's guide to living, working, and traveling in Korea. UNIJOBSKOREA.COM isn''t the only place with tips on how to get a Korean university job. Here''s some more advice...
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The Rook's Guide to C++ | A Creative Commons-Licensed Textbook A Creative Commons-Licensed Textbook
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VillaconMundial | La Voz de Villa Consuelo The speedy evolution connected with rock audio Rock Popular music & it has the Rapid Advancement Introduction Songs has been having man since dawn of your energy. Every conquer or appear can getting be considered in the form of form of songs. Dating back towards early fella music happens to be something as simple as the comforting sound to a waterfall or possibly a tree unsteadiness with the the wind or a wild animal performing through a natrual enviroment. Today music is so diversified and so engrained in our everyday life that almost every youngster or young adults & also an adult contains a vast set of songs that they can might take note of on their audio players. There are various varied branches of favorite songs existing at this time. These companies have now enlarged to involve everything from the tribal music to most things that comes out of any synthesizer. And even although look for music in a great many forms at present, I'm absolutely sure the idealists would refuse with what the youth of today call great music. Now-a-days it seems typically the search is actually on for that "in music". Music that is making anyone feel good at this time and which is discarded inside a heartbeat the moment something a great deal better comes along. Precisely what is it which includes made ordinary music visit so stable all these several years? The reason why We have chosen Rock music intended for my class paper issue is that, I truly am really passionate about this kind of genre of music. Coarse Music or perhaps Rock as it is so called will be vastly often neglected by individuals, most of who simply correlate it using negative stereotypes like drug addiction, alcohol dependency facts, violence, sexual abuse, demonic control along with vices. An individual cannot responsibility people for having these types of misconceptions about Rock considering that over the years most of the famous Natural stone artists have come to be referred to mainly for their own drug dependancy and other stupendous behaviour under the influence of alcohol and toxic chemicals. However it is vital to understand that certain must independent the artisan from his particular music not pass pointless judgment on the music just based on the vices of the specialit. Another misunderstanding is that natural stone is only percussion and guitar, when that could be only individuals face involving Rock. The good news is host involving other tools that are important elements to really are fun music as one, other than basically guitar and percussion. Coarse Music -- History & Origins I may now always like to begin with the History of Stone music. Just where did it start? What are their roots? Ways has it developed along the ages? What is the circumstance at present? There are several views as to where the Rock style got right up and planning. And many think Rock originated in the west with the daybreak of Coarse & Spin by Elvis Presley. Even so that is not the case. All this started off during the post-war urbanization of The united states. The popular tunes of the overdue 1940s bundled country new music, folk audio, the reds, rhythm as well as blues (known as R& B), jazz music and ancient music. Generally rock songs hails from a combination of various popular music styles at that time in the country of North america. Rock popular music started off in the late 1940s when folks wanted to go out on their own from the gradual beat punk music along with the slow electrified blues audio to a with more speed beat & rhythm brimming tune at that time. The rock sound will be believed to possess primarily came with the any guitar. It is believed that the active guitar tracks used in yellows music appeared to be soon mixing up in with other forms of music like folk, classical music, folk popular music and other preferred forms of audio existing good. All this generated the beginning of Natural stone music to be a separate sort of favorite songs which previously came to be called Rock a few Roll towards the early 1950's. Around that point i. electronic. the delayed 1940's to early 1950's Rhythm in addition to Blues (R& B) artists mainly targeted on the dark audience. Even so later onwards musicians started playing for one multi-racial customers. These music artists and bands also themed the modern forms or even blends about music toward this customers. Later on the fast overcom blends regarding R& B and the troubles etc came into existence coined since 'Rock d Roll'. "It is assumed that for 1951 within a town with Cleveland, Oh in STATES a artist by the name of Joe Freed has been said to have began playing a new form of R& B audio for a multi-racial audience & is regarded an have 1st used the term 'Rock 'N' Roll' to indicate his songs. " Supply: Icons involving Rock instructions Scott Schinder with Andy Schwartz & Encyclopaedia Britannica - Rock Music. Really are fun Music tutorial Evolution Rock and roll music can be believed to be those types of genres of music containing evolved really rapidly during the last 50 for you to 60 many years. Its high-speed evolution is witnessed mostly over the last 50 years. It all initiated with good old Rock a few Roll in the exact 1950's. That later advanced in the 1960's which was thought of as a Golden Era for Rock audio. Rock required a totally diverse turn along with the British invasion of ordinary by the Beatles. This was soon after followed by what exactly came to be often known as Surf tunes in America that had been a mix of typically the catchy really are fun n rotate n often the hip in addition to happening Beatles music. The exact Beatles new music also led to a new type of music that is called because the hippy plus psychedelic really are fun music. In the 1970's which will came to be identified as the memorable years advanced different different rock popular music such as Tough Rock, A-hole Rock & also Put Rock. The very 1980's viewed a change within the band members' hair styles. That era at the same time was recognized for what was named as curly hair bands. That included varieties rock which include punk stone & funk rock. That led to the exact evolution about Heavy Metal. Groups used to wear well leather dirt bike pants and carried insane extended hairdos. Typically the 1990's exhibited a completely completely new and outrageous evolution of rock. Them gave more recent forms of natural stone such as Grunge Rock & Alternative Ordinary. It presented the revolutionary any guitar distortion & feedback. Most genres with the 1950's onwards till the very 1999's continue to be well known right now. Most of the bandz in people eras are nevertheless popular right now. Many of today's bands still play all the styles of rock music. A few of them even get remakes of them songs implementing modern day kinds and instruments. The afterward half of 2000 also witness something that very well came to be often known as fusion favorite songs. It anxious bringing together conventional music (Western or Indian) and blending it in with modern day natural stone music. This unique style right now is very popular specially in our country among all of our Indian youngsters that have combined the Native indian classical instruments very properly with assets like the any guitar, keyboard, carambolage, etc . The particular 1950's The actual 1950's afforded rise to the Youth culture. It suffering problems like racial tensions & the advent of the main Cold War. This earliest saw typically the advent of Really are fun n Move with fantastic artists including Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Little Rich, Jerry Lee Lewis, The Dark areas, Buddy Holly, Bo Diddley, Bill Haley & often the Comets, Gene Vincent, the Everly Friends, and Carl Perkins, among the many others. These were considered to be the first wave associated with Rock some remarkable Rollers. Good ole' in its initially stage has been described as simply just blues by electric guitar audio attached to them. In its purest form, Really are fun & Move was as basic as about three chords, a solid yet insistent guitar to come back beat, together with a catchy tune. Early natural stone & spin was sucked from sources mainly including pinks, R& H, and nation, but also gospel, traditional put, jazz, together with folk. Those genres were definitely combined together in a straightforward, blues-based melody structure which has been fast, danceable, and catchy. Rockabilly come about in the mid1950's. It is only a mix of rock 'n roll, country audio, blues, along with a little spruce too. Obtained a fundamental audio genre belonging to the 50's. The actual father's and also founders with Rock some remarkable Roll emerged t be known as Costs Haley, Elvis Presley, Bit of Richard & Chuck Maqui berry. Their audio revolutionized the music industry and later it was gave strategy to new varieties of rock song in the many decades to follow. Within today's situations their tunes is still favored. Rockabilly appeared to be popularized by means of white singers like Elvis Presley, Carl Perkins & Jerry Lee Lewis who typically concentrated on the country sources of the music. The Popular visits recorded around that time was "That's Okay (Mama)" - Elvis Presley, "Heartbreak Hotel" - Elvis Presley, "Rock Around the Clock" - Charge Haley & the Comets, "Folsom Living hell Blues" -- Johnny Funds, "Blue Suede Shoes" tutorial Carl Kendrick. Another popular form of Rock n Are collected the 1950's was called the 'Doo Wop'. It emphasized on multi-part vocal harmonies and insignificant backing words of the melody & helped with lumination instrumentation. It is origins were being African American vocal groups similar to the Inkspots & the Mill Brothers. Famous bands on this form of songs were The actual Orioles, Often the Ravens and The Clovers, the fact that used a substantial element of traditional gospel new music in their songs. The great hits included "The Great Pretender" - The actual Platters, "Yakety Yak" - The Coasters & "Yes Sir, That's my Baby" - The exact Clovers coupled with many others. Down the road during the 1950's Elvis Presley came to be named the California king of Rock n Function. Even today he has still commemorated as 'The King'. The actual decline about Rock a few Roll has been witnessed in the early 1960's with the dying of popular musicians including Buddy Holy and Richie Valens inside of a plane wreck; the travel of Elvis Presley in the army, the actual retirement about Little Richard to become a preacher, prosecutions regarding Jerry Lee Lewis and Place Berry and also the breaking of your payola scandal. All of the preceding incidents provided a sexual enjoyment that the good ole' era provides come to a stop. However during its diminish rock in the roll observed a feminine area with an intro to probiotics benefits of love ballads targeted to a female audience & the surge of female groups for example the Crystals and then the Shirelles. The many events the fact that occurred in the very 1950's at some point led to what precisely came to be generally known as Surf Popular music, Garage Ordinary & the main Twist dancing craze. Risk major celebration that was successful in the 1960's was those of the climb of Language Rock in Roll while using emergence with the Beatles which had been greatly affected by the America's 1950's Rock and roll n Roll. The 1960's The 1960's witnessed a lot of events that adheres to that of the Vietnam War, Civil Rights Showdown, Surf Popular music, Hippie customs, The Bay area Scene, The Music of Protests & typically the birth with Heavy Metal. Also Rock some remarkable Roll in the particular 1960's had 4 development or elements. These sections are the following: Part As i - Often the Beatles & The British isles Invasion Element II - Motown New music Part 3 - Typical Rock: The exact Sounds on the 1960's Section IV aid Message New music Before 1963 i letusdothehomework.com/. at the. 1961 onwards America noticed the rise of Ocean Music some sort of Rock and Roll. This particular music has been pioneered by way of Duane Eddy, Link Wray, and The Efforts that put in distinctive "wet" reverb design & speedy alternate choosing to the popular music. One of the well-known hits has been "Let's Visit Trippin" in 1961 and this announced the ocean music trend. The in history favourite string quartet of this years is The Beach Boys. Area I - The Beatles & Often the British Incursion During this decades i. y. post 1963 America and the rest of the universe witnessed just what exactly came to be well-known only simply because 'The English Invasion'. While in the 1960's the most well find out and globally renowned band with the British offensive was the one and only Beatles. Often the Beatles till today are believed to be to be the in history success stories of the 1960's. The reason the Beatles are considered the most effective and most powerful rock groups of all time would be the because they had taken what Elvis and other Good ole' n Move artists established in the 1950's and metamorphosed it towards a whole new distinct thing. That's why this years is known as a bed that gave birth and labor to a modern of Ordinary. The Beatlemania had began with its first of all single hurt song throughout 1962 "Love Me Do" in Great Britain. Along with the Rock a few Roll of your 1950's the very Beatles widely popularized new genre of good ole' music including ranging from folks rock that will psychedelic appear. The Beatles were thus influential through the 1960's this their modern ideals had been considered to be cultural & societal revolutions. Several other great visitors of the Beatles include "I Wanna Store Your Hand" which offered 2 . 6th million copies in the United States in barely two weeks. The particular Beatles came out with many visitors during this years such as "She Loves You", "Please Please Me", and so forth Other growing bands within this era enclosed The Dork Clark Five, The Kinks & Typically the Rolling Stones. The In business Stones finest hit during this period was "Honky Tonk Woman" Part II - Motown Music Motown was a Detroit based track record company this was founded through Berry Gordy who was some one-time flow line worker within Ford Motor. It became essentially the most successful dark-colored owned history company by means of 1963. Motown had many vocal communities, songwriters & musicians. The background music recorded appeared to be known for her "tight orchestrations and catchy lyrics". The music was according to the injustice to the black locality during the Municipal War. The exact Motown greats were The particular Temptations, The actual Four Passes, Martha Reeves & typically the Vandellas as well as Diana Ross & Typically the Supremes. Area III -- Classic Really are fun: The Tones of the 1960's This era witnessed the fact that was known as the Hippe tradition. Their significant chant seemed to be 'Make Enjoy Not War'. Peace has been their actual theme. The Beatles is amongst the famous groups that transitioned during this period in terms of their own look along with music. Various other artist installed to everyday living were Jefferson Airplane, Elegance Slick, Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, The Doors, Steppenwolf, Clair & Garfunkel, Mamas and also the Pappas and also Lovin Spoonful. The famous show of this age was The Woodstock. This was some sort of concert regarding promoting contentment, love & brotherhood. Artists like Jimi Hendrix shook up the conjunction. Part IV - Note Music A good number of themes in rock and roll on this era addressed love and even relationships removed wrong. It all followed the war on Vietnam & the variety of protests getting undertaken. The music was a trial to magnify upon the government actions occurring at this time like the civilizado rights exercise, the expanding unrest above the war around Vietnam, along with the rise about feminism. The main "message" inside song aimed at peace. Quite a few songs gained substantial airplay and became "anthems" at concert events, rallies, in addition to demonstrations. The main Message thru Folk Tunes & Often the Message by Rock Tunes The most well known artists to emerge from the particular folk custom include Joe Dylan, Nancy Baez, Phil Ochs, and also the trio identified as Peter, Paul holmes, and Betty. In 1965, a strong artist, Barry McGuire strong ! the charts with a song that resembled the escalating turmoil on the globe. Other favorite hippy and even psychedelic artists such as White Floyd, The actual Who, The very Rolling Gemstones, The Yardbirds, the Happier Dead, Jimi Hendrix, Cream, and others did start to rule the earth. These bands provided rise on the counterculture exercise, trendsetters, by their drug caused lyrics together with hypnotic tunes. Other genres of ordinary began to come out such as progressive rock and that is experimenting with many other instruments except for guitar, muskie and pieces. This was prominent by Pinkish Floyd. Men or women rock ended up being popularized by just Bob Dylan and Janis Joplin. Typically the 1960's inevitably gave your pregnancy to heavy metal and rock which is a thicker, heavy, and highly amplified genre involving rock primarily popularized through Black Sabbath. The world had been just now starting out witness the particular tremendous electrical power & impact rock seriously had about society. The particular 1970's From the 1970's the Vietnam World war had was concluded, the protests stopped & people begun to settle down. Along with that, the background music too performed settle down. The whole world witnessed often the split on the Beatles & also often the death regarding John Lennon. The 70's rock audio brought various cultures and even audiences more together than you ever have. Rock music began to part out straight into new races like Tough Rock, Heavy metal and rock & Punk Rock. Directed Zeppelin became extremely popular using its perfect mix of Hard Coarse & Sorrow music how they could phone call its own. In that era bands and artists and painters such as Brian Bowie, Indeed, The Eagles, and California king became very influential. Concerning the late 70's the world furthermore witnessed often the rise of Punk Rock and roll. The starting up fathers connected with punk had been The Ramones. They blended thoroughly anarchism along with teenage wrath with rock 'n roll and this came to be known as Punk Rock. Various other bands for example the Sex Pistols and The Clash helped popularize and redefine punk rock. This new, highly effective and forceful genre about music affected many groups of the future. The exact 1980's Thereafter came typically the 1980's. Good ole' Music improved itself in a manner that everyone was going to be part of the very upcoming field. The music required a different switch, more in relation to punk coarse, new tide, heartland really are fun and choice rock. The majority of people would consider the 80's as interesting features of big hairdos and androgyny. The gay and lesbian activists required to inside of a big simply by this several years. People begun embracing one other sex and everybody had coloring in almost everything they did or possibly wore. The inspired often the rock popular music scene dramatically. The eighties saw from enthusiasm to neon pinkish socks, damaged by adult males. Creativity was expressed which means that greatly within the 1980's and also artists put on their identity with golden technologies. The 1980's music picture is probably considered as amongst the strangest moments in the advancement of stone music. Music artists were carrying out everything, a variety of00 bubblegum appear, sentimental always ballads to be able to thumping utility beats and perhaps the hardest good ole' metal. This particular decade pretty much saw it. Artist including Bruce Springsteen, Guns as well as Roses, Viajan Halen, AC/DC, Aerosmith, Flat iron Maiden, Metallica, Bon Jovi, and Motley Crue can best end up being remembered for his or her power ballads and excellent guitar solos. A new type of music called like 'New wave' also blossomed from dick, funk, and even disco. It turned out made well-known by music artists such as Estrella, The B-52's, Talking Head, and Blondie. Indie coarse or Renewable rock currently well known begun to emerge in the late 1980's with artists for instance U2, R. E. Meters., The Cure, The main Smiths, and Sonic Youngster were very fashionable with young people. Punk moreover became more popular with rings such as Dark colored Flag and then the Dead Kennedys. This was at the same time the time for producers. They are importance matured and musicians took our own a good the manufacturer could take most of their records for the market. Subsequently came often the advent of possessing soundtracks with movies. File companies had any idea the economics in placing song inside a movie, the response was basically tremendous. Regardless of variety, the background music is the eighties was a huge hit, this still is. In addition to that's considering that the music mention the imagination of the people, it all made zero apologies, you can identify with the slow ballad by Phil Collins within the afternoon and set up their particular black leather-based jacket, rocking to In terms of iron Maiden by means of night time, everyone dint need to apologize that will anyone. Flexibility of manifestation, experimenting along with lyrics grew to be an integral part of the main eighties. Which is precisely the good reason that the eighties they say can not ever die. The actual 1990's The early to mid 90's was basically known as typically the era connected with grunge along with alternative rock. Nirvana was known as the most common grunge wedding band of the 90's. Grunge song can be described as dusty guitar, robust guitar riffs with distortion and opinions. It contains dark words of the tune and attributed teenage worry. Popular grunge and choice bands ended up Pearl Jam, Nirvana, Jane's Addiction in addition to Alice around Chains. A very iconic scene was associated with the occurence of female artists. Women were becoming much less dependent on men, and fewer oriented on the way to having a family-based future. These folks were daughters of girls who fought for same rights they usually expressed it- in the form of terms and information. The paper, Billboard contributed to the financial success within the music marketplace. It altered the way it ranked available girls and albums of music artists by tallying actual income at retailers instead of with the industry-manipulated word of mouth marketing. Rock unexpectedly beat pop in terms for sales, and "minority" genre such as state and hip-hop began to enter the charts. That led the industry to invest a lot more in these fraction genres. The 1990's demonstrated that music appeared to be for the crowd and that the concept behind popular music was to see the artist as one, his construction, his team, his lyrics, his image, his songs video spectacular personality. Anyone had their favorite type of favorite songs and a favourite genre, popular artist together with a favorite cd. You couldn't help it- there were plenty of choices by this time. 2000 aid Present Alternate choice rock even now is one of the famous and largest genre associated with rock songs. Emo, is known as a new sub-contract genre for rock which consists of extreme emotional words of the tune with serious punk root. It was widely popularized by rings like Through First for you to Last, Often the Used, Brand New and softer bands for example Dashboard Confessional and Brilliant Eyes that may also be identified as indie. The word "indie" literally stands for unbiased and is the term for bands that are part of a private record tag. However , at this time indie includes a whole new that means. Indie serves as a mainly up until now hidden and better version of other rock. Well-liked indie bands and artists include Passing away Cab meant for Cutie, The very Strokes, Elliott Smith, The Decemberists, The particular Arcade Fire, The Misiva Service & a few many others. Heavy metal has now reached a really new degree. Sub-genres regarding heavy metal just like black combination, death stainlesss steel and thrash metal which is certainly very deafening, aggressive and fast approached the industry. Preferred hardcore metal bands include Slipknot, Because i Lay Coloring, Korn, Indicacion Jean and also Cannibal Depouille. Alternative stone has now grow to be an all effort hit utilizing bands that include Incubus, Pink Hot Chili Peppers, Chevelle, Coldplay, and also the Foo Mma fighters. Pop ordinary is another common genre. It is rock combined with a more general approach together with popular song lyrics. Pop rock bands can include Fall Out Youngster, All-American Rejects, Ashlee Simpson, Avril Lavigne, and others. One other form of favorite songs that came in relation to was the hiphop rock. People symbolized the actual fusion with the raw, streets music and also hard natural stone pelting sounds. It was a fast hit along with the fans with both the categorie. Examples of these kinds of were Linkin Park, Limp Bizkit, Religious beliefs no More, Rage Against the Machines, etc Really are fun Music inside the Indian Predicament Rock favorite songs caught about in Asia during the the middle of 70's. From the hearing reports of my dad and his friends in small time bands actively playing the good oldies like Elvis Presley, The actual Carpenters, Typically the Beatles, The particular Shadows, Joe Dylan and various other artists their guitars. Just read was many these types of small online communities which were predominantly Catholics which played the many dance volumes mainly for marriage ceremonies & the Christmas flow. These were the main jive & the turn numbers that others used to love to dance in order to back in the day. In regards towards the 80's artists like Directed Zeppelin, Ominous Straits & Jethro Tull became noiseless popular. People used to order these music cassettes in addition to listen to these kinds of music particular audio cassette players & Sony Walkman. That nonetheless was a quite a while ago. Points soon transformed with the Gulf of mexico War for 1991 opening the entrance to medium in The indian subcontinent. MTV was initially one of the options that were beamed, along with CNN. Apart from Put music what exactly caught at quickly had been rock. Nevertheless as an viewers, the amounts in Asia were yet minimal. It previously was only bands like Outl Leppard, Note Jovi and also U2 that will caught the fancy of a lot of people. For a large extent, rock began and concluded with Profound Purple's Interstate Star. The love for rock only designed name-dropping and wanting to tone fashionably edgy. All that adjusted quickly converted to from the calendar year 2000 onwards. Hard rock and roll quickly snagged on in conjunction with its in the us Heavy Metal and is also literally worshipped in many technological innovation colleges across India. Numerous groups are formed in a number of areas where the exact rock landscape is still lively. These include Goa, Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune & Delhi. A lot of popular India bands come from these kind of areas and still have composed rather famous bites that are well recognized to the Indian native Rockers. Many engineering educational facilities still shell out tribute for you to Rock by hosting Natural stone shows in which fans from various parts from the country hasty to gather head bang with harmony. The earliest rock band with India to get famous seemed to be Indus Creed. Famous Native american rock rings of today comprise of bands for example Zero, Pentagram, Parikrama, These individuals Clones plus various some. One taking place rock displays of Mumbai used to be often the Independence Really are fun gig on Rang Bhavan popularly often known as I-Rock which used to be jam-packed and packed as it was seriously popular and had rings playing with all over the country. Away from late very good of i-rock has deceased down because of the change in time and venue due to specific restrictions. Some other new genre of rock music containing probably advanced in The land of india is Fusion rock that involves blending Of india classical equipment with that on the electric guitar, key pad & accus. This is whatever is definitely springing up in the country together with rock melodies in Hindi rather than English language and even in Hinglish. I even now feel that you can find very poor liberalization for Coarse music in your country but since time goes by by elements will definitely are considered getting better. You evident simply to Channel V's 'Launch Pad' that arises every year the fact that hunts to search for the Countries most well liked and ideal Rock band. Alongside Channel Sixth v, MTV even offers started one thing called seeing that Rock with Desi Beats that hunts for fusion rock groups of the region and popularizes the best. One other evident undeniable fact that rock tunes is reeling in up easily was the release of the dvd 'Rock On' directed by just & with Farhan Akhtar. Conclusion For that reason I ardently believe that Natural stone music which consists of legendary Past can never perish out. It will probably always be a component of culture and may always be find out as truley what shapes customs & firmly affects world. It is lastly meant for customers to understand that Stone is just with regards to the music and also the passion this drives inside youth. It should not be stereotyped with drug abuse alcoholism & other bassesse. For this to happen this gives lingual braces the people that need to change their valuable ways along with it is essential in the famous performers to set a example as they owe the idea to their lovers as much as that they owe it to the new music. Another important element is that although opportunities near your vicinity for Coarse music have become low & it is extremely hard to become significant, society need to encourage the kids that have a desire for this new music.
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california fake id maker, uk-id fake id review california fake id maker you will find you save much money .fake Virginia id card fake identification europe. this article will help you with the basics of how you can create your how can you tell a fake california id at home. in recent years that''s why it is best to try and make a card for a state that still uses laminated copies. plus they once you find one, you''ll need to use photoshop or a program like it to change the information and picture. some folks.
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Stephenie Meyer - The Official website This is the official website of author Stephenie Meyer. Best known for her Twilight series, the 4-book collection has sold over 100 million copies globally.
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National Firebird and Trans Am Club Message Board - Index National Firebird and Trans Am Club Message Board - Index
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Mike Clarke – Personal thoughts on politics, philosophy, boat stuff, home repair, and who knows what else
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Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
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