Kosher Shabbat-Compliant Search Results for Based Jewish


L'chaim! לחיים and welcome to JewJewJew.com - the world's first Shabbot compliant search engine.

JewJewJew.com complies with holy laws by ensuring:


JewJewJew.com - the worlds first search engine for Jews!
Website content last updated on Tuesday 2019-11-05
3
Jewish Music Festival The Jewish Music Festival, based in Berkeley, California, USA, is one of the largest events of its kind
5
Jewish Heritage Research Group in Belarus The goal of Jewish Heritage Research Group (JHRG) is to create a window into Jewish past of Belarus. We want to take rich Jewish heritage of Belarus off the shelf and introduce it to you. Jewish Heritage Research Group in Belarus - this is local team of historians, genealogists, guides, people who actively interested in the Jewish heritage of Belarus.
6
Welcome to Jewish Family Service of Somerset, Hunterdon, and Warren Counties! Jewish Family Service of Somerset, Hunterdon, and Warren Counties is a not-for-profit, non-sectarian social service agency whose purpose is to preserve and strengthen the quality of individual, family and community life based on Jewish values.
7
Welcome to Jewish Family Service of Somerset, Hunterdon, and Warren Counties! Jewish Family Service of Somerset, Hunterdon, and Warren Counties is a not-for-profit, non-sectarian social service agency whose purpose is to preserve and strengthen the quality of individual, family and community life based on Jewish values.
8
Jewish Marriage Council - Sensitive Support for Jewish People The Jewish Marriage Council is a North West London based Jewish Counselling, Therapy, Mediation & Advice Service
9
ORA: Northwest Jewish Artists A collective of Jewish artists based in Portland, Oregon. We support each others artistic growth as we produce both sales and exhibit events for our members.
10
Baal Teshuva Media We are a Jewish digital design & development firm based on Long Island, focused on everything from web design/development to online marketing and SEO so that your business can thrive and grow on the web.
11
Baal Teshuva Media We are a Jewish digital design & development firm based on Long Island, focused on everything from web design/development to online marketing and SEO so that your business can thrive and grow on the web.
12
Chabad of North Queensland - Centre for Jewish Life based in Cairns and Townsville - RARA Based in Cairns and Townsville Chabad of North QLD brings Judaism to all Jews in the region and the Great Barrier Reef. A division of Chabad of RARA.
13
Shiduch - Jewish Dating, Matchmaker, Matchmaking, Singles The Jewish matchmaking site is created to help find a spouse and build a Jewish family based on traditional Jewish values
14
Shiduch - Jewish Dating, Matchmaker, Matchmaking, Singles The Jewish matchmaking site is created to help find a spouse and build a Jewish family based on traditional Jewish values
17
Home - International Jewish Cemetery Project The IAJGS International Jewish Cemetery Project mission is to catalogue every Jewish burial site throughout the world. Every Jewish cemetery or burial site we know of is listed here by town or city, country, and geographic region is based on current locality designation.
18
Home - International Jewish Cemetery Project The IAJGS International Jewish Cemetery Project mission is to catalogue every Jewish burial site throughout the world. Every Jewish cemetery or burial site we know of is listed here by town or city, country, and geographic region is based on current locality designation.
19
Jewish Russian Community Centre of Ontario: Synagogues, Classes, Day School, Children''s Programs, University Students, Young Adults, Adult Education, Seniors, Life Cycle Services, Exodus Magazine, JRCC Calendar, Jewish Life, Judaism (Toronto based) JRCC is the leading Toronto-based organization for the Jewish Russian community in Ontario.
20
Jewish Russian Community Centre of Ontario: Synagogues, Classes, Day School, Children''s Programs, University Students, Young Adults, Adult Education, Seniors, Life Cycle Services, Exodus Magazine, JRCC Calendar, Jewish Life, Judaism (Toronto based) JRCC is the leading Toronto-based organization for the Jewish Russian community in Ontario.
21
Rohr Chabad Jewish Student Center in Milwaukee Chabad at UWM offers Jewish students in Milwaukee a chance to embrace their Jewish heritage, in a non-judgmental, traditional way, based on the Chassidic teachings.
22
Home page JCA has been established to disseminate the missive that the Chosen (Choosing) People has a time-tested mission from Sinai to affirm Universal Morality against the antithesis of Moral Relativism and its derivatives. These would enslave mankind under the terrible banner that the end supposedly sanctifies the means. Moral relativism reached its apex in the theory of Master Race and now in Master Jihad – a new totalitarian idolatry based on terror and human blood sacrifice.
23
Lolathecur's Blog Below are two very important entries from the "Jewish Encyclopedia". Read them VERY CLOSELY. | VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116. VULGATE: Table of Contents Earlier Latin Translations. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Earlier Latin Translations. Latin version of the Bible authorized by the Council of Trent in 1546 as the Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. It was the product of the work of Jerome, one of the most learned and scholarly of the Church leaders of the early Christian centuries. The earliest Latin version of the Scriptures seems to have originated not in Rome, but in one of Rome's provinces in North Africa. An Old Latin version of the New Testament was extant in North Africa in the second century C.E., and it is thought that a translation of the Old Testament into Latin was made in the same century. Indeed, Tertullian (c. 160-240) seems to have known a Latin Bible. There were at least two early Latin translations, one called the African and the other the European. These, based not on the Hebrew, but on the Greek, are thought to have been made before the text-work of such scholars as Origen, Lucian, and Hesychius, and hence would be valuable for the discovery of the Greek text with which Origen worked. But the remains of these early versions are scanty. Jerome did not translate or revise several books found in the Latin Bible, and consequently the Old Latin versions were put in their places in the later Latin Bible. These Old Latin versions are represented in the books of Esdras, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, and Maccabees, and in the additions to Daniel and Esther. The Psalter also exists in a revised form, and the books of Job and Esther, of the Old Latin, are found in some ancient manuscripts. Only three other fragmentary manuscripts of the Old Testament in Old Latin are now known to be in existence. Jerome was born of Christian parents about 340-342, at Stridon, in the province of Dalmatia. He received a good education, and carried on his studies at Rome, being especially fascinated by Vergil, Terence, and Cicero. Rhetoric and Greek also claimed part of his attention. At Trier in Gaul he took up theological studies for several years. In 374 he traveled in the Orient. In a severe illness he was so impressed by a dream that he dropped secular studies. But his time had not been lost. He turned his brilliant mind, trained in the best schools of the day, to sacred things. Like Moses and Paul, he retired to a desert, that of Chalcis, near Antioch, where he spent almost five years in profound study of the Scriptures and of himself. At this period he sealed a friendship with Pope Damasus, who later opened the door to him for the great work of his life. In 379 Jerome was ordained presbyter at Antioch. Thence he went to Constantinople, where he was inspired by the expositions of Gregory Nazianzen. In 382 he reached Rome, where he lived about three years in close friendship with Damasus. Jerome's Bible-Revision Work. For a long time the Church had felt the need of a good, uniform Latin Bible. Pope Damasus at first asked his learned friend Jerome to prepare a revised Latin version of the New Testament. In 383 the Four Gospels appeared in a revised form, and at short intervals thereafter the Acts and the remaining books of the New Testament. These latter were very slightly altered by Jerome. Soon afterward he revised the Old Latin Psalter simply by the use of the Septuagint. The name given this revision was the "Roman Psalter," in distinction from the "Psalterium Vetus." The former was used in Rome and Italy down to Pius V. (1566-72), when it was displaced by the "Gallican Psalter" (so called because first adopted in Gaul), another of Jerome's revisions (made about 387), based on many corrections of the Greek text by reference to other Greek versions. About theend of 384 Pope Damasus died, and Jerome left Rome to travel and study in Bible lands. In 389 he settled at Bethlehem, assumed charge of a monastery, and prosecuted his studies with great zeal. He secured a learned Jew to teach him Hebrew for still better work than that he had been doing. His revision work had not yet ceased, for his Book of Job appeared as the result of the same kind of study as had produced the "Gallican Psalter." He revised some other books, as Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, and Chronicles, of which his revisions are lost, though their prefaces still exist. Jerome's Bible-Translation Work. But Jerome soon recognized the poor and unsatisfactory state of the Greek texts that he was obliged to use. This turned his mind and thought to the original Hebrew. Friends, too, urged him to translate certain books from the original text. As a resultant of long thought, and in answer to many requests, Jerome spent fifteen years, 390 to 405, on a new translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew text. He began with the books of Samuel and Kings, for which he wrote a remarkable preface, really an introduction to the entire Old Testament. He next translated the Psalms, and then the Prophets and Job. In 394-396 he prepared a translation of Esdras and Chronicles. After an interval of two years, during which he passed through a severe illness, he took up his arduous labors, and produced translations of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Song of Songs. The Pentateuch followed next, and the last canonical books, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and Esther, were completed by 404. The Apocryphal parts of Daniel and Esther, and Tobit and Judith, all translated from the Aramaic, completed Jerome's great task. The remainder of the Apocryphal books he left without revision or translation, as they were not found in the Hebrew Bible. Jerome's Translation in Later Times. Jerome happily has left prefaces to most of his translations, and these documents relate how he did his work and how some of the earlier books were received. Evidently he was bitterly criticized by some of his former best friends. His replies show that he was supersensitive to criticism, and often hot-tempered and stormy. His irritability and his sharp retorts to his critics rather retarded than aided the reception of his translation. But the superiority of the translation gradually won the day for most of his work. The Council of Trent in 1546 authorized the Latin Bible, which was by that time a strange composite. The Old Testament was Jerome's translation from the Hebrew, except the Psalter, which was his Gallican revision; of the Apocryphal books, Judith and Tobit were his translations, while the remainder were of the Old Latin version. The New Testament was Jerome's revision of the Old Latin translation. These translations and revisions of translations, and old original translations, constitute the Vulgate. See also Jerome. Bibliography: Grützmacher, Hieronymus: eine Bibliographische Studie, vol. i., Leipsic, 1901; S. Berger, Histoire de la Vulgate Pendant les Premières Siècles du Moyen Age, Paris, 1893; H. J. White, Codex Amiatinus and Its Birth-place, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, vol. ii., Oxford, 1890; E. Nestle, Ein Jubiläum der Lateinischen Bibel, Tübingen, 1892; E. von Dobschütz, Studien zur Textkritik der Vulgata, Leipsic, 1894; Hastings, Dict. Bible. See fuller bibliography in S. Berger's work, mentioned above.JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS): Table of Contents His Teachers. His Knowledge of Hebrew. Exegesis. Use of Noṭariḳon. Traditions. Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the original. The dates of his birth and death are not definitely known; but he is generally assumed to have lived from 337 to 420. Born in Stridon, Dalmatia, he went as a youth to Rome, where he attended a school of grammar and rhetoric. He then traveled in Gaul and Italy, and in 373 went to Antioch, where he became the pupil of Apollinaris of Laodicea, the representative of the exegetical school of Antioch; subsequently, however, Jerome did not accept the purely historical exegesis of this school, but adopted more nearly the typic-allegoric method of Origen. From Antioch he went to Chalcis in the Syrian desert, where he led the strictly ascetic life of a hermit, in atonement for the sins of his youth. Here to facilitate his intercourse with the people, he was obliged to learn Syriac; and this language doubtless aided him later in his Hebrew studies ("Epistolæ," xvii. 2; yet comp. ib. lxxviii. and comm. on Jer. ii. 18). Here also he began with great labor to study Hebrew, with the aid of a baptized Jew (ib. cxxv. 12), and it may be he of whom he says (ib. xviii. 10) that he was regarded by Jewish scholars as a Chaldean and as a master of the interpretation of Scripture (ib. cxxv. 12). On a second visit to Antioch Jerome was ordained a priest. He then went to Constantinople, and thence to Rome, where he undertook literary work for Pope Damasus, beginning at the same time his own Biblical works (c. 383). He finally settled at Bethlehem in Palestine (c. 385), founding a monastery there which he directed down to his death. This outline of Jerome's life indicates that he was a master of Latin and Greek learning, and by studying furthermore Syriac and Hebrew united in his person the culture of the East and of the West. His Teachers. It was in Bethlehem that he devoted himself most seriously to Hebrew studies. Here he had as teachers several Jews, one of whom taught him reading ("Hebræus autem qui nos in veteris instrumenti lectione erudivit"; comm. on Isa. xxii. 17); the peculiar pronunciation of Hebrew often found in Jerome's works was probably therefore derived from this Jew. Jerome was not satisfied to study with any one Jew, but applied to several, choosing always the most learned (preface to Hosea: "diceremque . . . quid ab Hebræorum magistris vix uno et altero acceperim"; "Epistolæ," lxxiii. 9 [i. 443]: "hæc ab eruditissimis gentis illius didicimus"). With similar words Jerome is always attempting to inspire confidence in his exegesis; but they must not be taken too literally, as he was wont to boast of his scholarship. However, he was doubtless in a position to obtain the opinions of several Jews; for he often refers to "quidam Hebræorum." He even traveled in the province of Palestine with his Jewish friends, in order to become better acquainted with the scenes of Biblical history (preface to "Paralipomena," i.); one of them was his guide (preface to Nahum). Of only three of his teachers is anything definite known. One, whom he calls "Lyddæus," seems to have taught him only translation and exegesis, while the traditions ("midrash") were derived from another Jew. Lyddæus spoke Greek, with which Jerome was conversant (comm. on Ezek. ix. 3; on Dan. vi. 4). Lyddæus, in interpreting Ecclesiastes, once referred to a midrash which appeared to Jerome absurd (comm. on Eccl. iii. 1); Jerome thought him fluent, but not always sound; this teacher was therefore a haggadist. He was occasionally unwilling to explain the text (ib. v. 1). Jerome was frequently not satisfied with his teacher's exegesis, and disputed with him; and he often says that he merely read the Scriptures with him (comm. on Eccl. iv. 14, v. 3; "Onomastica Sacra," 90, 12). Another teacher is called "Baranina," i.e., "Bar Ḥanina," of Tiberias. He acquainted Jerome with a mass of Hebrew traditions, some of which referred especially to his native place, Tiberias. He came at night only, and sometimes, being afraid to come himself, he sent a certain Nicodemus ("Epistolæ," lxxxiv. 3 [i. 520]). A third teacher, who may be called "Chaldæus," taught Jerome Aramaic, which was necessary for the Old Testament passages and the books of the Apocrypha written in that language. This teacher of Aramaic was very prominent among the Jews, and Jerome, who had great difficulty in learning Aramaic, was very well satisfied with his instruction (prefaces to Tobit and Daniel). Jerome continued to study with Jews during the forty years that he lived in Palestine (comm. on Nahum ii. 1; "a quibus [Judæis] non modico tempore eruditus"). His enemies frequently took him to task for his intercourse with the Jews; but he answered: "How can loyalty to the Church be impaired merely because the reader is informed of the different ways in which a verse is interpreted by the Jews?" ("Contra Rufinum," ii. 476). This sentence characterizes the Jewish exegesis of that time. Jerome's real intention in studying the Hebrew text is shown in the following sentence: "Why should I not be permitted, . . . for the purpose of confuting the Jews, to use those copies of the Bible which they themselves admit to be genuine? Then when the Christians dispute with them, they shall have no excuse" (ib. book iii.; ed. Vallarsi, ii. 554). His Knowledge of Hebrew. Jerome's knowledge of Hebrew is considerable only when compared with that of the other Church Fathers and of the general Christian public of his time. His knowledge was really very defective. Although he pretends to have complete command of Hebrew and proudly calls himself a "trilinguis" (being conversant with Latin, Greek, and Hebrew), he did not, in spite of all his hard work, attain to the proficiency of his simple Jewish teachers. But he did not commit those errors into which the Christians generally fell; as he himself says: "The Jews boast of their knowledge of the Law when they remember the several names which we generally pronounce in a corrupt way because they are barbaric and we do not know their etymology. And if we happen to make a mistake in the accent [the pronunciation of the word as affected by the vowels] and in the length of the syllables, lengthening short ones and shortening long ones, they laugh at our ignorance, especially as shown in aspiration and in some letters pronounced with a rasping of the throat" (comm. on Titus iii. 9). Jerome not only acquired the peculiar hissing pronunciation of the Jews, but he also—so he declares—corrupted his pronunciation of Latin thereby, and ruined his fine Latin style by Hebraisms (preface to book iii., comm. on Galatians; "Epistolæ," xxix. 7; ed. Vallarsi, i. 143). This statement of Jerome's is not to be taken very seriously, however. In his voluminous works Jerome transcribed in Latin letters a mass of Hebrew words, giving thereby more or less exact information on the pronunciation of Hebrew then current. But, although he studied with the Jews, his pronunciation of Hebrew can not therefore be unhesitatingly regarded as that of the Jews, because he was led by the course of his studies, by habit, and by ecclesiastical authority to follow the Septuagint in regard to proper names, and this version had long before this become Christian. Jerome shared the belief of the Hebrews and of most of the Church Fathers that Hebrew was the parent of all the other languages ("Opera," vi. 730b). He sometimes distinguishes Hebrew from Aramaic (preface to Tobit), but sometimes appears to call both Syriac. In reference to Isa. xix. 18 (comm. ad loc.; comp. "Epistolæ," cviii.) he speaks also of the "Canaanitish" language, as being closely related to Hebrew and still spoken in five cities of Egypt, meaning thereby either Aramaic or Syriac. In explaining "yemim" (Gen. xxxvi. 24), he correctly states in regard to the Punic language that it was related to Hebrew ("Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin"). His knowledge of Hebrew appears most clearly in his two important works, that on the Hebrew proper names and that on the situation of the places mentioned in the Bible; in his extensive commentaries on most of the books of the Old Testament; and especially in his chief work, the new Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew original (see Vulgate). Through these works he not only became an authority on the Bible during his lifetime, but he remained a leading teacher of Christianity in the following ages, because down to very recent times no one could go direct to the original text as he had done. Jerome's importance was recognized by the Jewish authors of the Middle Ages, and he is frequently cited by David Ḳimḥi; also by Abu al-Walid ("Sefer ha-Shorashim," s.v. and ), Abraham ibn Ezra (on Gen. xxxvii. 35), Samuel b. Meïr (on Ex. xx. 13), Naḥmanides (on Gen. xli. 45), Joseph Albo (iii. 25), and the polemic Isaac Troki (in "Ḥizzuḳ Emunah"). Jerome is also important because he could consult works which have since disappeared, as, for example, Origen's "Hexapla" (he says that he had seen a copy of the Hebrew Ben Sira, but he seems not to have used it); he had Aramaic copies of the Apocryphal books Judith and Tobit; and the so-called Hebrew Gospel, which was written in Hebrew script in the Aramaic language, he translated into Greek and Latin ("Contra Pelagianos," iii. 2; "De Viris Illustribus," ch. ii.; comm. on Matt. xii. 13). Exegesis. Jerome's exegesis is Jewish in spirit, reflecting the methods of the Palestinian haggadists. He expressly states, in certain cases, that he adopts the Jewish opinion, especially when he controverts Christian opponents and errors (comm. on Joel iv. 11: "nobis autem Hebræorum opinionem sequentibus"); he reproduces the Jewish exegesis both in letter (comm. on Amos v. 18-19) and in substance (παραφραστικῶς; comm. on Dan. ix. 24). Hence he presents Jewish exegesis from the purely Jewish point of view. Even the language of the Haggadah appears in his commentaries, e.g., where the explanation is given in the form of question and answer (comm. on Dan. ii. 12: quærunt Hebræi"); or when he says, in explaining, "This it is that is said" ("Hoc est quod dicitur"; comp. ); or when several opinions are cited on the same subject ("alii Judæorum"); or when a disputation is added thereto ("Epistola xix. ad Hedibiam," i. 55). He even uses technical phrases, such as "The wise men teach" ("Epistolæ," cxxi.) or "One may read" (comm. on Nahum. iii. 8). This kind of haggadic exegesis, which is merely intended to introduce a homiletic remark, leads Jerome to accuse the Jews unjustly of being arbitrary in their interpretation of the Bible text. But he did not believe that the Jews corrupted the text, as Christians frequently accused them of doing. While at Rome he obtained from a Jew a synagogue-roll ("Epistolæ," xxxvi. 1) because he considered the Hebrew text as the only correct one, as the "Hebraica veritas," which from this time on he regarded as authoritative in all exegetical disputes. Jerome hereby laid down the law for Bible exegesis. Of course he recognized also some of the faults of Jewish exegesis, as, for example, the forced combination of unconnected verses (comm. on Isa. xliv. 15: "stulta contentione"); he sometimes regards his teacher's interpretation to be arbitrary, and opposes to it his own (ib. xlix. 1). Contrary to the haggadic interpretation of the Jews, he correctly notices a difference between "Hananeel" (Jer. xxxi. 38; see comm. ad loc.) and "Hanameel" (ib. xxxii. 7). Jerome rarely employs simple historical exegesis, but, like all his contemporaries, wanders in the mazes of symbolic, allegoric, and even mystic exegesis. In his commentary on Joel i. 4 he adopts the Jewish interpretation, according to which the four kinds of locusts mean the four empires; Zech. iv. 2, in which the lamp means the Law, its flame the Messiah, and its seven branches the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, he interprets entirely mystically. Use of Noṭariḳon. In his commentary on Eccl. i. 9 he even teaches the preexistence of all beings, including man. He frequently uses the NoṬariḳon, e.g., in reference to Zerubbabel (comm. on Hag. i. 1) or to Abishag ("Epistolæ," lii. [i. 210]). Jerome's exegesis came in some respects like a revelation to the Christian world, and cleared up difficulties in reading the Bible; e.g., his explanation of the Hebrew alphabet ("Epistola xxx. ad Paulam," i. 144) or that of the ten names of God ("Epistola xxv. ad Marcellam," i. 128). It must always be remembered that in many portions of his allegorical exegesis Jerome is entirely in agreement with Hellenistic methods; for instance, in the explanation of the four colors in the sanctuary of the desert ("Epistola lxiv. ad Fabiolam," i. 364; comp. Philo, "De Monarchia," § 2; Josephus, "B. J." v. 4, § 4; idem, "Ant." iii. 7, § 7). Jerome's commentaries are of small value for Old Testament criticism, on account of the inclination to allegorize which leads him to a free treatment of the text, as well as on account of his polemics against Judaism (comp. Jew. Encyc. iv. 81, s.v. Church Fathers). Traditions. Jerome's works are especially important for Judaism because of the numerous Jewish traditions found in them, particularly in his work "Quæstiones Hebraicæ in Genesin." Jerome designates by the general name "tradition" all supplementary and edifying stories found in the Midrash and relating to the personages and events of the Bible; these stories may fitly be designated as historic haggadah. Here also Jerome affirms that he faithfully reproduces what the Jews have told him (comm. on Amos iv. 16: "hoc Hebræi autumant et sicut nobis ab ipsis traditum est, nostris fideliter exposuimus"). He designates the Jewish legend of Isaiah's martyrdom as an authentic tradition (comm. on Isa. lvii. 1: "apud cos certissima traditio"), while he doubts the story of Jeremiah's crucifixion because there is no reference to it in Scripture (comm. on Jer. xi. 18). Jerome often remarks that a certain story is not found in Scripture, but only in tradition (comm. on Isa. xxii. 15), and that these traditions originated with the "magistri," i.e., the Rabbis (comm. on Ezek. xlv. 10); that these "fables" are incorporated into the text on the strength of one word (comm. on Dan. vi. 4); and that many authors are cited to confirm this tradition. All these remarks exactly characterize the nature of the Haggadah. Jerome apparently likes these traditions, though they sometimes displease him, and then he contemptuously designates them as "fabulæ" or "Jewish fables," "ridiculous fables" (comm. on Ezek. xxv. 8), "ridiculous things" (on Eccl. iii. 1), or "cunning inventions" (on Zech. v. 7). Jerome's opinion of these traditions is immaterial at the present time. The important point is that he quotes them; for thereby the well-known traditions of the Midrash are obtained in Latin form, and in this form they are sometimes more concise and comprehensible—in any case they are more interesting. Moreover, many traditions that appear from the sources in which they are found to be of a late date are thus proved to be of earlier origin. Jerome also recounts traditions that are no longer found in canonical Jewish sources, as well as some that have been preserved in the Jewish and Christian Apocrypha. It is, furthermore, interesting to note that Jerome had read some of these traditions; hence they had been committed to writing in his time. Although other Church Fathers quote Jewish traditions none equal Jerome in the number and faithfulness of their quotations. This Midrash treasure has unfortunately not yet been fully examined; scholars have only recently begun to investigate this field. Nor have Jerome's works been properly studied as yet in reference to the valuable material they contain on the political status of the Jews of Palestine, their social life, their organization, their religiousviews, their Messianic hopes, and their relations to Christians. Jerome was no friend to the Jews, although he owed them much; he often rebukes them for their errors; reproaches them for being stiff-necked and inimical to the Christians; controverts their views in the strongest terms; curses and reviles them; takes pleasure in their misfortune; and even uses against them both the books that he has cunningly obtained from them and the knowledge he has derived therefrom. Thus Jews and Christians agree that he is eminent only for his scholarship, and not for his character. See Church Fathers. Bibliography: O. Zöckler, Hieronymus, Sein Leben und Sein Wirken, Gotha, 1865; A. Thierry, St. Jérôme, Paris, 1867, 1875; Grützmacher, Hieronymus, part i., Leipsic, 1901; Nowack, Die Bedeutung des Hieronymus für die A. T. Textkritik, 1875, pp. 6-10; S. Krauss, in Magyar Zsidó Szémle, 1890, vii., passim; idem, in J. Q. R. vi. 225-261; M. Rahmer, Die Hebräischen Traditionen in den Werken des Hieronymus, i., Breslau, 1861; ii., Berlin, 1898; idem, in Ben Chananja, vii.; idem, in Monatsschrift, 1865, 1866, 1867, 1868; idem, in Grätz Jubelschrift; Siegfried, Die Aussprache des Hebräischen bei Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, iv. 34-82; Spanier, Exegetische Beiträge, zu Hieronymus, Bern, 1897; W. Bacher, Eine Angebliche Lücke im Hebräischen Wissen des Hieronymus, in Stade's Zeitschrift, xxii. 114-116.
24
The Jewish Voice - The Jewish Voice The Jewish Voice is a cutting edge weekly based publication in NYC. With a featured emphasis on timely news from Israel, the Middle East and beyond the Jewish Voice is reaching tens of thousands of people each week in their e-mail blasts.
25
The Muslim Jewish Conference The Muslim Jewish Conference (MJC) is a dialogue and leadership organisation for students and young professionals, bringing together important representatives and young leadership from Muslim and Jewish communities and beyond. The MJC is an innovative and progressive educational non-profit organisation based in Austria. It wants to deepen interest in, and evoke curiosity for, intercultural communication and interfaith issues, in particular Muslim-Jewish relations. The MJC seeks to expand its visibility and extend its vibrant network of dialogue and intercultural communication in order to move closer to its goal of becoming a global think tank for Muslim-Jewish interests.
26
Affordable Judaism Somerset County NJ, Chai Center for Jewish Life Somerset County, NJ Home We are an independent, unaffiliated, liberal Jewish community organization in Somerset County, New Jersey.
27
The Jewish Voice - The Jewish Voice The Jewish Voice is a cutting edge weekly based publication in NYC. With a featured emphasis on timely news from Israel, the Middle East and beyond the Jewish Voice is reaching tens of thousands of people each week in their e-mail blasts.
28
The Jewish Voice - The Jewish Voice The Jewish Voice is a cutting edge weekly based publication in NYC. With a featured emphasis on timely news from Israel, the Middle East and beyond the Jewish Voice is reaching tens of thousands of people each week in their e-mail blasts.
29
The Muslim Jewish Conference The Muslim Jewish Conference (MJC) is a dialogue and leadership organisation for students and young professionals, bringing together important representatives and young leadership from Muslim and Jewish communities and beyond. The MJC is an innovative and progressive educational non-profit organisation based in Austria. It wants to deepen interest in, and evoke curiosity for, intercultural communication and interfaith issues, in particular Muslim-Jewish relations. The MJC seeks to expand its visibility and extend its vibrant network of dialogue and intercultural communication in order to move closer to its goal of becoming a global think tank for Muslim-Jewish interests.
30
UK Jewish Matchmaking Service| UK Jewish Dating | We Go Together A free of charge, values based, introduction service for the Jewish comunity offering a face to face, personal service. No Algorhythms, no technology.
31
Your Connecticut Home for Everything Jewish! www.ChabadER.com is the online home of Chabad: East of the River, based in Glastonbury, CT. We serve the entire Jewish community. We are truly "Your Home for Everything Jewish!"
32
Rabbi Michael Sternfield | Traditional Jewish & Interfaith Weddings Rabbi Michael Sternfield is a Reform Jewish rabbi based the Sarasota/Tampa/St. Petersburg area of Florida. He is available for Jewish & interfaith weddings
33
Supertova jewish dating - Herpes forums dating The film, based on a popular young adult novel by Veronica Roth , was released on March 21,
34
AskWhy! Home | Christian and Jewish History, Origins, and Morality AskWhy! Books explains Christianity and Judaism, and Christian and Jewish origins, their history, faults, fallacies, and alternatives, based on truth not wishful thinking—faith!—but on scientific and historical evidence. The real history of these religions is rational, unlike the sacred history. For Adelphiasophism and Secular Christianity, a bible has to be a personal worldview, a guide to morality and preserving the world, should serve educationally, for inspiration, as a source of facts and as a basic moral text. It should be a primer of philosophy, science and society. It would explain our relationship with other creatures, and our place in the solar system and the universe, and our duties and responsibilities to each other and to Nature. The guiding stars of Nature are wisdom and empathy. Adelphiasophists do not fear the vengeance of any vindictive and jealous god, but see society as part of Nature, the Great Mother of all things, into whose world we are born to nourish and protect us. If we offend Nature, harm the world, it will hurt us back—eventually.
35
Palmetto Rabbi | A Reform Rabbi Based In Columbia, SC Several years ago, in one of my first ventures into the world of online writing, my friend Jackie Lieberman and I collaborated on a post about making shiva call
36
Reading Liberal Jewish Community Online Reading Liberal Jewish Community, based in Berkshire, provide religious and social events in the Thames Valley. Progressive and reform friends are welcome.
37
AskWhy! Home | Christian and Jewish History, Origins, and Morality AskWhy! Books explains Christianity and Judaism, and Christian and Jewish origins, their history, faults, fallacies, and alternatives, based on truth not wishful thinking—faith!—but on scientific and historical evidence. The real history of these religions is rational, unlike the sacred history. For Adelphiasophism and Secular Christianity, a bible has to be a personal worldview, a guide to morality and preserving the world, should serve educationally, for inspiration, as a source of facts and as a basic moral text. It should be a primer of philosophy, science and society. It would explain our relationship with other creatures, and our place in the solar system and the universe, and our duties and responsibilities to each other and to Nature. The guiding stars of Nature are wisdom and empathy. Adelphiasophists do not fear the vengeance of any vindictive and jealous god, but see society as part of Nature, the Great Mother of all things, into whose world we are born to nourish and protect us. If we offend Nature, harm the world, it will hurt us back—eventually.
38
Jewish Voice for Peace | Justice • Equality • Dignity Jewish Voice for Peace is a national organization dedicated to a U.S. foreign policy based on peace, human rights, and respect for international law.
39
Jewish Voice for Peace | Justice • Equality • Dignity Jewish Voice for Peace is a national organization dedicated to a U.S. foreign policy based on peace, human rights, and respect for international law.
40
CHAIM - A Reformed Ministry to Jewish People - Recognized by the PCA - Messianic Jews, Presbyterian Reformed Covenant Theology Covenantal in theology, recognized by the Presbyterian Church in America. Based on the Westminster Standards. Planting Rock of Israel PCA.
41
Samson Koletkar aka Mahatma Moses - The World''s Only Indian Jewish Stand-up Comedian San Francisco based comedian Samson Koletkar. BookMyShow''s Top 10 Indian-Origin Comedians of the Last Decade. Cerebral witty, clean. Entertained audiences all over USA, Canada & India.
42
Arts | Los Angeles | Hebrew Immersion | Jewish Preschool Kinder Circle Hebrew Immersion Preschool helps guide kids to explore their world and learn to understand it by engaging in a variety of play based activities.
43
A Jewish Israel A site that brings you the latest news about Israel, Judaism, Zionism and other topics of interest in the Jewish world.
44
Jewish Voice for Peace | Justice • Equality • Dignity Jewish Voice for Peace is a national organization dedicated to a U.S. foreign policy based on peace, human rights, and respect for international law.
45
Samson Koletkar aka Mahatma Moses - The World''s Only Indian Jewish Stand-up Comedian San Francisco based comedian Samson Koletkar. BookMyShow''s Top 10 Indian-Origin Comedians of the Last Decade. Cerebral witty, clean. Entertained audiences all over USA, Canada & India.
46
A Jewish Israel A site that brings you the latest news about Israel, Judaism, Zionism and other topics of interest in the Jewish world.
47
R & B Studio - A boutique Photography and Cinematography wedding studio based in Toronto R & B Studio - A boutique Photography and Cinematography wedding studio based in Toronto, we have become one of the most sought after wedding photography and cinematography studio in Toronto. Our Images are creative, clean and crisp. They’re romantic, fun, and emotional. We are critically acclaimed for developing a unique style of shooting weddings that is deeply rooted in wedding photojournalism while influenced by fine-art and fashion photography...timeless images that our clients cherish for generations.
48
Wedding Filming Services - Wedding Videographer Hertfordshire - Special Occasion Videos - Wedding Videographers - based in Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Hampshire, Essex and London - UK''s Finest Wedding Videos - Hertfordshire Wedding Videographers - London Wedding Videographers - Wedding Videos UK - Wedding Videographers Hertfordshire - Wedding Videographers Essex Special Occasion Video Productions provides wedding videographers based in Hertfordshire, Essex, Bedfordshire and London. We film in HD for high quality wedding & event filming and Wedding DVD productions.
49
Chabad of the North Coast Chabad House Jewish Outreach & Hospitality in Umhlanga Rocks, Kwazulu Natal. Shul on the premises ,a multi media lounge, Jewish Internet Cafe'',Bracha Room & children''s playground.
50
Jewish Drug Rehab | Torah and The Twelve Steps | (305) 776-3794 Affordable Jewish 12 step faith based drug and alcohol treatment facility located in Southern Florida. GET HELP NOW! Call our Jewish Drug Rehab at (305) 776-3794.
51
Jewish Federation of Northwest Indiana - Jewish Federation of Northwest Indiana Your Northwest Indiana Jewish community center, based in Munster, IN.
52
Lubavitch Center of Howard County Your Home for everything Jewish in Howard County Maryland. Based in Columbia, we offer an array of Jewish services, and a warm, welcoming community.
53
Home Welcome to the home page for the Edinburgh Jewish Community a warm and vibrant Jewish Community based in the political and commercial capital of Scotland
54
Home Welcome to the home page for the Edinburgh Jewish Community a warm and vibrant Jewish Community based in the political and commercial capital of Scotland
55
mathias kunzli - drummer, percussionist based in NYC and LA swiss drummer/percussionist is touring internationally, performing and recording a wide variety of music.
57
Jewish Community Council of Greater Coney Island New York JCCGCI provides a wide-spectrum of human and social services assisting all segments of the population, across New York City.
58
Jewish Community Council of Greater Coney Island New York JCCGCI provides a wide-spectrum of human and social services assisting all segments of the population, across New York City.
59
Sofer UK - Mezuzahs, Tefillin, Checking, London Rabbi S Unsdorfer - sales, checking of Mezuzahs, Tefillin, Mezuzah Cases, Megillot, Sifrei Torah. Based in london England, we ship worldwide!
60
Sofer UK - Mezuzahs, Tefillin, Checking, London Rabbi S Unsdorfer - sales, checking of Mezuzahs, Tefillin, Mezuzah Cases, Megillot, Sifrei Torah. Based in london England, we ship worldwide!
62
Research Roots – Family History & Probate Research Specialists Research Roots is an independent company based in Sussex, specialising in family history and probate research, plus support for authors and filmmakers.
63
Events & Productions | United States | Liat Berko - LBNY Based in New York, Liat Berko Events and Productions is wired with all of the major venues, photographers, and performers.
64
Elie''s Overcoat - The Movie Based on a true story, Elie''s Overcoat is an escape thriller centered around one night in the life long friendship between a Gentile and a Jew. With World War II weighing down and an Iron Guard ruling Romania, Traian Cociuba makes a choice that will forever decide the fate of him and his best friend, Elie.
66
Need An Eitzah | A Frum Forum for Jewish questions | Jewish Forum Need An Eitzah is a free frum Jewish question and answer forum. You can ask anything you want so long as it relates to Jewish life in some way. Questions do not have to be Halacha based, and can even be based on the way our society is today. Questions can also be of any topic under the sun, as long as the point of asking it here would be to get a chareidi point of view on the matter. So now that you understand, ask away!
67
Chabad Youth The largest Jewish youth organisation in the Southern Hemisphere based in Melbourne Australia. We run hundreds of events and programs yearly that reach and affect Australian Jewry.
68
Need An Eitzah | A Frum Forum for Jewish questions | Jewish Forum Need An Eitzah is a free frum Jewish question and answer forum. You can ask anything you want so long as it relates to Jewish life in some way. Questions do not have to be Halacha based, and can even be based on the way our society is today. Questions can also be of any topic under the sun, as long as the point of asking it here would be to get a chareidi point of view on the matter. So now that you understand, ask away!
69
PNR Travel Home based travel agency California, home-based travel agency California, home-based host agency California, Host Agency, Host Travel Agency,LA, LAX, Los Angeles, California, Minden, Nebraska, Kearney, West LA, Westwood, Brentwood, UCLA, Jewish, Persian Travel, Heirtage Tours, Student Travel, Travel Agency, Leisure Travel, Corporate Travel, Africa Travel, South America Travel, Canada Travel, Honeymoon Travel, American Express Travel, Gifts, Gift Certificates, Travel Certificates, Cruise Travel, Europe Travel, Asia Travel, Help Wanted, Travel agents wanted, Hiring, travel agency, cheap airfare, asta member, honeymoons, tours packages, bridal registry, asia, europe, caribbean, cruises, hotels, car rentals, trains, student travel, gift cards, Hotel, Car, Air, Charters, Ski, Skiing, Gay Travel, Women's Travel, Group Travel, Cash, Credit Card, Mariner's Club, Yacht, Bicycle, Bicycling, Backroads, Tours, Space, Space Travel, Camp, Camping, Rafting, White Water Rafting, Adventure, Adventures, Adventure Travel, Exotic, Christmas, Holidays, Halloween, Graveyard Tours, Celebrity, Museums, Museum, Escorted, Insurance, Travel Insurance, Paris, Rome, Italy, Netherlands, Amsterdam, Prague, Beijing, Sydney, Caribbean, Pirates of the Caribbean Island Tours, Castles, Castle Tours, Golf, Hiking, National Parkstravel agent licensebecome travel agenttravel agent businesstravel agentsindependent travel agenttravel agenthome based travel agenthome travel agenthow to become travel agenttravel agent careershow to a travel agenttravel agent classestravel agent educationcruise travel agenthow to become a travel agentonline travel agentstravel agent jobstravel agent trainingcruise line travel agenttravel agent schooltravel agent coursecertification travel agentinternational travel agentscorporate travel agentstudent travel agentstravel agents jobstravel agent coursestravel agent ratestravel agent schoolstravel agent from hometravel agent work from homeonline travel agent trainingonline travel agent coursestravel agent licencetravel agent requirementswork at home travel agentall inclusive vacationsall inclusive vacationall inclusiveall inclusive travelall inclusive vacation packagesall inclusive beach vacationall inclusive resortsfamily all inclusive vacationshawaii all inclusivegay cruisescruise agentsinteletravelytb internationalhotelscruisesflightsytblast minute dealslas vegas packagehoneymoonsuniverse studentticketsresortsflights to hawaiiair ticketsflights dealscarnival cruiseshoneymoon packagesweekend getawayairline voucherscityshoppingtourist boardpurchase foreign currencylast minute dealholidaysholidayholiday dealsholidays tenerifeholidays majorcaairfarediscount airfareinternational airfareairfare toairfare las vegasairfare dealsstudent airfareairfaresone way airfareairfare to hawaiicheap airfarecheap flightscheap air farecheap flightcheap ticketscheap hotelscheap plane ticketscheap holidayscheap flights tocheap airlinecheap airfarescheap airline flightsvacationvacation packagescheap vacationsvacation packagelas vegas vacationinclusive vacationslas vegas vacationsvacation dealsvacation last minute dealschina vacationsingles vacationsluxury vacationisland vacationseuropean tourspackage touritaly toureurope tourstours to chinastudent tourschina tourstour operatorstours of italysouth america tourstour europesouth america touregypt toursescorted tourstours of europetours operatorsescorted tours europeanoutbound tour operatorspnr traveltravel agenciestravelinternational travelamerican student travelyour travel businesstravel sitesyour travel biztravel packagesadventure traveldiscount travelbusiness travelcheap traveltravel dealsbudget travelchina traveltravel giftstravel toursair traveltravel guidetravel specialscruise travelairline traveltravel schooltravel tourcorporate travelstudent traveltravel gift certificatesbargain travelinsurance travelgroup traveltravel vacationcorporate travel agenciestravel gift certificatetravel onlineholiday travelpts traveltravel bookingkhm traveltraverus travelhome business travelhoneymoon traveltravel to italycheap travel insurancetravel planningcaribbean travelinternational air traveltravel cityytb travel comcheap travel europetravel hoteltravel coursetravel tourismtravel schoolstravel accessoriesairline ticketsdiscount airline ticketscheap airline ticketsinternational airline ticketscheap airline tickets internationalhawaii airline ticketsairline tickets to hawaiitravel agencystarting a travel agencytravel agency schoolstudent travel agencyonline travel agencytravel agency jobscorporate travel agencyytb travel agencyglobal travel agencyhomebased agenthome based agenttravel consultanttravel counselorcruise consultantairlandcaribbeaneuropecorporateleisurecorporate agentleisure agentgroupgroupsstudentwomen's traveljewish travelasiasouth americacentral americaaustraliaromeparisitalyukgreat britainlondongermanybrazilcaborailtrainstourstourvacationsluggagetravel insuranceinsurancetour operatorflight attendant schoolbob the travel agentgdsapollosabrevacation sweepstakesvacation contestwin a vacationgift certificatetravel certificatecar rentalmotorcoachmotor coachevent ticketsmeetingshoneymoonbridal registrygay and lesbianadventureadventures3 day cruise7 day cruise5 day cruisetravel resourcesrestaurantreservationsreservationacademytourismastapatanactatravelsensesignatureearncheaplowestbest pricebecome a travel agentwork from homeindependent contractorhow to become a flight attendanttravel agent job
70
PNR Travel Home based travel agency California, home-based travel agency California, home-based host agency California, Host Agency, Host Travel Agency,LA, LAX, Los Angeles, California, Minden, Nebraska, Kearney, West LA, Westwood, Brentwood, UCLA, Jewish, Persian Travel, Heirtage Tours, Student Travel, Travel Agency, Leisure Travel, Corporate Travel, Africa Travel, South America Travel, Canada Travel, Honeymoon Travel, American Express Travel, Gifts, Gift Certificates, Travel Certificates, Cruise Travel, Europe Travel, Asia Travel, Help Wanted, Travel agents wanted, Hiring, travel agency, cheap airfare, asta member, honeymoons, tours packages, bridal registry, asia, europe, caribbean, cruises, hotels, car rentals, trains, student travel, gift cards, Hotel, Car, Air, Charters, Ski, Skiing, Gay Travel, Women's Travel, Group Travel, Cash, Credit Card, Mariner's Club, Yacht, Bicycle, Bicycling, Backroads, Tours, Space, Space Travel, Camp, Camping, Rafting, White Water Rafting, Adventure, Adventures, Adventure Travel, Exotic, Christmas, Holidays, Halloween, Graveyard Tours, Celebrity, Museums, Museum, Escorted, Insurance, Travel Insurance, Paris, Rome, Italy, Netherlands, Amsterdam, Prague, Beijing, Sydney, Caribbean, Pirates of the Caribbean Island Tours, Castles, Castle Tours, Golf, Hiking, National Parkstravel agent licensebecome travel agenttravel agent businesstravel agentsindependent travel agenttravel agenthome based travel agenthome travel agenthow to become travel agenttravel agent careershow to a travel agenttravel agent classestravel agent educationcruise travel agenthow to become a travel agentonline travel agentstravel agent jobstravel agent trainingcruise line travel agenttravel agent schooltravel agent coursecertification travel agentinternational travel agentscorporate travel agentstudent travel agentstravel agents jobstravel agent coursestravel agent ratestravel agent schoolstravel agent from hometravel agent work from homeonline travel agent trainingonline travel agent coursestravel agent licencetravel agent requirementswork at home travel agentall inclusive vacationsall inclusive vacationall inclusiveall inclusive travelall inclusive vacation packagesall inclusive beach vacationall inclusive resortsfamily all inclusive vacationshawaii all inclusivegay cruisescruise agentsinteletravelytb internationalhotelscruisesflightsytblast minute dealslas vegas packagehoneymoonsuniverse studentticketsresortsflights to hawaiiair ticketsflights dealscarnival cruiseshoneymoon packagesweekend getawayairline voucherscityshoppingtourist boardpurchase foreign currencylast minute dealholidaysholidayholiday dealsholidays tenerifeholidays majorcaairfarediscount airfareinternational airfareairfare toairfare las vegasairfare dealsstudent airfareairfaresone way airfareairfare to hawaiicheap airfarecheap flightscheap air farecheap flightcheap ticketscheap hotelscheap plane ticketscheap holidayscheap flights tocheap airlinecheap airfarescheap airline flightsvacationvacation packagescheap vacationsvacation packagelas vegas vacationinclusive vacationslas vegas vacationsvacation dealsvacation last minute dealschina vacationsingles vacationsluxury vacationisland vacationseuropean tourspackage touritaly toureurope tourstours to chinastudent tourschina tourstour operatorstours of italysouth america tourstour europesouth america touregypt toursescorted tourstours of europetours operatorsescorted tours europeanoutbound tour operatorspnr traveltravel agenciestravelinternational travelamerican student travelyour travel businesstravel sitesyour travel biztravel packagesadventure traveldiscount travelbusiness travelcheap traveltravel dealsbudget travelchina traveltravel giftstravel toursair traveltravel guidetravel specialscruise travelairline traveltravel schooltravel tourcorporate travelstudent traveltravel gift certificatesbargain travelinsurance travelgroup traveltravel vacationcorporate travel agenciestravel gift certificatetravel onlineholiday travelpts traveltravel bookingkhm traveltraverus travelhome business travelhoneymoon traveltravel to italycheap travel insurancetravel planningcaribbean travelinternational air traveltravel cityytb travel comcheap travel europetravel hoteltravel coursetravel tourismtravel schoolstravel accessoriesairline ticketsdiscount airline ticketscheap airline ticketsinternational airline ticketscheap airline tickets internationalhawaii airline ticketsairline tickets to hawaiitravel agencystarting a travel agencytravel agency schoolstudent travel agencyonline travel agencytravel agency jobscorporate travel agencyytb travel agencyglobal travel agencyhomebased agenthome based agenttravel consultanttravel counselorcruise consultantairlandcaribbeaneuropecorporateleisurecorporate agentleisure agentgroupgroupsstudentwomen's traveljewish travelasiasouth americacentral americaaustraliaromeparisitalyukgreat britainlondongermanybrazilcaborailtrainstourstourvacationsluggagetravel insuranceinsurancetour operatorflight attendant schoolbob the travel agentgdsapollosabrevacation sweepstakesvacation contestwin a vacationgift certificatetravel certificatecar rentalmotorcoachmotor coachevent ticketsmeetingshoneymoonbridal registrygay and lesbianadventureadventures3 day cruise7 day cruise5 day cruisetravel resourcesrestaurantreservationsreservationacademytourismastapatanactatravelsensesignatureearncheaplowestbest pricebecome a travel agentwork from homeindependent contractorhow to become a flight attendanttravel agent job
71
Rabbi Gloria Milner Rabbi Gloria performs interfaith weddings, destination weddings, and other ceremonies. Based in the New York area, she believes that the happiness of the people
72
Kadima! A Jewish Reform Synagogue Serving Deerfield and Chicagoland! The New Reform Congregation Kadima, a warm, inclusive, caring Synagogue committed to Reform Judaism from a progressive perspective servicing Deerfield, The Northwest Suburbs, The North Shore, Des Plaines, Mount Prospect, Buffalo Grove, Wheeling, Lincolnshire, Bannockburn, Libertyville, Northbrook, Highland Park, Evanston, Wilmette, Glenview, Glencoe, Niles, Skokie, north side of Chicago, Rogers Park, Edgewater, Lakeview, Edison Park, Illinois.
73
Biblical Studies, Courses & Resources Biblical Studies, Courses & Resources offers bible based study extending from Old Testament through Jewish thought, hermeneutics, New Testament and early church history. Free articles online and distance learning courses available.
74
Rabbi Julia Appel | Creating vibrant, meaningful, joyous Jewish life Rabbi Julia Appel is a dynamic and cutting-edge rabbi and Jewish educator based in Toronto. She is passionate about creating a Jewish community that meets the challenges of the 21st century – in which Jewish identity is a choice not an obligation, and in which the old forms of Jewish life are losing relevance to…
75
Rhythm 'n' Ruach Rhythm ‘n’ Ruach was founded in 2011 by Shelley Dean in response to her personal desire to find a parent/child music class where she could engage with her own children through Jewish music. Rhythm ‘n’ Ruach uses widely research based practices facilitating children to develop their innate rhythmic and musical abilities and also is helping to keep the spark of Judaism, strong and vibrant, for parents, kids and grandparents. Rhythm ‘n’ Ruach continues to grow and has been brought into every Jewish Pre-school, synagogue, and Jewish Day school in St. Louis in addition to both of the Jewish Community Centers.
76
Home - Swisslimbs SwissLimbs is a Swiss not-for-profit organization based in Lugano. We accomplish initiatives in the public interest in Switzerland and abroad, in particular in the field of rehabilitation and ortho-prosthetic services, high-mobility artificial limbs for amputees and disabled people.
77
Home - Swisslimbs SwissLimbs is a Swiss not-for-profit organization based in Lugano. We accomplish initiatives in the public interest in Switzerland and abroad, in particular in the field of rehabilitation and ortho-prosthetic services, high-mobility artificial limbs for amputees and disabled people.
78
Shechinah - Let the Angels Be Your Guide Learn and celebrate Jewish spirituality with programs by Rabbi Rayzel Raphael on Jewish mysticism, feminism, and personal renewal
79
AMIT Named #1 Education Network by Ministry of Education in Israel AMIT is leading an educational revolution in Israel with its cutting-edge Jewish values–based education and its innovative pedagogical methods.
80
New York Hebrew School New York Hebrew, a Manhattan based after-school Judaica and Hebrew program for Jewish children from Pre -K - 8th grades.
82
Sholem Jewish Community is based out of Los Angeles A meeting place for Jewish and multicultural families in Los Angeles. Sholem fosters a humanistic approach to Jewish learning and culture.
84
Silverlight Photography Studios - Pittsburgh Wedding Photographer Silverlight Studios provides professional portrait and wedding photography by highly experienced and nationally recognized photographer Scott Jones. Creative, relaxed and fun. Based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. We accept assignments locally, nationally and internationally.
85
Moroccan Travel: Tailor-Made Private Tours in Morocco Mint Tea Tours is a small, owner-operated transport company based in Fes, Morocco. We specialize in private tours, excursions, and shuttle services.
86
Sale: Hanukkah gift jewelry based on Jewish art & Hebrew Judaica | Sukkah Soul Sale: Jewelry inspired by ancient synagogue paintings, mosaics in Israel, Paleo-Hebrew Shma, Mem, Shin, Alef. Worn by women and men. Wear Your History
87
Kehillah North London | Liberal Judaism Kehillah North London is a thriving and diverse Jewish community, based in Stoke Newington. We are proud of our inclusive, friendly and innovative approach to building a Jewish community.
88
Home - Congregation OM ShalOM Our synagogue is based on Jewish Fusion. No religion has all of the truth, they only have a piece of the truth. We need to put all of the pieces together to learn the whole truth. We are a blend of spiritual Judaism, yoga, and eastern philosophies.
89
Cantor Laura Stein | Lifecycle Officiant, Pastoral Presence | New York Cantor Laura Stein has served as cantor and educator in camps, academic and scholarly settings, childhood education classrooms, at informal retreat, hospital nursing and rehabilitation facilities and in Jewish communal service. She is based in NYC but available for travel. Contact Laura Stein today.
91
A Jewish Summer Camp of Design in LA | Camp Design, LA Camp Design Los Angeles is a boutique jewish design summer camp based in Los Angeles. 3 weeks of traveling around LA meeting places and design professionals
92
Rob Clayton Photography - Jewish Civil Wedding Barmitzvah Batmitzvah Photography, Manchester, North West, UK Rob Clayton Photography is an award-winning professional photographer specialising in photographing Jewish weddings and civil weddings, as well as barmitzvah and batmitzvah celebrations, and is based in Manchester, Lancashire in the North West, but covering the UK and beyond!
93
Branding, Print and Digital Design Company : New York City Freelance Website Designer : Talia Design : Talia Berg NYC NJ Talia Design is a web design company based in NYC that focuses on the culture and craft of web and print design. We collaborate with our clients to enhance their visual presence with custom designed and developed websites and branded collateral that will engage your audience and deliver results.
94
Toronto, Canada Quilt Shop, Block of the Month Program Sew-Sisters Quilt Shop is based in Canada. We have been selling quilting fabric and quilting supplies online since 1999. We specialize in British Import fabrics and Northcott fabrics. We are always looking for terrific cat and dog prints to offer for sale as well as any other unique lines of fabric such as Celtic fabric and Jewish fabric.
95
Bible based teaching, preaching, sermons, articles by Pastor Max Solbrekken.Bible articles and teaching on divine healing and how to receive it, the Holy Spirit, endtimes, salvation and much more. Full gospel articles & sermons by Pastor Max Solbrekken, prayer requests and spiritual guidance. Importance of praising, magnifying God, Divine healing articles and teaching. Bible preaching, teaching on salvation, soul winning, Bible endtime prophecy, baptism of the holy spirit, healing, depression, anxiety and eternity. Does God still heal people? If you need healing or prayer please read these Bible sermons
97
blonde poison - Home A stunning new play with acclaimed reviews, now on tour. Blonde Poison is based on the true story of a Jewish woman during World War ll. Stella Goldschlag betrayed up to 3,000 Jews. Was she victim or persecutor, or both?
98
Non-Profit Nursing Home | Jewish Assisted Living | Montefiore Montefiore provides comprehensive healthcare services through the aging process, guided and based on Jewish values.
99
Taylor draws The other 20% is stress + Dragon Age trivia 25 year old Portland based, illustrator & giant nerd
100
Southwest Jewish Congress - SWJC - Dallas Organization Southwest Jewish Congress (SWJC) is a Dallas based Texas non-profit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to educating the community on Israel and the Middle East, threats to the freedoms and rights guaranteed by the US Constitution, and celebrating cultural and interfaith diversity.